Journal of Neurobiology (J Neurobiol)
The Journal of Neurobiology publishes original research articles on the nervous system. High-quality contributions in all areas of neurobiology are solicited but an emphasis on cellular genetic and molecular analyses of neurodevelopment and the ontogeny of behavior is part of the editorial policy. Papers that do not conform to the general criteria for publication in the Journal of Neurobiology will be returned immediately without detailed review to avoid unnecessary delay in submission elsewhere. This title will be continued as Developmental Neurobiology in 2007.
- Impact factor3.05Show impact factor historyHide impact factor history
- WebsiteJournal of Neurobiology website
Other titlesDevelopmental neurobiology (Hoboken, N.J.), Developmental neurobiology
Material typePeriodical, Internet resource
Document typeJournal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource
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- See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
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Publications in this journal
Article: Dye coupling and connexin expression by cortical radial glia in the early postnatal subventricular zone.Journal of Neurobiology 01/2012; 72(12):1482.
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ABSTRACT: Synaptotagmins are a family of proteins that function in membrane fusion events, including synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Within this family, synaptotagmin IV (Syt IV) is unique in being a depolarization-induced immediate early gene (IEG). Experimental perturbation of Syt IV modulates neurotransmitter release in mice, flies, and PC12 cells, and modulates learning in mice. Despite these features, induction of Syt IV expression by a natural behavior has not been previously reported. We used the zebra finch, a songbird species, to investigate Syt IV because song is a naturally learned behavior whose neuroanatomical basis is largely identified. We observed that, similar to rodents, Syt IV is inducible in songbirds. This induction was selective and depended on the nature of neuronal depolarization. Generalized seizures caused by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, metrazole, induced the IEG, ZENK, in zebra finch brain. However, these same seizures failed to induce Syt IV in song control areas. In contrast, when nontreated birds sang, three song control areas showed striking Syt IV induction. Further, this induction appeared sensitive to the social context in which song was sung. Together, these data suggest that neural activity during singing can drive Syt IV expression within song circuitry whereas generalized seizure activity fails to do so even though song control areas are depolarized. Our findings indicate that, within this neural circuit for a procedurally learned sensorimotor behavior, Syt IV is selective and requires precisely patterned neural activity and/or neuromodulation associated with singing.Journal of Neurobiology 01/2007; 66(14):1613-29.
Article: Consistent dynamics suggests tight regulation of biophysical parameters in a small network of bursting neurons.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The neuronal firing patterns in the pyloric network of crustaceans are remarkably consistent among animals. Although this characteristic of the pyloric network is well-known, the biophysical mechanisms underlying the regulation of the systems output are receiving renewed attention. Computer simulations of the pyloric network recently demonstrated that consistent motor output can be achieved from neurons with disparate biophysical parameters among animals. Here we address this hypothesis by pharmacologically manipulating the pyloric network and analyzing the emerging voltage oscillations and firing patterns. Our results show that the pyloric network of the lobster stomatogastric ganglion maintains consistent and regular firing patterns even when entire populations of specific voltage-gated channels and synaptic receptors are blocked. The variations of temporal parameters used to characterize the burst patterns of the neurons as well as their intraburst spike dynamics do not display statistically significant increase after blocking the transient K-currents (with 4-aminopyridine), the glutamatergic inhibitory synapses (with picrotoxin), or the cholinergic synapses (with atropine) in pyloric networks from different animals. These data suggest that in this very compact circuit, the biophysical parameters are cell-specific and tightly regulated.Journal of Neurobiology 01/2007; 66(14):1584-601.
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ABSTRACT: Abnormal development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is associated with a number of neuropsychiatric disorders that have an onset in childhood or adolescence. Although the basic laminar structure of the PFC is established in utero, extensive remodeling continues into adolescence. To map the overall pattern of changes in cortical gene transcripts during postnatal development, we made serial measurements of mRNA levels in mouse PFC using oligonucleotide microarrays. We observed changes in mRNA transcripts consistent with known postnatal morphological and biochemical events. Overall, most transcripts that changed significantly showed a progressive decrease in abundance after birth, with the majority of change between postnatal weeks 2 and 4. Genes with cell proliferative, cytoskeletal, extracellular matrix, plasma membrane lipid/transport, protein folding, and regulatory functions had decreases in mRNA levels. Quantitative PCR verified the microarray results for six selected genes: DNA methyltransferase 3A (Dnmt3a), procollagen, type III, alpha 1 (Col3a1), solute carrier family 16 (monocarboxylic acid transporters), member 1 (Slc16a1), MARCKS-like 1 (Marcksl1), nidogen 1 (Nid1) and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (heart, mitochondrial) (Bdh).Journal of Neurobiology 01/2007; 66(14):1646-58.
