Journal of nematology (J NEMATOL )

Publisher: Society of Nematologists (Marceline)


The Society of Nematologists (SON), founded in 1961, is a not-for-profit professional organization that serves the scientific needs of nematologists and individuals in related disciplines throughout the world. The Society holds regular meetings and promotes and extends knowledge in all phases of nematology. In 1969, the Society dedicated itself to publishing the Journal of Nematology (JON). Annals of Applied Nematology (AAN), a supplement to the Journal of Nematology, was first published in 1987 and discontinued after the 2001 issue. Original papers on basic, applied, descriptive, or experimental nematology are considered for publication. Other categories include reviews developing new concepts, hypotheses, or concepts; abstracts of papers presented at annual meetings, and special publications as appropriate. Routine surveys of nematode distribution or of germplasm collections for susceptibility to parasitic nematodes are not acceptable unless it can be demonstrated that the data make a unique contribution to the literature. Surveys of a more fundamental nature that test or generate hypotheses are encouraged. Research results submitted for publication should be reproducible, thus it is expected that critical experiments be repeated in time or space.

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Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: submitted
    Journal of nematology 09/2014;
  • Journal of nematology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Experiments were conducted to study the survival of four Beninese isolates of entomopathogenic nematode (Heterorhabditis indica Ayogbe1, H. sonorensis Azohoue2, H. sonorensis Ze3, and Steinernema sp. Bembereke) in aqueous solutions of three pesticides i.e. fipronil (50g/l), sulfur (80%) and glyphosphate (41%). Secondly to test the infectivity of the isolates following fipronil treatment on the last instars Galleria mellonella. Thirdly to test the effect of soil temperature and moisture content on the virulence of the EPN isolates applied on the termite Trinervitermes occidentalis. The time at which 50% nematodes survived (ST50) after a pesticide treatment varied with nematode isolate from 1.38h (H. indica in sulfur at 2-fold rd) to 15.53h (H. indica in glyphosate at 0.5 fold rd). The higher the pesticide dose, the lower the ST50 value for each of the nematode isolates. The increase of both exposure time and fipronil concentration had negative impact on the efficacy of tested EPN isolates on G. mellonella. Termite mortality differed significantly between temperatures and soil moisture content for all tested EPN isolates. The greater the temperature at which termites and nematodes were exposed, the lower termite mortality with Azohoue2 giving highest mortality values at 27°C (91%), 30°C (69%), 33°C (67%) and 35°C (65%). However, the effect of soil moisture content on the EPN efficacy did not vary with the IJ concentration.
    Journal of nematology 06/2014; 46(2):136.
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    ABSTRACT: Termites cause significant losses to citrus in Benin. A field experiment was conducted to assess the effectiveness of two indigenous entomopathogenic nematode species (EPN), viz. Heterorhabditis sonorensis and H. indica, against an underground nest population of Macrotermes bellicosus. We hypothesized that after aboveground nest demolition, M. bellicosus would reconstruct its nest in three months time. Aboveground nests were first demolished before 50 2-week old EPN-infected Galleria mellonella larvae were scattered over the demolished surface. Three treatments were compared: (1) G. mellonella infected with H. sonorensis, (2) G. mellonella infected with H. indica, and (3) untreated control. To monitor nest reconstruction progress, nest volumes were calculated before demolition and at 10-days interval after demolition. Data indicated that nest reconstruction rates (NRR) differed significantly among treatments but were always lower than in the untreated control. The highest NRR was observed for the control (107%) 70 days after application (DAA) of the EPN. The NRR for treatments 1 (37.6) and 2 (43%) remained constant at 40 and 50 DAA, respectively, until 70 DAA. Both EPN species persisted well in the nests and were retrieved up to 70 DAA. At that time, the underground populations of 71 (treatment 1) and 60 % (treatment 2) were found dead after excavation; the underground populations of the untreated control nests, however, were all alive. These findings suggest that tested indigenous EPN can provide effective biological control of M. bellicosus in the field.
    Journal of nematology 06/2014; 46(2):259.
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    ABSTRACT: Rhabditolaimus anoplophorae Kanzaki and Futai was re-isolated from its type host (carrier), the cerambycid beetle Anoplophora malasiaca, collected in an experimental field of the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. The nematode was cultured on nematode growth medium plates seeded with Escherichia coli OP50, and its morphological characters and molecular profile were examined to modernize the description. Scanning electron microscopic and light microscopy revealed the presence of four stomatal flaps, a very long gymnostom, a single ventral papilla in males, and a horizontal slit-like vulval opening in females. The positions of the deirids, hemizonids, phasmids, and rectal glands are additionally described, and the absence of a male bursa was confirmed. Phylogenetically, the genus forms a well-supported clade in the family Diplogastridae. Rhabditolaimus anoplophorae is a member of the monophyletic Rhabditolaimus clade and is closely related to R. leuckarti and several undescribed species.
    Journal of nematology 03/2014; 46(1):44-49.
