Journal of Medical Microbiology (J MED MICROBIOL )

Publisher: Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Society for General Microbiology

Description

The Journal of Medical Microbiology aims to maintain and enhance its high-quality comprehensive coverage of pathogenic micro-organisms and their diseases from research, clinical, and diagnostic points of view. Each issue contains up-to-the-minute editorials, in-depth review articles, original papers presenting research findings, and brief reports and technical notes.

Impact factor 2.27

  • Hide impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    2.64
  • Cited half-life
    6.60
  • Immediacy index
    0.52
  • Eigenfactor
    0.02
  • Article influence
    0.82
  • Website
    Journal of Medical Microbiology website
  • Other titles
    Journal of medical microbiology (Online)
  • ISSN
    0022-2615
  • OCLC
    37788051
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Society for General Microbiology

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • On institutional repository or open access repository
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Version deposited must replicate that accepted for publication (authors version)
    • Set phrase to accompany archived copy (see policy)
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher last contacted on 29/08/2014
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to describe the microbiological characteristics of acute septic arthritis (SA) and osteomyelitis (OM) in children. Cases of children (0-15 years) with SA/OM were identified through a retrospective search of hospital discharge codes over a six-year period. In addition, a systematic literature search and meta-analysis of studies reporting culture results of children with SA/OM was performed. In our retrospective chart review, we identified 68 cases of OM and 46 cases of SA. The most frequently cultured organisms in both conditions were Gram positive cocci, primarily Staphylococcus aureus. On admission, most patients had a normal WCC but elevated CRP and/or ESR. Bacteraemia was associated with a longer average length of hospitalisation for both infections. Considering our results and the meta-analysis, we found low rates of culture-positivity in cases of clinically confirmed infection. In SA, articular fluid was culture-positive in 42.49% (95% CI 28.39-57.23). In OM, intra-operative samples were culture-positive in 52.65% (95% CI 30.54-74.22,). Bacteraemia was detected in 23.91% (95% CI 8.40-44.24) of children with SA and 21.48% (95% CI 10.89-34.47) with OM. Despite appropriate sampling, a positive microbiological diagnosis is often lacking in paediatric acute osteoarticular infection using standard culture-based methods. This highlights the need for validation and use of more sensitive diagnostic methods, such as PCR.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genetic and environmental factors can affect intestinal microbiome and microbial metabolome. Among these environmental factors, the consumption of antibiotics can significantly change the intestinal microbiome of individuals and consequently affect the corresponding metagenome. The term "probiotics" is related to preventive medicine rather than therapeutic procedures and is thus considered the opposite of antibiotics. This review discusses the challenges between these contradictory terms in terms of the following points: I) antibiotic resistance, relationship between antibiotic consumption and microbiome diversity reduction, antibiotic effect on metagenome lesion, and disease associated with antibiotics; and II) probiotics as living drugs, probiotic effect on epigenetically alterations, and gut microbiome relevance to hygiene indulgence. The intestinal microbiome is more specific for individuals and may be altered by environmental alterations and the occurrence of diseases. Copyright © 2014, the Society for General Microbiology.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Candida dubliniensis is a pathogenic yeast of the genus Candida closely related to Candida albicans. The phenotypic similarity of these two species often leads to misidentification of C. dubliniensis isolates in clinical samples. DNA-based methods continue to be the most effective means of discriminating accurately between the two species. Here we report on the identification of nine unusual Candida isolates that showed ambiguous identification patterns on the basis of their phenotypic and immunological traits. The isolates were categorized into two groups. Group I isolates were unable to produce germ tubes and chlamydospores and to agglutinate commercial latex particles coated with a monoclonal antibody highly specific for C. dubliniensis. Group II isolates grew as pink and white colonies on CHROMagarTM Candida and ChromIDTM Candida respectively. Carbohydrate assimilation profiles obtained with API ID 32C® together with PCR amplification with specific primers and DNA sequencing allowed a reliable identification of the nine unusual clinical isolates as Candida dubliniensis. Copyright © 2014, the Society for General Microbiology.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: TcdA and tcdB have been detected by PCR to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of Clostridium difficile. PCR-based detection has also been applied to diagnose C. difficile infection. However, published primers have been partially evaluated. In this study, 50 primer sets were scanned in 180 tcdA/B sequences and 75 no match events were identified. These results indicated that new detection targets are necessary. Copyright © 2014, the Society for General Microbiology.