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ABSTRACT: Concepts on neuronal signal processing and integration at a cellular and subcellular level are driven by recording techniques and model systems available. The cricket CNS with the omega-1-neurone (ON1) provides a model system for auditory pattern recognition and directional processing. Exploiting ON1's planar structure we simultaneously imaged free intracellular Ca(2+) at both input and output neurites and recorded the membrane potential in vivo during acoustic stimulation. In response to a single sound pulse the rate of Ca(2+) rise followed the onset spike rate of ON1, while the final Ca(2+) level depended on the mean spike rate. Ca(2+) rapidly increased in both dendritic and axonal arborizations and only gradually in the axon and the cell body. Ca(2+) levels were particularly high at the spike-generating zone. Through the activation of a Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) current this may exhibit a specific control over the cell's electrical response properties. In all cellular compartments presentation of species-specific calling song caused distinct oscillations of the Ca(2+) level in the chirp rhythm, but not the faster syllable rhythm. The Ca(2+)-mediated hyperpolarization of ON1 suppressed background spike activity between chirps, acting as a noise filter. During directional auditory processing, the functional interaction of Ca(2+)-mediated inhibition and contralateral synaptic inhibition was demonstrated. Upon stimulation with different sound frequencies, the dendrites, but not the axonal arborizations, demonstrated a tonotopic response profile. This mirrored the dominance of the species-specific carrier frequency and resulted in spatial filtering of high frequency auditory inputs. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol, 2006.Journal of Neurobiology 01/2007; 67(1):68-80.
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ABSTRACT: The actin filament (F-actin) cytoskeleton is thought to be required for normal axon extension during embryonic development. Whether this is true of axon regeneration in the mature nervous system is not known, but a progressive simplification of growth cones during development has been described and where specifically investigated, mature spinal cord axons appear to regenerate without growth cones. We have studied the cytoskeletal mechanisms of axon regeneration in developmentally early and late chicken sensory neurons, at embryonic day (E) 7 and 14 respectively. Depletion of F-actin blocked the regeneration of E7 but not E14 sensory axons in vitro. The differential sensitivity of axon regeneration to the loss of F-actin and growth cones correlated with endogenous levels of F-actin and growth cone morphology. The growth cones of E7 axons contained more F-actin and were more elaborate than those of E14 axons. The ability of E14 axons to regenerate in the absence of F-actin and growth cones was dependent on microtubule tip polymerization. Importantly, while the regeneration of E7 axons was strictly dependent on F-actin, regeneration of E14 axons was more dependent on microtubule tip polymerization. Furthermore, E14 axons exhibited altered microtubule polymerization relative to E7, as determined by imaging of microtubule tip polymerization in living neurons. These data indicate that the mechanism of axon regeneration undergoes a developmental switch between E7 and E14 from strict dependence on F-actin to a greater dependence on microtubule polymerization. Collectively, these experiments indicate that microtubule polymerization may be a therapeutic target for promoting regeneration of mature neurons.Journal of Neurobiology 01/2007; 66(14):1630-45.
Article: L1, beta1 integrin, and cadherins mediate axonal regeneration in the embryonic spinal cord.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Embryonic birds and mammals are capable of axon regeneration after spinal cord injury, but this ability is lost during a discrete developmental transition. We recently showed that changes within maturing neurons, as opposed to changes solely in the spinal cord environment, significantly restrict axon regeneration during development. The developmental changes within neurons that limit axon regeneration remain unclear. One gap in knowledge is the identity of the adhesive receptors that embryonic neurons use to extend axons in the spinal cord. Here we test the roles of L1/NgCAM, beta1 integrin, and cadherins, using a coculture system in which embryonic chick brainstem neurons regenerate axons into an explant of embryonic spinal cord. By in vivo and in vitro methods, we found that brainstem neurons reduce axonal expression of L1 as they mature. Disrupting either L1 or beta1 integrin function individually in our coculture system partially inhibited growth of brainstem axons in spinal cords, while disrupting cadherin function alone had no effect. However, when all three adhesive receptors were blocked simultaneously, axon growth in the spinal cord was reduced by 90%. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization we show that during the period when neurons lose their regenerative capacity they reduce expression of mRNA for N-cadherin, and reduce axonal L1/NgCAM protein through a post-transcriptional mechanism. These data show that embryonic neurons use L1/NgCAM, beta1 integrin, and cadherin receptors for axon regeneration in the embryonic spinal cord, and raise the possibility that a reduced expression of these essential receptors may contribute to the low-regenerative capacity of older neurons.Journal of Neurobiology 01/2007; 66(14):1564-83.
