Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology (J MOL CELL CARDIOL )

Publisher: International Society for Heart Research, Elsevier

Description

The Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, the official organ of the International Society for Heart Research, provides a forum for research papers dealing with the molecular biology, physiology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology of the heart and c

  • Impact factor
    5.15
    Show impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    5.03
  • Cited half-life
    6.30
  • Immediacy index
    1.48
  • Eigenfactor
    0.03
  • Article influence
    1.67
  • Website
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology website
  • Other titles
    Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology (Online), Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology
  • ISSN
    0022-2828
  • OCLC
    36945690
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Voluntary deposit by author of pre-print allowed on Institutions open scholarly website and pre-print servers
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and publisher exists
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PMC after 12 months
    • Authors who are required to deposit in subject repositories may also use Sponsorship Option
    • Pre-print can not be deposited for The Lancet
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a fatal progressive disease of both cardiac and skeletal muscle resulting from the mutations in the DMD gene and loss of the protein dystrophin. Alpha-dystrobrevin (α-DB) tightly associates with dystrophin but significance of this interaction within cardiac myocytes is poorly understood. In the current study the functional role of α-DB in cardiomyocytes and its implications for dystrophin function are examined. Cardiac stress testing demonstrated significant heart disease in α-DB null (adbn(-/-)) mice, which displayed mortality and lesion sizes that were equivalent to those seen in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse. Despite normal expression and subcellular localization of dystrophin in the adbn(-/-) heart, there is a significant decrease in the strength of dystrophin's interaction with the membrane-bound dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC). A similar weakening of the dystrophin-membrane interface was observed in mice lacking the sarcoglycan complex. Cardiomyocytes from adbn(-/-) mice were smaller and responded less to adrenergic receptor induced hypertrophy. The basal decrease in size could not be attributed to aberrant Akt activation. In addition, the organization of the microtubule network was significantly altered in adbn(-/-) cardiac myocytes, while the total expression of tubulin was unchanged in the adbn(-/-) hearts. These studies demonstrate that α-DB is a multifunctional protein that increases dystrophin's binding to the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, and is critical for the full functionality of dystrophin.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic preconditioning (PC) is an adaptive response to transient myocardial ischemia that protects the heart from subsequent ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the mechanisms underlying its cardioprotective effects remain unclear.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Electron microscopy techniques have made a significant contribution towards understanding muscle physiology since the 1950s. Subsequent advances in hardware and software have led to major breakthroughs in terms of image resolution as well as the ability to generate three-dimensional (3D) data essential for linking structure to function and dysfunction. In this methodological review we consider the application of a relatively new technique, serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM), for the study of cardiac muscle morphology. Employing SBF-SEM we have generated 3D data for cardiac myocytes within the myocardium with a voxel size of ~15nm in the X-Y plane and 50nm in the Z-direction. We describe how SBF-SEM can be used in conjunction with selective staining techniques to reveal the 3D cellular organisation and the relationship between the t-tubule (t-t) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) networks. These methods describe how SBF-SEM can be used to provide qualitative data to investigate the organisation of the dyad, a specialised calcium microdomain formed between the t-ts and the junctional portion of the SR (jSR). We further describe how image analysis methods may be applied to interrogate the 3D volumes to provide quantitative data such as the volume of the cell occupied by the t-t and SR membranes and the volumes and surface area of jSR patches. We consider the strengths and weaknesses of the SBF-SEM technique, pitfalls in sample preparation together with tips and methods for image analysis. By providing a 'big picture' view at high resolutions, in comparison to conventional confocal microscopy, SBF-SEM represents a paradigm shift for imaging cellular networks in their native environment.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The key information processing units within gene regulatory networks are enhancers. Enhancer activity is associated with the production of tissue specific noncoding RNAs, yet the existence of such transcripts during cardiac development has not been established. Using an integrated genomic approach, we demonstrate that fetal cardiac enhancers generate long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) during cardiac differentiation and morphogenesis. Enhancer expression correlates with the emergence of active enhancer chromatin states, the initiation of RNA polymerase II at enhancer loci and expression of target genes. Orthologous human sequences are also transcribed in fetal human hearts and cardiac progenitor cells. Through a systematic bioinformatic analysis, we identified and characterized, for the first time, a catalog of lncRNAs that are expressed during embryonic stem cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes and associated with active cardiac enhancer sequences. RNA-sequencing demonstrates that many of these transcripts are polyadenylated, multi-exonic long noncoding RNAs. Moreover, knockdown of two enhancer-associated lncRNAs resulted in the specific downregulation of their predicted target genes. Interestingly, the reactivation of the fetal gene program, a hallmark of the stress response in the adult heart, is accompanied by increased expression of fetal cardiac enhancer transcripts. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that the activity of cardiac enhancers and expression of their target genes are associated with the production of enhancer-derived lncRNAs.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014;
  • Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The KCNH2 gene encodes the Kv11.1 potassium channel that conducts the rapidly activating delayed rectifier current in the heart. KCNH2 pre-mRNA undergoes alternative processing; intron 9 splicing leads to the formation of a functional, full-length Kv11.1a isoform, while polyadenylation within intron 9 generates a non-functional, C-terminally truncated Kv11.1a-USO isoform. The relative expression of Kv11.1 isoforms plays an important role in the regulation of Kv11.1 channel function and the pathogenesis of long QT syndrome. In this study, we identified cis-acting elements that are required for KCNH2 intron 9 poly(A) signal activity. Mutation of these elements decreased Kv11.1a-USO expression and increased the expression of Kv11.1a mRNA, protein and channel current. More importantly, blocking these elements by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides shifted the alternative processing of KCNH2 intron 9 from the polyadenylation to the splicing pathway, leading to the predominant production of Kv11.1a and a significant increase in Kv11.1 current. Our findings indicate that the expression of the Kv11.1a isoform can be upregulated by an antisense approach. Antisense inhibition of KCNH2 intronic polyadenylation represents a novel approach to increase Kv11.1 channel function.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Altered gap junctional coupling potentiates slow conduction and arrhythmias. To better understand how heterogeneous connexin expression affects conduction at the cellular scale, we investigated conduction in tissue consisting of two cardiomyocyte populations expressing different connexin levels. Conduction was mapped using microelectrode arrays in cultured strands of foetal murine ventricular myocytes with predefined contents of connexin 43 knockout (Cx43KO) cells. Corresponding computer simulations were run in randomly generated two-dimensional tissues mimicking the cellular architecture of the strands. In the cultures, the relationship between conduction velocity (CV) and Cx43KO cell content was nonlinear. CV first decreased significantly when Cx43KO content was increased from 0 to 50%. When the Cx43KO content was ≥60%, CV became comparable to that in 100% Cx43KO strands. Co-culturing Cx43KO and wild-type cells also resulted in significantly more heterogeneous conduction patterns and in frequent conduction blocks. The simulations replicated this behaviour of conduction. For Cx43KO contents of 10-50%, conduction was slowed due to wavefront meandering between Cx43KO cells. For Cx43KO contents ≥60%, clusters of remaining wild-type cells acted as electrical loads that impaired conduction. For Cx43KO contents of 40-60%, conduction exhibited fractal characteristics, was prone to block, and was more sensitive to changes in ion currents compared to homogeneous tissue. In conclusion, conduction velocity and stability behave in a nonlinear manner when cardiomyocytes expressing different connexin amounts are combined. This behaviour results from heterogeneous current-to-load relationships at the cellular level. Such behaviour is likely to be arrhythmogenic in various clinical contexts in which gap junctional coupling is heterogeneous.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014;
  • Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiomyopathy presents a major health issue and is a leading cause of heart failure. Although a subset of familial cardiomyopathy is associated with genetic mutations, over 50% of cardiomyopathy is defined as idiopathic, the mechanisms underlying which are under intensive investigation. SUMO conjugation is a dynamic posttranslational modification that can be readily reversed by the activity of sentrin-specific proteases (SENPs). However, whether SENPs are implicated in heart disease pathophysiology remains unexplored. We observed a significant increase in the level of SENP5, a SUMO isopeptidase, in human idiopathic failing hearts. To reveal whether it plays a role in the pathogenesis of cardiac muscle disorders, we used a gain-of-function approach to overexpress SENP5 in murine cardiomyocytes (SENP5 transgenic, SENP5-Tg). Overexpression of SENP5 led to cardiac dysfunction, accompanied by decreased cardiomyocyte proliferation and elevated apoptosis. The increase in apoptosis preceded other detectable pathological changes, suggesting its causal link to cardiomyopathy. Further examination of SENP5-Tg hearts unveiled a decrease in SUMO attachment to dynamin related protein (Drp1), a factor critical for mitochondrial fission. Correspondingly, the mitochondria of SENP5-Tg hearts at an early developmental stage were significantly larger compared with those in the control hearts, suggesting that desumoylation of Drp1 at least partially accounts for the cardiac phenotypes observed in the SENP5-Tg mice. Finally, overexpression of Bcl2 in SENP5-Tg hearts improved cardiac function of SENP5-Tg mice, further supporting the notion that SENP5 mainly targets mitochondrial function in vivo. Our findings demonstrate an important role of the desumoylation enzyme SENP5 in the development of cardiac muscle disorders, and point to the SUMO conjugation pathway as a potential target in the prevention/treatment of cardiomyopathy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Mitochondria".
