Mikrobiologiia (Mikrobiologiya)

Journal description

Russian version of Microbiology (0026-2617).

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Website Mikrobiologiya website
ISSN 0026-3656

Publications in this journal

  • Mikrobiologiia 07/2015; 82(3):362-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Anaerobic thermophilic archaea of the genera Thermogladius and Desulfurococcus capable of a- and P3-keratin decomposition were isolated from hot springs of Kamchatka and Kunashir Island. For two of them (strains 2355k and 3008g), the presence of high-molecular mass, cell-bound endopeptidases active against nonhydrolyzed and partially hydrolyzed proteins at high values of temperature and pH was shown. Capacity for β-keratin decomposition was also found in collection strains (type strains of Desulfurococcus amylolyticus subsp. amylolyticus, D. mucosus subsp. mobilis, and D. fermentans).
    Mikrobiologiia 05/2015; 83(6):743-51.
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic systems of salicylate catabolism were studied in 75 strains of fluorescent pseudomoriads and in 30 exogenously isolated SAL plasmids. All exogenously isolated SAL plasmids were found to contain the classical nahG gene in combination with the genes of the meta-pathway of catechol cleavage. In most studied strains, salicylate catabolism was controlled by the chromosomal genes, the nah Ugene being the key gene ofsalicylate utilization and subsequent catechol cleavage occurring via the ortho-pathway. It is suggested that the nah U-like sequences play a key role in occurrence of the Sal+ phenotype in strains degrading salicylate, but not naphthalene.
    Mikrobiologiia 05/2015; 83(6):703-11.
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    ABSTRACT: Investigation of microbial taxonomic diversity and of the rates of microbial processes of production and decomposition of organic matter made it possible to establish considerable diversity and activity of the sulfur cycle microorganisms in the microbial community of Lake Beloe (pH 9.4, salinity 3.1 g/L) upper sediment layer. According to the results of pyrosequencing, of the 16S rRNA gene, bacteria involved in H2 formation and oxidation were numerically predominant and highly diverse. The Hydrogenophaga spp. dominating in the community are aerobic or facultatively anaerobic chemoorgano- and chemolithoautotrophs using hydrogen oxidation as the source of energy. They play an important role in the transitory zones of mixing of subterranean and surface water.
    Mikrobiologiia 05/2015; 83(6):722-9. DOI:10.1134/S0026261714060216
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    ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from seven Pantoea agglomerans strains isolated from various plants were purified and chemically identified. LPS of the studied P. agglomerans strains were heterogeneous in monosaccharide composition. Thus, the LPS of P. agglomerans 8606 differed considerably from the LPSs of other strains, containing mannose as the predominant monosaccharide (69.8%), as well as ribose (15.1%) and xylose (12.6%), while the content of rhamnose, one of the predominant monosaccharides in other LPS samples, was 2.5%. Analysis of the fatty acid composition revealed the presence of C12-C16 acids. In lipids A of all the studied strains, 3-OH-C14:0 was the predominant acid (31.7 to 39.1%, depending on the strain). C12:0 (8.2 to 31.5%), C14:0 (12.9 to 30.8%), and C16:0 acids (3.4 to 16.9%) were also revealed. The studied P. agglomerans strains fell into three groups according to their fatty acid composition. The differences stemmed from the presence or absence of two fatty acids, 2-OH-C14:0 and C16:1. Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion in agar revealed that all the LPS under study exhibited antigenic activity in homologous systems. The results of serological cross reactions indicated immunochemical heterogeneity of the species P. agglomerans. Comparative investigation of the complex of parameters of peripheral blood cells from a healthy donor before and after treatment with LPS solutions showed that the values of no parameters exceeded the normal range.
    Mikrobiologiia 05/2015; 83(6):656-66.
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular and cellular luminescent biotests were used to reveal the effects of five alkylresorcinol homologues (C7-, C9-, C11-, C12-, and C18-AR) on the thermally induced denaturation and refolding ofbac- terial luciferases, as well as on the synthesis of heat shock proteins. The ARs activities were found to depend on their fine structure and concentration. Direct heat-protective effect of short-chain C7- and C9-AR on the chromatographically pure Photobactrium leiognathii luciferase/oxidoreductase was shown within broad range of concentration (10(-6)-10(-3) M). The long-chain ARs homologues exhibited a similar heat-protective effect at micromolar concentrations only, while their millimolarconcentrations have increased the sensitivity of the model proteins to thermal