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ABSTRACT: At developing neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), muscles initially contact motor axons by microprocesses, or myopodia, which are induced by nerves and nerve-secreted agrin, but it is unclear how myopodia are assembled and how they influence synaptic differentiation at the NMJ. Here, we report that treatment of cultured muscle cells with agrin transiently depleted p120 catenin (p120ctn) from cadherin junctions in situ, and increased the tyrosine phosphorylation and decreased the cadherin-association of p120ctn in cell extracts. Whereas ectopic expression of wild-type p120ctn in muscle generated myopodia in the absence of agrin, expression of a specific dominant-negative mutant form of p120ctn, which blocks filopodial assembly in nonmuscle cells, suppressed nerve- and agrin-induction of myopodia. Significantly, approaching neurites triggered reduced acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering along the edges of muscle cells expressing mutant p120ctn than of control cells, although the ability of the mutant cells to cluster AChRs was itself normal. Our results indicate a novel role of p120ctn in agrin-induced myopodial assembly and suggest that myopodia increase muscle-nerve contacts and muscle's access to neural agrin to promote NMJ formation.Journal of Neurobiology 12/2006; 66(13):1511-27.
Article: On the trigeminal percept of androstenone and its implications on the rate of specific anosmia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Specific anosmia is a term that describes an inability to perceive a particular odorant in the context of an otherwise normal olfactory acuity. The most common example, for the odor of androstenone, has been ascribed a prevalence ranging from 2 to 45%. In two experiments we sought to determine whether this wide range could be explained by the difference in steroid concentrations used, and by the degree to which the trigeminal system contributes to perception of androstenone. Experiment 1 demonstrated that high concentrations of androstenone stimulated the trigeminal system, as indicated by electrophysiological recordings. Experiment 2 demonstrated that conscious detection of androstenone is possible based solely on the trigeminal system. Interestingly, detection seems to interact with olfactory acuity in that subjects with a low olfactory sensitivity to androstenone were better able to detect its trigeminal component. The agreement between conscious experience and behavioral discrimination was not well calibrated, in that subjects demonstrated a clear overconfidence in their abilities. Altogether, the current study suggests that androstenone is an odorant that produces a concentration-dependent degree of trigeminal stimulation. This trigeminal component explains the diversity of the reported prevalence of specific anosmia for androstenone and might have implications on future use of specific anosmia as a tool to understand odor processing.Journal of Neurobiology 12/2006; 66(13):1501-10.
Article: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor selectively regulates dendritogenesis of parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the main olfactory bulb through the PLCgamma pathway.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Molecular mechanisms of neurotrophin signaling on dendrite development and dynamics are only partly understood. To address the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the morphogenesis of GABAergic neurons of the main olfactory bulb, we analyzed mice lacking BDNF, mice carrying neurotrophin-3 (NT3) in the place of BDNF, and TrkB signaling mutant mice with a receptor that can activate phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma) but is unable to recruit the adaptors Shc/Frs2. BDNF deletion yielded a compressed olfactory bulb with a significant loss of parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivity in GABAergic interneurons of the external plexiform layer. Dendrite development of PV-positive interneurons was selectively attenuated by BDNF since other Ca2+ -binding protein-containing neuron populations appeared unaffected. The deficit in PV-positive neurons could be rescued by the NT3/NT3 alleles. The degree of PV immunoreactivity was dependent on BDNF and TrkB recruitment of the adaptor proteins Shc/Frs2. In contrast, PLCgamma signaling from the TrkB receptor was sufficient for dendrite growth in vivo and consistently, blocking PLCgamma prevented BDNF-dependent dendrite development in vitro. Collectively, our results provide genetic evidence that BDNF and TrkB signaling selectively regulate PV expression and dendrite growth in a subset of neurochemically-defined GABAergic interneurons via activation of the PLCgamma pathway.Journal of Neurobiology 12/2006; 66(13):1437-51.
