Journal of the Less Common Metals (J Less Common Met )

Publisher: Elsevier


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    Journal of the less-common metals, Journal of the less common metals
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A combination of anion exchange separation, electrolytic extraction, floating zone refining and dry hydrogen treatment was used to purify cobalt. The effectiveness of each purification process was confirmed by measurements of the residual resistivity ratio (RRR) and activation analyses. Proton activation analysis revealed that all the main metallic impurities except iron were effectively removed by a combination of these processes. The effective removal of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon by dry hydrogen treatment was confirmed by activation analyses using 3He ion beams, proton beams and γ rays. It was found that the rate-controlling step in the decarburization process was a surface reaction. The maximum RRR obtained for the purified specimen was 334, which is higher than previously reported values.
    Journal of the Less Common Metals 01/2002; 105(2):211-220.
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    ABSTRACT: The PtGaAs solid state equilibrium phase diagram was determined at 600 °C with the use of X-ray powder diffraction, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No ternary PtGaAs phases were found and limited solid solubility was measured in the constituent binary PtGa and PtAs compounds. GaAs, PtGa and PtAs2 form a region of three-phase equilibrium which dominates the GaAs side of the phase diagram. The phase diagram is in agreement with previous observations that PtGa and PtAs2 are the stable phases when platinum thin films are reacted to completion on GaAs.
    Journal of the Less Common Metals 01/1993; 146:233-239.
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    ABSTRACT: The oxidation of ZrAl3 in dry oxygen in the temperature range 865–1073 K obeys a logarithmic rate law in the first period of reaction. An activation energy of 214 kJ mol−1 has been estimated. Some time after this first period, depending on the temperature, the protective oxide film transforms to a porous one and the reaction rate increases. The oxide layer consists of α-Al2O3, tetragonal ZrO2 and small amounts of monoclinic ZrO2, in contrast to the ZrO2 oxide layer formed during oxidation of other phases in the Zr-Al system, where the selective oxidation of zirconium takes place.
    Journal of the Less Common Metals 10/1991; 175(2):289–294.
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    ABSTRACT: The kinetics of hafnium hydride formation were studied utilizing conventional rate measurements (Sieverts system) combined with metallographic examinations of partially hydrided samples. The rate measurements were performed at 700 TorrH2 over a temperature range 200–550 °C. Two types of hafnium samples (polycrystalline and crystal bar) were compared. The progression of the massive stage of the reaction is characterized by a contracting-envelope morphology with a constant hydride front velocity. The anisotropy in the reaction front velocity regarding different crystalline orientations of the metal is small, resulting in similar results for the different types of hafnium. The temperature dependence of the front velocity obeys an Arrhenius-type relation over the temperature range 250–450 °C, with an apparent activation energy of 0.50 ± 0.05 eV. Considering a diffusion-controlled model, a diffusion activation barrier of about 0.4 eV is evaluated, which agrees with the average reported value for the diffusion of hydrogen in hafnium hydride. At temperatures above about 500 °C, deviations from the Arrhenius relation are displayed, possibly owing to a change of mechanism.
    Journal of the Less Common Metals 10/1991; 175(2):219–234.
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    ABSTRACT: The IR absorption spectra of tetragonal copper manganite CuxMn3−x O4 spinels (O < x < 1) have singled out a discontinuity in cation distribution to occur at x > 0.60 in conformity with that recorded by our previous measurements and have warranted the existence of a more complex cation distribution than that proposed earlier. It has been concluded from this study that the ionic configuration for x <0.60, i.e. (Cux+Mn1−x2+)A (Mn2−x3+Mnx4+)BO42−, changes for x > 0.60 to (Cux−y+Mn1−x+y2+)A(Cuy2+Mn2−x−y3+Mnx4+)BO42−, where y represents a low value (less than 0.20).When the oxidation of Mn2+ and Cu+ ions is achieved below 450 °C, IR absorption measurements confirm the formation of a cation-deficient metastable spinel phase Cu1.5Mn1.5O4+δ with a 1:3 octahedral superstructure.
    Journal of the Less Common Metals 10/1991; 175(2):279–287.
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    ABSTRACT: The field dependence (up to 35 T) at 4.2 K of the magnetization of several compounds of the type R1−xYxCo4B (R = rareearth) has been studied. The magnetic isotherms at 4.2 K are analysed with a mean-field model. The magnetic coupling constant JRCo between the moments of the rare earth and cobalt in the Hamiltonian H = ∑RCo2JRCoSR · Sco are shown to be more reliable than the coupling constants derived from a mean field analysis of the Curie temperatures for these compounds.
    Journal of the Less Common Metals 09/1991; 175(1):137–141.