treatment. The recombinant strain Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 bearing constitutively expressed Vibrio fischieri luxAB genes was used to investigate theARs effect on the intracellular chaperone-independent refolding of bacterial luciferase. The functional activity of heat-inactivated enzyme was restored by micromolar concentrations of short-chain ARs, while long-chain homologues inhibited re- folding in the wide concentration range. The recombinant luminescent E. coli strain bearing the inducible ib- pA'::luxCDABE genetic construction was used to determine the effect of ARs on the synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSP). The preincubation mode of bacterial cells with long-chain alkylresorcinols led to dose-de- pendent stimulation of HSP synthesis (2.7 to 4 times) that confirmed some ARs function as "alarmones". Subsequent thermal treatment resulted in a 5-15-fold decrease of the following HSP induction compared to the control, while the number of viable cells opposite increased 1.5-4-fold. Thus, pretreatment of the bacte- rial cells with long-chain ARs resulted in their preadaptation to subsequent thermally induced stress. Short- chainARs caused less pronounced HSP suppression, although still was accompanied by increased heat resis- tance of the AR-pretreated bacterial cells.
    Mikrobiologiia 05/2015; 83(6):640-52. DOI:10.1134/S0026261714060046
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    ABSTRACT: The microcosm method was used to demonstrate an increase in bacterial numbers and drastic changes in the taxonomic structure of saprotrophic bacteria as a result of mechanical grinding of Sphagnum moss. Ekkrisotrophic agrobacteria predominant in untreated moss were replaced by hydrolytic bacteria. Molecular biological approaches revealed such specific hydrolytic bacteria as Janthinobacterium agaricum and Streptomyces purpurascens among the dominant taxa. The application of kinetic technique for determination of the physiological state of bacteria in situ revealed higher functional diversity of hydrolytic bacteria in ground moss than in untreated samples. A considerable decrease of the C/N ratio in ground samples of living Sphagnum incubated using the microcosm technique indicated decomposition of this substrate.
    Mikrobiologiia 05/2015; 83(6):712-21. DOI:10.1134/S0026261714060058
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    ABSTRACT: The fungicidal activity of some chitosan samples and of its nanostructured systems with copper was studied. The samples of Bombyx mori chitosan and its nanostructured systems with copper were found to inhibit growth and development of phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium solani 169 and Verticillium dahlie 57. The growth inhibition zone was of considerable size (22 to 60 mm).
    Mikrobiologiia 05/2015; 83(6):653-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Attachment of the cells of some bacteria, yeasts, and micromycetes to various surfaces (catheters, dentures, plastic, polyvinyl chloride, tiles, and steel) treated with the surfactants fromAcinetobacter calcoace- ticus IMB B-7241, Rhodococcus erythropolis IMB Ac-5017, and Nocardia vaccinii IMB B-7405 was studied. Adhesion of microorganisms to all the studied surfaces depended on the surfactant concentration and purity, kind of surface, and the test culture. Treatment with the surfactants from N. vaccinii IMB B-7405 (0.005- 0.05 mg/mL), A. calcoaceticus IMB B-7241 (0.003-0.036 mg/mL), and R. erythropolis IMB Ac-5017 (0.03- 0.12 mg/mL) resulted in adhesion decreased respectively by 35-75, 60-75, and 25-90% for bacteria (Es- cherichia coli IEM-1, Bacillus subtilis BT-2, etc.), by 80-85, 55-90, and 15-60% for yeasts Candida albicans D-6, and by 40-50, 35-45, and 10-20% for micromycetes (Aspergillus niger P-3 and Fusarium culmorum T-7).
    Mikrobiologiia 05/2015; 83(6):631-9. DOI:10.1134/S0026261714060150
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    ABSTRACT: The Rand M variants of a purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobactersphaeroides 2R grown on a medium with acetate accumulate poly- β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). Accumulation of this polymer occurs in the cells grown either anaerobically on the light or aerobically in the dark. On the medium with C/N imbalance (C/N = 4), PHB content during the stationary growth phase under aerobic conditions in the dark was 40 and 70% of the dry biomass of the R and M variant, respectively. The Rba. sphaeroides M variant is therefore a promising culture for large-scale PHB production. Investigation of activity of the TCA cycle enzymes revealed that decreased activity of citrate synthase, the key enzyme for acetate involvement in the reactions of the tricarboxylic acids cycle, was primarily responsible for enhanced PHB synthesis by Rba. sphaeroides. Moreover, the Rba. sphaeroides M variant grown under aerobic conditions in the dark exhibited considerably lower activity of NADH oxidase, which participates in the oxidation of reduced NADH produced in the TCA cycle during acetate oxidation. The combination of these two factors increases the possibilities for acetate assimilation via an alternative mechanism of PHB synthesis.