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    ABSTRACT: Under laboratory conditions, the biocontrol potential of Steinernema thermophilum was tested against eggs and larval stages of two important lepidopteran insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura (polyphagous pests), as well as Galleria mellonella (used as a model host). In terms of host susceptibility of lepidopteran larvae to S. thermophilum, based on the LC50 36 hr after treatment, G. mellonella (LC50 = 16.28 IJ/larva) was found to be more susceptible than S. litura (LC50 = 85 IJ/larva), whereas neither host was found to be significantly different from H. armigera (LC50 = 54.68 IJ/larva). In addition to virulence to the larval stages, ovicidal activity up to 84% was observed at 200 IJ/50 and 100 eggs of H. armigera and S. litura, respectively. To our knowledge this is the first report of entomopathogenic nematode pathogenicity to lepidopteran eggs. Production of infective juvenile (IJ) nematodes/insect larva was also measured and found to be positively correlated with rate of IJ for H. armigera (r = 0.990), S. litura (r = 0.892), as well as G. mellonella (r = 0.834). Both Phase I and Phase II of symbiotic bacteria Xenorhabdus indica were tested separately against neonates of H. armigera and S. litura by feeding assays and found to be virulent to the target pests; phase variation did not affect the level of virulence. Thus S. thermophilum as well as the nematode's symbiotic bacteria applied separately have the potential to be developed as biocontrol agents for key lepidopteran pests.
    Journal of nematology 03/2014; 46(1):18-26.
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    ABSTRACT: Identification of resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is the first step in developing resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars that will benefit growers in the mid-South region of the United States. This study was conducted to identify soybean (G. max and G. soja) lines with resistance to this pathogen. Sixty-one wild and domestic soybean lines were evaluated in replicated growth chamber tests. Six previously untested soybean lines with useful levels of resistance to reniform nematode were identified in both initial screening and subsequent confirmation tests: released germplasm lines DS4-SCN05 (PI 656647) and DS-880 (PI 659348); accession PI 567516 C; and breeding lines DS97-84-1, 02011-126-1-1-2-1 and 02011-126-1-1-5-1. Eleven previously untested moderately susceptible or susceptible lines were also identified: released germplasm lines D68-0099 (PI 573285) and LG01-5087-5; accessions PI 200538, PI 416937, PI 423941, PI 437697, PI 467312, PI 468916, PI 594692, and PI 603751 A; and cultivar Stafford (PI 508269). Results of previously tested lines evaluated in the current study agreed with published reports 69.6% of the time for resistant lines and 87.5% of the time for susceptible lines. Soybean breeders may benefit from incorporating the newly identified resistant lines into their breeding programs.
    Journal of nematology 03/2014; 46(1):1-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of entomopathogenic nematodes to tolerate environmental stress such as desiccating or freezing conditions, can contribute significantly to biocontrol efficacy. Thus, in selecting which nematode to use in a particular biocontrol program, it is important to be able to predict which strain or species to use in target areas where environmental stress is expected. Our objectives were to (i) compare inter- and intraspecific variation in freeze and desiccation tolerance among a broad array of entomopathogenic nematodes, and (ii) determine if freeze and desiccation tolerance are correlated. In laboratory studies we compared nematodes at two levels of relative humidity (RH) (97% and 85%) and exposure periods (24 and 48 h), and nematodes were exposed to freezing temperatures (-2°C) for 6 or 24 h. To assess interspecific variation, we compared ten species including seven that are of current or recent commercial interest: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (VS), H. floridensis, H. georgiana, (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All), S. feltiae (SN), S. glaseri (VS), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). To assess intraspecific variation we compared five strains of H. bacteriophora (Baine, Fl1-1, Hb, Oswego, and VS) and four strains of S. carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal), and S. riobrave (355, 38b, 7-12, and TP). S. carpocapsae exhibited the highest level of desiccation tolerance among species followed by S. feltiae and S. rarum; the heterorhabditid species exhibited the least desiccation tolerance and S. riobrave and S. glaseri were intermediate. No intraspecific variation was observed in desiccation tolerance; S. carpocapsae strains showed higher tolerance than all H. bacteriophora or S. riobrave strains yet there was no difference detected within species. In interspecies comparisons, poor freeze tolerance was observed in H. indica, and S. glaseri, S. rarum, and S. riobrave whereas H. georgiana and S. feltiae exhibited the highest freeze tolerance, particularly in the 24-h exposure period. Unlike desiccation tolerance, substantial intraspecies variation in freeze tolerance was observed among H. bacteriophora and S. riobrave strains, yet within species variation was not detected among S. carpocapsae strains. Correlation analysis did not detect a relationship between freezing and desiccation tolerance.
    Journal of nematology 03/2014; 46(1):27-34.