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    ABSTRACT: 25 new RMX phases (R ≡ Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu, Yb; M ≡ Zn, Cd; X ≡ Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) were found to crystallize in the structure types ZrBeSi, LiGaGe, TiNiSi, ZrNiAl and CeCu2. Single-crystal refinements were made for YbZnSn (LiGaGe type) with complete atomic ordering, and for SrCdSn, BaCdSn and BaCdPb with disordered CeCu2 structure. A two-dimensional structural map is proposed accounting for 83 RMX phases formed by alkaline earths, europium and ytterbium with the same valence electron concentration ( electrons per atom).
    Journal of the Less Common Metals 08/1991; 171(2):329-336.
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen separation was investigated using CaNi alloy films deposited onto nickel-coated polyimide membrane. A gas mixture of H2CO with 50 mol.% H2 had a concentration of H2 of as much as 99 mol.% after permeation through the membrane. The separation rate of the films was found to be larger than that of film. The hydrogen absorption capacity of the CaNi films decreased by more than 50% after being exposed to the H2CO gas, but was larger than that of LaNi5.0 film.
    Journal of the Less Common Metals 08/1991; 171(2):353–356.
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    ABSTRACT: The possibility of extending the nearly free electron model to interpret the stability of the quasicrystalline state was tested by analysing X-ray or neutron diffraction data from 32 alloys based on aluminium and various transition metals, noble metals, or simple metals. The validity of the picture is discussed, with reference to recent measurements of the electronic properties of the icosahedral state. The agreement between model predictions and experimental data for the large set of systems considered allows the conclusion that materials in a quasicrystalline state constitute a new specific electron phase.
    Journal of the Less Common Metals 08/1991; 171(2):121.
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    ABSTRACT: The solid phase equilibria in the NiInP system at 800°C have been determined at ambient pressure using X-ray diffraction supplemented with differential thermal analysis from room temperature to 800°C. One ternary phase, Ni21In2P6, was found in the system. It crystallizes with space group and is isostructural with Cr23C6. Indium phosphide forms equilibria with the nickel phosphides Ni2P, Ni5P4, NiP2, and NiP3 and indium with Ni12P5 and Ni2P. The results are in agreement with previous observations that Ni2P is a stable phase when a nickel thin film deposited on InP is reacted to completion.
    Journal of the Less Common Metals 08/1991; 171(2):179–186.
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    ABSTRACT: The phase diagram of the Ag-Ga-Te system was studied using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and metallography. Three ternary compounds were observed on the Ag2Te-Ga2Te3 line: Ag9GaTe6, which has a congruent melting point and a phase transition at 29 °C, being hexagonal on both sides of this temperature; AgGaTe2, which is a tetragonal, chalcopyrite type phase; a lacunar phase which is a solid solution for 0.63 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.75, has a stability domain between 585 and 700 °C, and is an incongruent melting binary type. Two ternary solid solutions were present, one a sphalerite type on the Ag2Te-Ga2Te3 line next to Ga2Te3 and one a GaTe type on the GaTe-Ag line. One liquid-liquid immiscible phase was observed, but no glasses. Sixteen ternary invariants are characterized: eight eutectics, one of which is generated at the gallium apex, seven ternary transitory peritectics and one true peritectic binary type.
    Journal of the Less Common Metals 06/1991; 170(2):373–392.
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    ABSTRACT: More than 100 samples in the system Y-Ba-Cu-O were investigated by X-ray diffraction, microprobe analysis and microstructural examination in a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The samples were prepared under a pressure of p(O2) = 90 bar at temperatures between 900 and 1300 °C. The stable phases under these conditions are discussed in detail. In particular we observed the two new compounds Ba2Cu3Ox and Y2Ba9Cu6Oz.
    Journal of the Less Common Metals 06/1991; 170(2):359-372.
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    ABSTRACT: The high-temperature (900–1200 K) interaction of transition-metal carbides namely Cr7C3, Fe3C, TiC, ZrC, NbC, TaC, MoC, WC, VC and HfC with Na2SO4 has been studied in a stream of pure and dried oxygen gas. Thermogravimetric studies were carried out by measuring the weight change as a function of time and mole fraction of Na2SO4 in the reaction mixture. The presence of different constituents in the reaction products were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis and the morphologies of the reaction products were discussed on the basis of metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The quantitative determination of soluble metal species in the aqueous solutions of Na2SO4-transition-metal carbide products was carried out by atomic absorption spectroscopy.At high temperatures, transition-metal carbides interact with Na2SO4, forming metal oxides. The resulting metal oxide interacts with Na2SO4 forming a soluble sodium metal oxide or a metal sulphide depending upon the local condition prevailing during the reaction.
    Journal of the Less Common Metals 06/1991; 170(2):243-254.