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Metals such as mercury, arsenic, copper and silver have been used in various forms as antimicrobials for thousands of years, with until recently, little understanding of their mode of action. The discovery of antibiotics and new organic antimicrobial compounds during the twentieth century saw a general decline in the clinical use of antimicrobial metal compounds, with the exception of the rediscovery of the use of silver for burns treatments, and niche uses for other metal compounds. Antibiotics and new antimicrobials were regarded as being safer to the patient and more effective than the metal-based compounds they supplanted. Bacterial metal ion resistances were first discovered in the second half of the twentieth century. The detailed mechanisms of resistance have now been characterized in a wide range of bacteria. As the use of antimicrobial metals is limited, it is legitimate to ask: are antimicrobial metal resistances in pathogenic and commensal bacteria important now? This review will detail the new, rediscovered and 'never went away' uses of antimicrobial metals; will examine the prevalence and linkage of antimicrobial metal resistance genes to other antimicrobial resistance genes; and will examine the evidence of horizontal transfer of these genes between bacteria. Finally, it will discuss the possible implications of the widespread dissemination of these resistances on re-emergent uses of antimicrobial metals and how this could impact upon the antibiotic resistance problem. Copyright © 2014, the Society for General Microbiology.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several fungal diseases have become serious threats to human health and life, especially upon the advent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS epidemics and of other typical immunosuppressive conditions of modern life. Accordingly, the burden posed by these diseases and, concurrently, by intensive therapeutic regimens against these diseases has increased worldwide. When existing and available, rapid tests for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis of important fungal diseases enable surpassing the limitations of current laboratory methods for detection and identification of medically-important fungi, both in low-income countries and for first-line diagnosis (screening) in richer countries. As with conventional diagnostic methods and devices, former immunodiagnostics have been challenged by molecular biology-based platforms, as a way to enhance the sensitivity and shorten the assay time, thus enabling early and more accurate diagnosis. Most of these tests have been developed in-house, without adequate validation and standardization. Another challenge has been the DNA extraction step, which is especially critical when dealing with fungi. In this paper, we have identified three major research trends in this field: the application of newer biorrecognition techniques, often applied in analytical chemistry; the development of new materials with improved physicochemical properties; and novel bioanalytical platforms, allowing fully automated testing. Keeping up-to-date with the fast technological advances registered in this field, primarily at the proof-of-concept level, is essential for wise assessment of those that, more likely, will be more cost-effective and, as already observed for bacterial and viral pathogens, may leverage the current tepid developmental status of novel and improved diagnostics for medical mycology. Copyright © 2014, the Society for General Microbiology.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Summary Tinea unguium, known as onychomycosis, is a dermatophyte infection of nails with worldwide distribution. Conventional methods for detecting fungi in nail specimens are either nonspecific (microscopy) or insensitive (culture). PCR has been used to improve sensitivity in detecting the causative fungi in nail specimens from patients with suspected onychomycosis. Results of a commercial multiplex PCR for the detection of dermatophytes, especially Trichophyton rubrum (the main dermatophyte implicated), as compared to conventional methods are presented. A total of 418 nail scrapings obtained from dermatologic outpatients were handled in our laboratory between May 2010 and May 2013. Among them, multiplex PCR detected 126 (30.1 %), whereas, culture revealed 44 (10.5 %) dematophyte-positive samples. Direct microscopy revealed 63 (15.1 %) positive specimens. T. rubrum was identified in 116 out of 126 (92 %) positive PCR samples and 40 out of 44 (91 %) dermatophyte-positive cultures. Implementation of PCR increased species-specific detection of dermatophytes by 21.1 % leading to a three-fold increase as compared to culture alone. Multiplex PCR offers a time-saving diagnostic tool for tinea unguium and augments laboratory assist to clinical evaluation for proper treatment. Copyright © 2014, the Society for General Microbiology.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acquired superficial fungal infections are among the most common infections. It is necessary to create new effective and non-toxic disinfectants. AKWATON is a new disinfectant of the polymeric guanidine family. Its fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and its in-vitro toxicity assessment were performed in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC); the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and the time required for its fungicidal activity at the MFC, were evaluated using the official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), with modifications as recommended by the Canadian General Standards board. The toxic effects of AKWATON and of four commercial disinfectants were evaluated on rat pancreatic (C2C12) and muscle (RnM5F) cells, using the TB (Trypan blue) and MTT (3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) methods. The MIC, the MFC and the time required for the fungicidal activity of AKWATON at the MFC were 0.025% (w/v); 0.045% (w/v) and 2.5 min respectively. Cell-cultures and the different tests done, showed that the AKWATON-based disinfectant killed fewer cells than the commercial disinfectants, sparing 80% of C2C12 cells and 65% of RnM5F cells while some well-known disinfectants currently on market killed 85 to 100% of cells. This study demonstrated that AKWATON has great potential as an odorless, colorless, non-corrosive and safe disinfectant for hospital, agriculture industry, farming and household facilities. Copyright © 2014, the Society for General Microbiology.