    Mikrobiologiia 05/2015; 84(3):311-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Lamprobacter, the genus of halophilic purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) with the single species Lpb. modestohalophilus was described in 1979. Rod-shaped Lamprobacter cells contained gas vacuoles during the nonmotile growth phase; motile cells without gas vesicles were formed sometimes. Bacteria contained bacteriochlorophyll a and a carotenoid okenone. The names of this genus and species were included in the list of approved microbial names in 1988. Since the type strain Lpb. modestohalophilus ROI(T) has been lost, its 16S rRNA gene sequences have not been obtained. Based on analysis of the 16S rRNA genes, a new genus Halochromatium comprising the motile extremely halophilic Chromatium-like species was proposed in 1998. Members of this genus never contain gas vacuoles. In spite of the phenotypic differences between the genera Lamprobacter and Halochromatium, phylogenetic boundaries between these taxa remained undetermined. Description of a marine bacteria belonging to Lamprobacter according to its morphological andphysiological properties as a new Halochromatium species, Hch. roseum, resulted in additional complication of the taxonomic situation. The present work provides evidence for the preservation of two phenotypically and phylogenetically different genera, Lamprobacter and Halochromatium, Lpb. modestohalophilus is proposed, as the type species of the genus Lamprobacter. Characteristics of two Lpb. modestohalophilus strains were extensively investigated, and one of them (strain Sivash) was proposed as the neotype strain of the species. It was suggested to retain the genus Halochromatium as containing extremely halophilic species Hch. salexigens and Hch. glycolicum, while transfer of the weakly halophilic species Hch. roseum to the genus Lamprobacter is proposed, resulting in a new combination Lamprobacter roseus comb. nov.
    Mikrobiologiia 04/2015; 84(1):68-77.
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    ABSTRACT: Growth of members of most of the studied genera of gram-positive (Dietzia, Kocuria, and Rhodo- coccus) and gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas and Chromobacterium) in biofilms exhibited higher resistance to an translation inhibitor, azithromycin compared to the growth of planktonic cultures of the same strains. Low concentrations of azithromycin were found to stimulate biofilm formation by the studied saprotrophic strains. The rate of synthesis of the polysaccharide matrix component exceeded the rate of cell growth, indicating implementation of the biofilm phenotype under these conditions. It was found that an alkylhydroxybenzene (AHB) compound 4-hexylresorcinol was capable of almost uniform suppression of growth of both planktonic cultures and biofilms of the saprotrophic strains under study. In some cases, combined action ofazithromycin and AHB resulted in an additive inhibitory effect and prevented the stimulation of biofilm growth by subinhibitory azithromycin concentrations. Thus, AHB may be considered a promising antibiofilm agent.
    Mikrobiologiia 04/2015; 84(1):27-36. DOI:10.1134/S0026261714060113
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term microbiological investigation of the pollen of silver birch (Betula pendula) in the Mos- cow, and Moscow region areas revealed that: almost one-third of the analyzed samples, contained the fungus identified by morphological, cultural, and molecular genetic techniques as Quambalaria cyanescens (de Hoog & G. A. de Vries) Z.W. de Beer, Begerow & R. Bauer. This species was previously known mostly as a syrmbiont of tropical plants of the generaEucalyptus and Cortyminbia and has not been isolated in Russia. We revealed a close association between Quambalaria cyanescens and silver birch. The micromycete was regulaly detected in pollen samples, as well as on the.inside and outside of the aments, on the surface of leaves and branches. It was never isolated from other plant species in the investigated area. The data on the morphological and cultural characteristics of the fungus, its cell ultrastructure, and occurrence are presented, as well as the phylogenetic analysis of the isolated strains.
    Mikrobiologiia 04/2015; 83(5):605-14.
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    ABSTRACT: Up-to-date information concerning the chemical structure and properties of trehalose, its natural occurrence and biological functions in plants, fungi, and prokaryotes, as well as its practical application, mainly in medicine and biotechnology, are reviewed. A special section deals with the role of trehalose and other protective polyols in stress processes in fungi.
    Mikrobiologiia 04/2015; 83(3):271-83. DOI:10.1134/S0026261714020064