Article: Olfactory imprinting is correlated with changes in gene expression in the olfactory epithelia of the zebrafish.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Odors experienced as juveniles can have significant effects on the behavior of mature organisms. A dramatic example of this occurs in salmon, where the odors experienced by developing fish determine the river to which they return as adults. Further examples of olfactory memories are found in many animals including vertebrates and invertebrates. Yet, the cellular and molecular bases underlying the formation of olfactory memory are poorly understood. We have devised a series of experiments to determine whether zebrafish can form olfactory memories much like those observed in salmonids. Here we show for the first time that zebrafish form and retain olfactory memories of an artificial odorant, phenylethyl alcohol (PEA), experienced as juveniles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that exposure to PEA results in changes in gene expression within the olfactory sensory system. These changes are evident by in situ hybridization in the olfactory epithelium of the developing zebrafish. Strikingly, our analysis by in situ hybridization demonstrates that the transcription factor, otx2, is up regulated in the olfactory sensory epithelia in response to PEA. This increase is evident at 2-3 days postfertilization and is maintained in the adult animals. We propose that the changes in otx2 gene expression are manifest as an increase in the number of neuronal precursors in the cells olfactory epithelium of the odor-exposed fish. Thus, our results reveal a role for the environment in controlling gene expression in the developing peripheral nervous system.Journal of Neurobiology 12/2006; 66(13):1452-66.
Article: Engraftment and differentiation of embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells in the cochlear nerve trunk: growth of processes into the organ of Corti.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hearing loss in mammals is irreversible because cochlear neurons and hair cells do not regenerate. To determine whether we could replace neurons lost to primary neuronal degeneration, we injected EYFP-expressing embryonic stem cell-derived mouse neural progenitor cells into the cochlear nerve trunk in immunosuppressed animals 1 week after destroying the cochlear nerve (spiral ganglion) cells while leaving hair cells intact by ouabain application to the round window at the base of the cochlea in gerbils. At 3 days post transplantation, small grafts were seen that expressed endogenous EYFP and could be immunolabeled for neuron-specific markers. Twelve days after transplantation, the grafts had neurons that extended processes from the nerve core toward the denervated organ of Corti. By 64-98 days, the grafts had sent out abundant processes that occupied a significant portion of the space formerly occupied by the cochlear nerve. The neurites grew in fasciculating bundles projecting through Rosenthal's canal, the former site of spiral ganglion cells, into the osseous spiral lamina and ultimately into the organ of Corti, where they contacted hair cells. Neuronal counts showed a significant increase in neuronal processes near the sensory epithelium, compared to animals that were denervated without subsequent stem cell transplantation. The regeneration of these neurons shows that neurons differentiated from stem cells have the capacity to grow to a specific target in an animal model of neuronal degeneration.Journal of Neurobiology 12/2006; 66(13):1489-500.
Article: LAR protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor associates with TrkB and modulates neurotrophic signaling pathways.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The identities of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) that associate with Trk protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) receptors and modulate neurotrophic signaling are unknown. The leukocyte common antigen-related (LAR) receptor PTP is present in neurons expressing TrkB, and like TrkB is associated with caveolae and regulates survival and neurite outgrowth. We tested the hypothesis that LAR associates with TrkB and regulates neurotrophic signaling in embryonic hippocampal neurons. Coimmunoprecipitation and coimmunostaining demonstrated LAR interaction with TrkB that is increased by BDNF exposure. BDNF neurotrophic activity was reduced in LAR-/- and LAR siRNA-treated LAR+/+ neurons and was augmented in LAR-transfected neurons. In LAR-/- neurons, BDNF-induced activation of TrkB, Shc, AKT, ERK, and CREB was significantly decreased; while in LAR-transfected neurons, BDNF-induced CREB activation was augmented. Similarly, LAR+/+ neurons treated with LAR siRNA demonstrated decreased activation of Trk and AKT. LAR is known to activate the Src PTK by dephosphorylation of its negative regulatory domain and Src transactivates Trk. In LAR-/- neurons, or neurons treated with LAR siRNA, phosphorylation of the Src regulatory domain was increased (indicating Src inactivation), consistent with a role for Src in mediating LAR's ability to up-regulate neurotrophic signaling. Interactions between LAR, TrkB, and Src were further confirmed by the findings that Src coimmunoprecipitated with LAR, that the Src inhibitor PP2 blocked the ability of LAR to augment TrkB signaling, and that siRNA-induced depletion of Src decreased LAR interaction with TrkB. These studies demonstrate that receptor PTPs can associate with Trk complexes and promote neurotrophic signaling and point to receptor PTP-based strategies as a novel approach for modulating neurotrophin function.Journal of Neurobiology 12/2006; 66(13):1420-36.
