Naturwissenschaften (NATURWISSENSCHAFTEN)

Publisher: Kaiser Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften; Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften; Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften; Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte

Journal description

In 1913 Arnold Berliner the founder of Naturwissenschaften formulated the following goal for the journal: " it should inform all those working in scientific fields (either as researchers or teachers) about what interests them outside their own fields." Authors such as Albert Einstein Werner Heisenberg Max von der Laue Karl von Frisch Konrad Lorenz Manfred Eigen etc. have in the past worked to bring this about. In the future too top researchers worldwide will continue to report on the status of their subject areas in 'Review articles' in 'Short original articles' they will introduce new results and in 'Book reviews' they will give critical evaluations of important new literature.

Current impact factor: 1.97

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.971
2012 Impact Factor 2.144
2011 Impact Factor 2.278
2010 Impact Factor 2.25
2009 Impact Factor 2.316
2008 Impact Factor 2.126
2007 Impact Factor 1.955
2006 Impact Factor 2.021
2005 Impact Factor 1.953
2004 Impact Factor 2.05
2003 Impact Factor 1.883
2002 Impact Factor 1.693
2001 Impact Factor 1.624
2000 Impact Factor 1.261
1999 Impact Factor 1.279
1998 Impact Factor 0.956
1997 Impact Factor 1.171
1996 Impact Factor 1.076
1995 Impact Factor 0.984
1994 Impact Factor 1.163
1993 Impact Factor 1.047
1992 Impact Factor 0.834