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a common etiology of myocarditis with an increased morbidity and mortality in males. We previously reported that differential polarization of macrophages contributed to sexually dimorphic susceptibility of mice to CVB3-induced myocarditis. However, the underlying kinetics, impetus as well as the molecular mechanism remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that myocardial macrophages started to polarize at as early as day 5 post CVB3 infection in both genders of BALB/c mice, with M1 phenotype detected in males and M2a phenotype in females, and this trend was further amplified at day 7 when myocarditis reached peak. In addition, we identified that prevailed IFN-γ in males and dominant IL-4 in females were critical myocardial cytokines for the disparate macrophage polarization, which respectively activated JAK1-STAT1 and JAK3-STAT6 pathways. Strikingly, we found that the main source of IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokines in both genders were myocardial infiltrating NK cells, which differentially secreted cytokines in various microenvironments manifested synergistically by sex hormones and CVB3 infection. Consistently, depletion of NK cells significantly impeded the myocardial macrophage polarization in both genders of CVB3-infected mice. Collectively, these data indicated that myocardial NK-derived IFN-γ/IL-4 was critical for the differential polarization of macrophages in CVB3-induced myocarditis via activating JAK1-STAT1 and JAK3-STAT6 pathways respectively. Our study may help understand the mechanism of sexually differential polarization of macrophages and provide clues for the gender bias in CVB3-induced myocarditis.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We generated thymic stromal lymphopoietin R-chain deficient apolipoprotein E-double knockout (ApoE-TSLPR DKO) mice to directly explore the role of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in atherogenesis.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support has been used in the treatment of end-stage heart failure (HF), however use of anti-fibrotic co-therapies may improve prognosis. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) possess anti-fibrotic properties through their receptors, GC-A/GC-B/NPR-C. We sought to evaluate cardiac fibrosis and the endogenous NP system in end-stage HF with and without LVAD therapy and to assess the anti-fibrotic actions of the dual GC-A/-B activator CD-NP in vitro. Collagen (Col) protein content was assessed by Picrosirius Red staining and NPs, NP receptors, and Col I mRNA expression were determined by qPCR in LV tissue from patients in end-stage HF (n=13), after LVAD support (n=5) and in normal subjects (n=6). Col I mRNA and protein levels in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) pretreated with CD-NP were compared to BNP or CNP pretreatment. The LV in end-stage HF was characterized by higher Col I mRNA expression and Col protein deposition compared to normal which was sustained after LVAD support. ANP and BNP mRNA expressions were higher while CNP was lower in end-stage HF LV. GC-A expression did not change while GC-B and NPR-C increased compared to normal LV. The changes in NP system expression were not reversed after LVAD support. In vitro, CD-NP reduced Col I production stimulated by TGF-beta 1 greater than BNP or CNP in CFs. We conclude that the failing LV is characterized by increased fibrosis and reduced CNP gene expression. LVAD support did not reverse Col deposition nor restore CNP production, suggesting a therapeutic opportunity for CD-NP.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Diet-induced obesity leads to metabolic heart disease (MHD) characterized by increased oxidative stress that may cause oxidative post-translational modifications (OPTM) of cardiac mitochondrial proteins. The functional consequences of OPTM of cardiac mitochondrial proteins in MHD are unknown. Our objective was to determine whether cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction in MHD due to diet-induced obesity is associated with cysteine OPTM. Methods and results: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) or control diet for 8months. Cardiac mitochondria from HFHS-fed mice (vs. control diet) had an increased rate of H2O2 production, a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio, a decreased rate of complex II substrate-driven ATP synthesis and decreased complex II activity. Complex II substrate-driven ATP synthesis and complex II activity were partially restored ex-vivo by reducing conditions. A biotin switch assay showed that HFHS feeding increased cysteine OPTM in complex II subunits A (SDHA) and B (SDHB). Using iodo-TMT multiplex tags we found that HFHS feeding is associated with reversible oxidation of cysteines 89 and 231 in SDHA, and 100, 103 and 115 in SDHB. Conclusions: MHD due to consumption of a HFHS "Western" diet causes increased H2O2 production and oxidative stress in cardiac mitochondria associated with decreased ATP synthesis and decreased complex II activity. Impaired complex II activity and ATP production are associated with reversible cysteine OPTM of complex II. Possible sites of reversible cysteine OPTM in SDHA and SDHB were identified by iodo-TMT tag labeling. Mitochondrial ROS may contribute to the pathophysiology of MHD by impairing the function of complex II. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Mitochondria'.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of RhoA, a low molecular-weight G-protein, plays an important role in protecting the heart against ischemic stress. Studies using non-cardiac cells demonstrate that the expression and subsequent secretion of the matricellular protein CCN1 is induced by GPCR agonists that activate RhoA. In this study we determined whether and how CCN1 is induced by GPCR agonists in cardiomyocytes and examined the role of CCN1 in ischemic cardioprotection in cardiomyocytes and the isolated perfused heart. In neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), S1P, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and endothelin-1 induced robust increases in CCN1 expression while phenylephrine, isoproterenol and carbachol had little or no effect. The ability of agonists to activate the small G-protein RhoA correlated with their ability to induce CCN1. CCN1 induction by S1P was blocked when RhoA function was inhibited with C3 exoenzyme or a pharmacological RhoA inhibitor. Conversely overexpression of RhoA was sufficient to induce CCN1 expression. To delineate the signals downstream of RhoA we tested the role of MRTF-A (MKL1), a co-activator of SRF, in S1P-mediated CCN1 expression. S1P increased the nuclear accumulation of MRTF-A and this was inhibited by the functional inactivation of RhoA. In addition, pharmacological inhibitors of MRTF-A or knockdown of MRTF-A significantly diminished S1P-mediated CCN1 expression, indicating a requirement for RhoA/MRTF-A signaling. We also present data indicating that CCN1 is secreted following agonist treatment and RhoA activation, and binds to cells where it can serve an autocrine function To determine the functional significance of CCN1 expression and signaling, simulated ischemia/reperfusion (sI/R)-induced apoptosis was assessed in NRVMs. The ability of S1P to protect against sI/R was significantly reduced by the inhibition of RhoA, ROCK or MRTF-A or by CCN1 knockdown. We also demonstrate that ischemia/reperfusion induces CCN1 expression in the isolated perfused heart and that this functions as a cardioprotective mechanism, evidenced by the significant increase in infarct development in response to I/R in the cardiac specific CCN1 KO relative to control mice. Our findings implicate CCN1 as a mediator of cardioprotection induced by GPCR agonists that activate RhoA/MRTF-A signaling.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Recurrent or sustained inflammation plays a causal role in the development and progression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and its transition to failure. Interleukin (IL)-18 is a potent pro-hypertrophic inflammatory cytokine. We report that induction of pressure overload in the rabbit, by constriction of the descending thoracic aorta induces compensatory hypertrophy at 4weeks (mass/volume ratio: 1.7±0.11) and ventricular dilatation indicative of heart failure at 6weeks (mass/volume ratio: 0.7±0.04). In concordance with this, fractional shortening was preserved at 4weeks, but markedly attenuated at 6weeks. We cloned rabbit IL-18, IL-18Rα, IL-18Rβ, and IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) cDNA, and show that pressure overload, while enhancing IL-18 and IL-18R expression in hypertrophied and failing hearts, markedly attenuated the level of expression of the endogenous IL-18 antagonist IL-18BP. Cyclical mechanical stretch (10% cyclic equibiaxial stretch, 1Hz) induced hypertrophy of primary rabbit cardiomyocytes in vitro and enhanced ANP, IL-18, and IL-18Rα expression. Further, treatment with rhIL-18 induced its own expression and that of IL-18Rα via AP-1 activation, and induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in part via PI3K/Akt-dependent GATA4 activation. In contrast, IL-18 potentiated TNF-α-induced cardiomyocyte death, and induced cardiac endothelial cell death. These results demonstrate that pressure overload is associated with enhanced IL-18 and its receptor expression in hypertrophied and failing myocardium in rabbits. Since IL-18BP expression is markedly inhibited, our results indicate a positive amplification in IL-18 pro-inflammatory signaling during pressure overload, and suggest IL-18 as a potential therapeutic target in pathological hypertrophy and cardiac failure.