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    ABSTRACT: A commercial formulation of furfural was recently launched in the United States as a turfgrass nematicide. Three field trials evaluated efficacy of this commercial formulation on dwarf bermudagrass putting greens infested primarily with Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Meloidogyne graminis, or both these nematodes, and in some cases with Mesocriconema ornatum or Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus. In all these trials, furfural improved turf health but did not reduce population densities of B. longicaudatus, M. graminis, or the other plant-parasitic nematodes present. In two additional field trials, efficacy of furfural at increasing depths in the soil profile (0 to 5 cm, 5 to 10 cm, and 10 to 15 cm) against B. longicaudatus on bermudagrass was evaluated. Reduction in population density of B. longicaudatus was observed in furfural-treated plots for depths below 5 cm on several dates during both trials. However, no differences in population densities of B. longicaudatus were observed between the furfural-treated plots and the untreated control for soil depth of 0 to 5 cm during either trial. These results indicate that furfural applications can improve health of nematode-infested turf and can reduce population density of plant-parasitic nematodes in turf systems. Although the degree to which turf improvement is directly caused by nematicidal effects is still unclear, furfural does appear to be a useful nematode management tool for turf.
    Journal of nematology 03/2014; 46(1):8-11.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in precision agriculture technologies and spatial statistics allow realistic, site-specific estimation of nematode damage to field crops and provide a platform for the site-specific delivery of nematicides within individual fields. This paper reviews the spatial statistical techniques that model correlations among neighboring observations and develop a spatial economic analysis to determine the potential of site-specific nematicide application. The spatial econometric methodology applied in the context of site-specific crop yield response contributes to closing the gap between data analysis and realistic site-specific nematicide recommendations and helps to provide a practical method of site-specifically controlling nematodes.
    Journal of nematology 03/2014; 46(1):12-17.
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    ABSTRACT: Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) from the Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae families are well-known biocontrol agents against numerous insect pests. The infective juveniles (IJs) are naturally occurring in the soil and their success in locating and penetrating the host will be affected by extrinsic/intrinsic factors that modulate their foraging behavior. Characterizing key traits in the infection dynamics of EPNs is critical for establishing differentiating species abilities to complete their life cycles and hence, their long-term persistence, in different habitats. We hypothesized that phenotypic variation in traits related to infection dynamics might occur in populations belonging to the same species. To assess these intraspecific differences, we evaluated the infection dynamics of 14 populations of Steinernema feltiae in two experiments measuring penetration and migration in sand column. Intraspecific variability was observed in the percentage larval mortality, time to kill the insect, penetration rate, and sex-ratio in both experiments (P < 0.01). Larval mortality and nematode penetration percentage were lower in migration experiments than in penetration ones in most of the cases. The sex-ratio was significantly biased toward female-development dominance (P < 0.05). When the populations were grouped by habitat of recovery (natural areas, crop edge, and agricultural groves), nematodes isolated in natural areas exhibited less larval mortality and penetration rates than those from some types of agricultural associated soils, suggesting a possible effect of the habitat on the phenotypic plasticity. This study reinforces the importance of considering intraspecific variability when general biological and ecological questions are addressed using EPNs.
    Journal of nematology 03/2014; 46(1):35-43.
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    ABSTRACT: The objetive was to determine the effects of organic and conventional pesticides on soil physical chemical properties, soil biodiversity, plant biomass, and soil suppressiveness. Such effects were studied in two types of soils; low-diverse soils from an agricultural farm and high-diverse soils from a natural vegetation area. We hypothesized that organic soil treatments and biological nematicides applied in the soil affect to a lesser extent soil biota functioning than chemical nematicides, and that richer communities will be more resilient than low-diverse ones.
    Journal of nematology 02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: During a survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey in 2009-2012, a steinernematid species was recorded and isolated using the Galleria-baiting method. The isolate was identified as Steinernema kraussei based on its morphological and molecular properties. The analysis of the ITS rDNA sequence placed the Turkish population of S. kraussei in the "feltiae-kraussei" group in the clade that contains different isolates of the species. This is the first record of S. kraussei from Turkey. The efficacy of S. kraussei was tested on Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidea) larvae at different densities (100, 300, and 500 infective juveniles (IJs) g(-1) dry sand ) in laboratory conditions at 25 °C. The highest mortality (98%) was obtained with 500 IJs g(-1) dry sand within 7 d after inoculation. Our results indicate that the new isolate is a highly promising biological control agent against A. segetum, one of the most serious soil pests of agricultural area and fruits worldwide.
    Journal of nematology 12/2013; 45(4):253-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for either 24 or 48 hr, followed by inoculation onto bermudagrass. A second experiment evaluated effects of exposure of B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural in soil solution on bermudagrass with or without an organic thatch layer. A third experiment evaluated effects on B. longicaudatus of increasing concentrations of furfural applied as a spray treatment to creeping bentgrass. Results from the in vitro exposure experiment found decreasing numbers of B. longicaudatus with increasing furfural concentration beginning with the lowest concentration tested (270 ppm). Belonolaimus longicaudatus were virtually eliminated with furfural concentrations ≥ 720 ppm. Similarly, exposure to increasing concentration of furfural in soil solution resulted in increasing reduction in numbers of B. longicaudatus. Presence of thatch slightly reduced the population density of B. longicaudatus. Spray application of furfural only reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus at the two highest rates (3,600 and 4,950 ppm).
    Journal of nematology 12/2013; 45(4):260-4.