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 2.39
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.42
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.82
Website Naturwissenschaften website
Other titles Die Naturwissenschaften
ISSN 0028-1042
OCLC 1759509
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Biological invasions have become a major global issue in ecosystem conservation. As formalized in the "novel weapon hypothesis", the allelopathic abilities of species are actively involved in invasion success. Here, we assume that allelopathy can also increase the biotic resistance of native species against invasion. We tested this hypothesis by studying the impact of the native species Sambucus ebulus on the colonization of propagules of the invasive species Fallopia x bohemica and the subsequent development of plants from these. Achenes and rhizome fragments from two natural populations were grown in a greenhouse experiment for 50 days. We used an experimental design that involved "donor" and "target" pots in order to separate resource competition from allelopathy. An allelopathic treatment effect was observed for plant growth but not for propagule establishment. Treatment affected, in particular, the growth of Fallopia plants originating from achenes, but there was less influence on plants originating from rhizomes. By day 50, shoot height had decreased by 27 % for plants originating from rhizomes and by 38 % for plants originating from achenes. The number of leaves for plants originating from achenes had only decreased by 20 %. Leaf and above- and below-ground dry masses decreased with treatment by 40, 41 and 25 % for plants originating from rhizomes and 70, 61 and 55 % for plants originating from achenes, respectively. S. ebulus extracts were analysed using high-performance chromatography, and the choice of test molecules was narrowed down. Our results suggest native species use allelopathy as a biotic containment mechanism against the naturalization of invasive species.
    Naturwissenschaften 04/2015; 102(3-4):1263. DOI:10.1007/s00114-015-1263-x
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    ABSTRACT: Locomotion is an essential character of animals, and excellent moving ability results from the delicate sensing of the substrate reaction forces (SRF) acting on body and modulating the behavior to adapt the motion requirement. The inclined substrates present in habitats pose a number of functional challenges to locomotion. In order to effectively overcome these challenges, climbing geckos execute complex and accurate movements that involve both the front and hind limbs. Few studies have examined gecko’s SRF on steeper inclines of greater than 90°. To reveal how the SRFs acting on the front and hind limbs respond to angle incline changes, we obtained detailed measurements of the three-dimensional SRFs acting on the individual limbs of the tokay gecko while it climbed on an inclined angle of 0–180°. The fore-aft forces acting on the front and hind limbs show opposite trends on inverted inclines of greater than 120°, indicating propulsion mechanism changes in response to inclines. When the incline angles change, the forces exerted in the normal and fore-aft directions by gecko’s front and hind limbs are reassigned to take full advantage of limbs’ different roles in overcoming resistance and in propelling locomotion. This also ensures that weight acts in the angle range between the forces generated by the front and hind limbs. The change in the distribution of SRF with a change in the incline angle is directly linked to the favorable trade-off between locomotive maneuverability and stability.
    Naturwissenschaften 02/2015; 102(1-2). DOI:10.1007/s00114-015-1259-6
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    ABSTRACT: Optimal habitat selection is essential for species survival in ecosystems, and interspecific competition is a key ecological mechanism for many observed species association patterns. Specialized animal species are commonly affected by resource and interference competition with generalist and/or omnivorous competitors, so avoidance behavior could be expected. We hypothesize that specialist species may exploit broad range cues from such potential resource competitors (i.e., cues possibly common to various generalist and/or omnivorous predators) to avoid costly competition regarding food or reproduction, even in new species associations. We tested this hypothesis by studying short-term interactions between a native larval parasitoid and a native generalist omnivorous predator recently sharing the same invasive host/prey, the leaf miner Tuta absoluta. We observed a strong negative effect of kleptoparasitism (food resource stealing) instead of classical intraguild predation on immature parasitoids. There was no evidence that parasitoid females avoided the omnivorous predator when searching for oviposition sites, although we studied both long- and short-range known detection mechanisms. Therefore, we conclude that broad range cue avoidance may not exist in our biological system, probably because it would lead to too much oviposition site avoidance which would not be an efficient and, thus, beneficial strategy. If confirmed in other parasitoids or specialist predators, our findings may have implications for population dynamics, especially in the current context of increasing invasive species and the resulting creation of many new species associations.
    Naturwissenschaften 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00114-014-1246-3
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    ABSTRACT: In spite that carotenoid-based sexual ornaments are one of the most popular research topics in sexual selection of animals, the antioxidant and immunostimulatory role of carotenoids, presumably signaled by these colorful ornaments, is still controversial. It has been suggested that the function of carotenoids might not be as an antioxidant per se, but that colorful carotenoids may indirectly reflect the levels of nonpigmentary antioxidants, such as melatonin or vitamin E. We experimentally fed male Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi) additional carotenoids or vitamin E alone, or a combination of carotenoids and vitamin E dissolved in soybean oil, whereas a control group only received soybean oil. We examined the effects of the dietary supplementations on phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced skin-swelling immune response and body condition. Lizards that were supplemented with vitamin E alone or a combination of vitamin E and carotenoids had greater immune responses than control lizards, but animals supplemented with carotenoids alone had lower immune responses than lizards supplemented with vitamin E and did not differ from control lizards. These results support the hypothesis that carotenoids in green lizards are not effective as immunostimulants, but that they may be visually signaling the immunostimulatory effects of non-pigmentary vitamin E. In contrast, lizards supplemented with carotenoids alone have higher body condition gains than lizards in the other experimental groups, suggesting that carotenoids may be still important to improve condition.
    Naturwissenschaften 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00114-014-1250-7