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ABSTRACT: Gap junction channels formed by connexins (Cx) may play essential roles in some processes that occur during retinal development, such as apoptosis and calcium wave spread. The present study was undertaken to determine the distribution pattern of Cx36, Cx43, and Cx45 by immunofluorescence, as well as their gene expression levels by quantitative PCR during postnatal development of the mouse retina. Our results showed an increased expression of neuronal Cx36 from P1 until P10, when this Cx reached adult levels, and it was mainly distributed in the outer and inner plexiform layers. In turn, Cx43 was almost absent in retinal progenitor cells at P1, it became more prominent in glial cell processes about P10, and did not change until adulthood. Double-labeling studies in situ and in vitro with antivimentin, a Müller cell marker, confirmed that Cx43 was expressed by these cells. In addition, quantitative PCR showed that Cx43 and vimentin shared very similar temporal expression patterns. Finally, in contrast to Cx36 and Cx43, Cx45 mRNA was strongly down-regulated during development. In early postnatal days, Cx45 was seen ubiquitously distributed throughout the retina in cells undergoing proliferation and differentiation, as well in differentiated neurons. In adult retina, this protein had a more restricted distribution both in neurons and glial cells, as confirmed in situ and in vitro. In conclusion, we observed a distinct temporal expression pattern for Cx36, Cx43, and Cx45, which is probably related to particular roles in retinal function and maintenance of homeostasis during development of the mouse retina.Journal of Neurobiology 12/2006; 66(13):1397-410.
Article: Down-regulation of torp4a, encoding the Drosophila homologue of torsinA, results in increased neuronal degeneration.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Early-onset torsion dystonia is a dominant motor disorder linked to mutations in torsinA. TorsinA is weakly related to a superfamily of chaperone-like proteins. The function of the torsin group remains largely unknown. Here we use RNAi and over-expression to analyze the function of torp4a, the only Drosophila torsin. Targeted down-regulation in the eye causes progressive degeneration of the retina. Conversely, over-expression of torp4a protects from age-related degeneration. In the retinas of young animals, a correlation with the lysosome-related organelle, the pigment granule, is also observed. Lowering torp4a causes an increase in pigment granules, while over-expression causes loss of granules. We have performed a screen for genetic interactors of torp4a identifying a number mutants, including two members of the AP-3 complex. Other genetic interactors found included genes related to actin and myosin function. Our findings implicate the Drosophila torsin, torp4a, to function with molecules consistent with already predicted roles in the endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope compartment, and have identified potential new interactions with AP-3 like components.Journal of Neurobiology 11/2006; 66(12):1338-53.
Article: Sex differences in the level of Bcl-2 family proteins and caspase-3 activation in the sexually dimorphic nuclei of the preoptic area in postnatal rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In developing rats, sex differences in the number of apoptotic cells are found in the central division of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPNc), which is a significant component of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area, and in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV). Specifically, male rats have more apoptotic cells in the developing AVPV, whereas females have more apoptotic cells in the developing MPNc. To determine the mechanisms for the sex differences in apoptosis in these nuclei, we compared the expression of the Bcl-2 family members and active caspase-3 in postnatal female and male rats. Western blot analyses for the Bcl-2 family proteins were performed using preoptic tissues isolated from the brain on postnatal day (PD) 1 (day of birth) or on PD8. In the AVPV-containing tissues of PD1 rats, there were significant sex differences in the level of Bcl-2 (female > male) and Bax (female < male) proteins, but not of Bcl-xL or Bad proteins. In the MPNc-containing tissues of PD8 rats, there were significant sex differences in the protein levels for Bcl-2 (female < male), Bax (female > male), and Bad (female < male), but not for Bcl-xL. Immunohistochemical analyses showed significant sex differences in the number of active caspase-3-immunoreactive cells in the AVPV on PD1 (female < male) and in the MPNc on PD8 (female > male). We further found that active caspase-3-immunoreactive cells of the AVPV and MPNc were immunoreactive for NeuN, a neuronal marker. These results suggest that there are sex differences in the induction of apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway during development of the AVPV and MPNc.Journal of Neurobiology 11/2006; 66(13):1411-9.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.
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