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Fluorescent immunohistochemistry on the cardiac conduction system in whole mount mouse heart preparations demonstrates a particularly dense and complex network of nerve fibres and cardiomyocytes which are positive to the hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 4 (HCN4-positive cardiomyocytes) in the sinoatrial node region and adjacent areas around the root of right cranial vein. The present study was designed to investigate the morphologic and histochemical pattern of nerve fibres and HCN4-positive cardiomyocytes using fluorescent techniques and/or electron microscopy. Adrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibres together with HCN4-positive cardiomyocytes were identified using primary antibodies for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and the HCN4 channel respectively. Amid HCN4-positive cardiomyocytes, fluorescence and electron microscopy data demonstrated a dense distribution of nerve fibres immunoreactive for ChAT and TH. In addition, novel electron microscopy data revealed that the mouse sinoatrial node contained exclusively unmyelinated nerve fibres, in which the majority of axons possess varicosities with clear mediatory vesicles that can be classified as cholinergic. Synapses occurred without any clear terminal connection with the effector cell, i.e."en passant". In general, the morphologic pattern of innervation of mouse HCN4-positive cardiomyocytes identified using electron microscopy corresponds well to the dense network of nerve fibres demonstrated by fluorescent immunohistochemistry in mouse sinoatrial node and adjacent areas. The complex and extraordinarily dense innervation of HCN4-positive cardiomyocytes in mouse sinoatrial node underpins the importance of neural regulation for the cardiac conduction system. Based on the present observations, it is concluded that the occurrence of numerous nerve fibres nearby atrial cardiomyocytes serves as a novel reliable extracellular criterion for discrimination of SA nodal cardiomyocytes using electron microscopy.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Proteoglycans of the arterial wall play a critical role in vascular integrity and the development of atherosclerosis owing to their ability to organize extracellular matrix molecules and to bind and retain atherogenic apolipoprotein (apo)-B containing lipoproteins. Prior studies have suggested a role for biglycan in aneurysms and in atherosclerosis. Angiotensin II (angII) infusions into mice have been shown to induce abdominal aortic aneurysm development, increase vascular biglycan content, increase arterial retention of lipoproteins, and accelerate atherosclerosis.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Adverse remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI) leading to heart failure is driven by an imbalanced resolution of inflammation. The macrophage cell is an important control of post-MI inflammation, as macrophage subtypes secrete mediators to either promote inflammation and extend injury (M1 phenotype) or suppress inflammation and promote scar formation (M2 phenotype). We have previously shown that the absence of caveolin-1 (Cav1), a membrane scaffolding protein, is associated with adverse cardiac remodeling in mice, but the mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. We explore here the role of Cav1 in the activation of macrophages using wild type C57BL6/J (WT) and Cav1tm1Mls/J (Cav1-/-) mice. By echocardiography, cardiac function was comparable between WT and Cav1-/- mice at 3days post-MI. In the absence of Cav1, there were a surprisingly higher percentage of M2 macrophages (arginase-1 positive) detected in the infarcted zone. Conversely, restoring Cav1 function after MI in WT mice by adding back the Cav1 scaffolding domain reduced the M2 activation profile. Further, adoptive transfer of Cav1 null macrophages into WT mice on d3 post-MI exacerbated adverse cardiac remodeling at d14 post-MI. In vitro studies revealed that Cav1 null macrophages had a more pronounced M2 profile activation in response to IL-4 stimulation. In conclusion, Cav1 deletion promotes an array of maladaptive repair processes after MI, including increased TGF-β signaling, increased M2 macrophage infiltration and dysregulation of the M1/M2 balance. Our data also suggest that cardiac remodeling can be improved by therapeutic intervention regulating Cav1 function during the inflammatory response phase.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014;

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