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    ABSTRACT: Superfoetation is the ability of females to simultaneously bear multiple broods of embryos at different developmental stages. Most studies on the phylogenetic distribution of superfoetation and on the factors that potentially promote superfoetation ignore variation within species. Here, we studied 11 populations of two species of viviparous fishes of the family Poeciliidae (Poeciliopsis gracilis and Poeciliopsis infans) and document wide variation in superfoetation and in three related life history traits: brood size, individual embryo mass and total reproductive allotment. We found significant differences in the average number of simultaneous broods among populations of P. gracilis but not among populations of P. infans. In addition, we found even greater variation between months within populations for both species, although no specific pattern of temporal variation was evident. Instead of the expected consistency of seasonal differences in superfoetation across populations, we found that large variation among months within seasons and the amount and direction of this monthly variation differed widely between populations. Our results emphasize the importance of including intraspecific variation in superfoetation and other life history traits in studies that aimed at finding general explanations of life history trait evolution.
    Naturwissenschaften 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00114-014-1247-2
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    ABSTRACT: The males of the Brimstone butterfly (Gonepteryx rhamni) have ultraviolet pattern on the dorsal surfaces of their wings. Using geometric morphometrics, we have analysed correlations between environmental variables (climate, productivity) and shape variability of the ultraviolet pattern and the forewing in 110 male specimens of G. rhamni collected in the Palaearctic zone. To start with, we subjected the environmental variables to principal component analysis (PCA). The first PCA axis (precipitation, temperature, latitude) significantly correlated with shape variation of the ultraviolet patterns across the Palaearctic. Additionally, we have performed two-block partial least squares (PLS) analysis to assess co-variation between intraspecific shape variation and the variation of 11 environmental variables. The first PLS axis explained 93 % of variability and represented the effect of precipitation, temperature and latitude. Along this axis, we observed a systematic increase in the relative area of ultraviolet colouration with increasing temperature and precipitation and decreasing latitude. We conclude that the shape variation of ultraviolet patterns on the forewings of male Brimstones is correlated with large-scale environmental factors.
    Naturwissenschaften 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00114-014-1244-5
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    ABSTRACT: Certain light environments may hinder egg discrimination by hosts of foreign eggs, which could in some circumstances lead to the acceptance of non-mimetic eggs by hosts. We measured light parameters at red bishop (Euplectes orix) nests and used a model of avian visual processing to quantify the detectability of eggs in the light environment in which they are perceived. We found that the overall amount of light was very variable between red bishop nests and always sufficient for colour discrimination. A model of avian visual processing revealed that nest luminosity had no influence on host responses towards eggs which were painted dark brown. Dark eggs do not appear to be cryptic in red bishop nests and can be distinguished with ease, whereas natural red bishop eggs are usually accepted, despite the domed structure of the nest. We found little variation in both chromatic and achromatic contrasts between host and artificial eggs, indicating that there was very little variation in the light quality inside nests. We suggest that nest luminosity is likely to play a role in egg recognition in situations when light reaches threshold values for colour discrimination, i.e. in scotopic as opposed to photopic vision. Rejection rates for dark eggs were higher than for bright (conspecific) foreign eggs. More investigation of domed nest-building species is required, as this type of nest appears to have a highly variable light environment, dependent on both nest structure and habitat.
    Naturwissenschaften 09/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00114-014-1240-9
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    ABSTRACT: The exceptionally rare transition to quadrupedalism from bipedal ancestors occurred on three independent occasions in ornithischian dinosaurs. The possible driving forces behind these transitions remain elusive, but several hypotheses-including the development of dermal armour and the expansion of head size and cranial ornamentation-have been proposed to account for this major shift in stance. We modelled the position of the centre of mass (CoM) in several exemplar ornithischian taxa and demonstrate that the anterior shifts in CoM position associated with the development of an enlarged skull ornamented with horns and frills for display/defence may have been one of the drivers promoting ceratopsian quadrupedality. A posterior shift in CoM position coincident with the development of extensive dermal armour in thyreophorans demonstrates this cannot have been a primary causative mechanism for quadrupedality in this clade. Quadrupedalism developed in response to different selective pressures in each ornithischian lineage, indicating different evolutionary pathways to convergent quadrupedal morphology.
    Naturwissenschaften 09/2014; 101(11). DOI:10.1007/s00114-014-1239-2
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    ABSTRACT: In many bird species, song changes with age. The mechanisms that account for such changes are only partially understood. Common nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos change the size and composition of their repertoire between their first and second breeding season. To inquire into mechanisms involved in such changes, we compared the singing of 1-year-old and older free-living nightingales. Older males have more song types in common than have 1-year olds. Certain song types frequently sung by older birds did not (or only rarely) occur in the repertoire of yearlings ('mature' song types). We conducted learning experiments with hand-reared nightingales to address reasons for the lack of mature song types. The acquisition success of mature songs was as good as that of control songs (commonly sung by both age groups). However, the analysis of song type use revealed that all yearlings sang common song types more often than mature types. This indicates that the absence of certain song types in the repertoires of free-living yearlings cannot be accounted for by learning and/or motor constraints during song learning. Moreover, our results suggest that in communication networks, animals may restrict the actual use of their signal repertoire to a certain subset depending on the context.
    Naturwissenschaften 09/2014; 101(11). DOI:10.1007/s00114-014-1236-5