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    ABSTRACT: For the first time BaZnLa2O5 (II) and BaZnTb2O5 (I) single crystals were prepared by high-temperature reactions and investigated using X-ray techniques. I crystallizes with orthorhombic symmetry, space group D162h-Pbnm; ; ; ; Z = 4; II crystallizes with tetragonal symmetry, space group ; ; ; Z = 4. I is isotypic to BaCuLn2O5 with square pyramidal coordinated Zn2+ ions. II belongs to the BaZnLn2O5-type with tetrahedrally coordinated Zn2+ ions.
    Journal of the Less Common Metals 06/1991; 170(1):127–133.
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    ABSTRACT: Nickel-activated sintered W-compacts with various porosities containing additives of 0.2 and 0.4 wt.% Ni were subjected to additional heat treatment in a vacuum better than 1.33 × 10−2 Pa at 1400 °C in order to investigate the possibility of whether the added Ni, which will form a brittle phase, could be completely removed using an evaporation process.The added Ni-activator could be removed by optimum vacuum heat treatment up to a mean residual content of 0.07 wt.% which is approximately equivalent to the maximum solubility of Ni in W at 1400 °C.The evaporating behaviour of the Ni was strongly dependent not only on the porosity of the compact, but also on the type of pore, i.e. open or closed pores.
    Journal of the Less Common Metals 06/1991; 170(1):15–25.
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen absorption studies were carried out on the pseudobinary system Zr1 − xHoxCo2 (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8) belonging to the C15-type Laves phases in the temperature range RT⩽ T (°C) ⩽ 300 and the pressure range 0.001 ⩽ P (bar) ⩽ 1. Hydrogen absorption was found to increase with increasing holmium concentration. For the compositions x = 0.6 and 0.8, the pressure-composition isotherms indicated the occurrence of a phase transformation. The relative partial molar enthalpy and entropy of hydrogen solution calculated for all the concentrations were found to be approximately −(7–18) kJ (mol H)−1 and −(10–48) J K−1 (mol H)−1 respectively.
    Journal of the Less Common Metals 06/1991; 170(1):75–82.
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    ABSTRACT: Solid solutions of the (UAs)x(ThSe)1 − x system for x ⩾ 0.7 were measured in pulsed magnetic fields up to 40 T at temperatures 4.2 and 77 K. Metamagnetic transitions directly from antiferro- to ferromagnetic order were found in samples with x ⩽ 0.8, these samples being ferromagnetically ordered in magnetic fields above 10T. The intensity of magnetic fields up to 40 T is not sufficient to change antiferromagnetic order into ferromagnetic order for samples in the UAs-rich region with x ⩾ 0.85 and probably only ferrimagnetic ordering is created.
    Journal of the Less Common Metals 06/1991; 170(1):7–14.
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    ABSTRACT: A study was carried out of the processes occurring during chlorination of CuO and Cu2O with chlorine or a mixture of CO and Cl2 in a temperature range in which only solid products are formed.The reaction rate was studied at different temperatures and in the presence or absence of reductants, by the thermogravimetric method.It was shown that the reaction products have a pronounced blocking influence on further chlorination processes. The maximum degrees of conversion of CuO and Cu2O are equal to 0.06 and 0.3 respectively. The sequence of formation of chlorination products, as found by X-ray analysis, was CuOCl2, CuCl, CuCl2 and CuO.
    Journal of the Less Common Metals 05/1991; 169(2):181–186.
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    ABSTRACT: The hydrogen-induced amorphization behaviour of the C15 Laves compound CeNi2 were investigated by X-ray, differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy and thermal desorption techniques. From the X-ray measurements, it was observed that the CeNi2 compound is amorphized by hydrogenation, and the transformation to an amorphous state takes place without the formation of a crystalline hydride phase. At high reaction temperatures (400 °C), the sample decomposes into the CeNi5 and CeH2 phases, which are believed to be equilibrium phases in a hydrogen atmosphere. Amorphization is possible even when the reaction temperature is as low as −76 °C. From this low temperature amorphization behavior, it is suggested that the elastic strain due to hydrogen absorption may play a key role in the amorphization. Electron diffraction of the hydrogenated sample shows two diffuse halos, which are proposed to be caused by phase separation of the amorphous phase. One of these is considered to be a cerium-rich phase (close to CeH2) and the other is a nickelrich phase (close to CeNi5). Therefore, it is suggested that the amorphization of CeNi2 by hydrogénation may occur by lattice distortion in the course of the phase decomposition. The thermal decomposition and hydrogen desorption behaviors of the amorphous CeNi2 hydride was examined by differential scanning calorimetry and a thermal desorption technique using gas chromatography. The first cystallization product is the CeNi5 phase followed by the formation of CeH2 at higher temperatures. Through the formation of intermediate compounds of varying ratios, the CeNi5 and CeH2 phases combine into the original CeNi2 compound.
    Journal of the Less Common Metals 05/1991; 169(2):245–256.

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