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidium, a worldwide protozoan parasite, is one of the most common causes of diarrhea for humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to determine Cryptosporidium species in pre-weaned calves in Shaanxi Province using PCR and sequencing based on small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. A total of 258 fecal samples were collected from pre-weaned calves in 19 different farms of six areas in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China. Cryptosporidium infection was detected in 14 of 19 farms (73.7%), with the total prevalence of 20.2% (52/258). Both dairy and Qinchuan (beef) cattle were found with Cryptosporidium infection. Three Cryptosporidium species, namely C. bovis (n = 26), C. andersoni (n = 14) and C. ryanae (n = 12), were detected in pre-weaned calves in Shaanxi province, with C. bovis (in 12 of farms) as the most common species in cattle farms. Two additional previously unknown C. ryanae genotypes CRType III and IV were observed in the present study. However, the zoonotic species, C. parvum, was not detected in this study, which suggested a low zoonotic potential in Cryptosporidium infected pre-weaned calves in this province.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our previous study demonstrated that SEB administration during pregnancy could alter the percentage of T cells subpopulation in the thymus of the neonatal rats, however, it is little known about the effect of maternal SEB administration during pregnancy on T cells subpopulation in the peripheral blood of the offspring rats. In the present study, pregnant rats at gestational day (GD) 16 were intravenously injected with 15 μg SEB. The present study revealed that the prenatal exposure of SEB significantly decreased the percentages of CD8 T cells in the peripheral blood of both the neonatal rats in the fifth day after delivery and the adult offspring rats, and significantly increased the percentage of CD4 T cells as well as the ratios of CD4 to CD8 T cells in both the neonatal and adult offspring rats. The prenatal exposure of SEB significantly decreased the expression levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the plasma of the neonatal and adult offspring rats. Furthermore, SEB restimulation significantly increased the percentage of CD8 T cells and significantly decreased the percentage of CD4 T cells. These data suggested the prenatal exposure of SEB was able to imprint the increased CD4:CD8 T cell ratio in the peripheral blood from the neonate to adulthood through the decreased CD8 T cells and the increased CD4 T cells, and altered the response characteristics of CD4 and CD8 T cells to secondary SEB administration in the peripheral blood of the adult offspring rats.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori infection is a major risk factor for chronic gastritis, digestive ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma. Due to the decreasing efficacy of anti-Helicobacter pylori antibiotic therapy in clinical practice, there is renewed interest in the development of anti-Helicobacter pylori vaccines. Bacillus subtilis is nonpathogenic and can produce endospores, which can survive under extreme conditions. These features make the Bacillus subtilis spore an ideal vehicle for delivery of heterologous antigens to extreme environments such as the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we displayed Helicobacter pylori urease B protein on the Bacillus subtilis spore coat using spore coat protein CotC as a fusion partner. Western blotting analyses were used to verify urease B surface expression on spores. Recombinant spores displaying the urease B antigen were used for oral immunization and were shown to generate humoral response in mice. Urease B-specific secretory IgA in feces and IgG in serum reached significant levels 2 weeks after oral dosing. In addition, oral immunization of recombinant urease B spores induced a significant reduction (84%) in the stomach bacterial load (0.25±0.13 x 106CFU) compared to that in non-recombinant spores treated group (1.56±0.3 x 106CFU, P < 0.01). This report shows that urease B expressed on Bacillus subtilis spores was immunogenic and oral administration of urease B spores can provide protection against Helicobacter pylori infection.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 10/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is an increasing concern about Candida glabrata (C. glabrata) due to its high isolation frequency in candidiasis recently and notorious drug resistance to fluconazole. Drug combination is one effective approach to counteract drug resistance. This study aimed to test whether combination of fluconazole and tacrolimus has a synergistic effect on C. glabrata, and to seek the potential mechanisms underlying the synergistic effects. In vitro effects of fluconazole and tacrolimus against C. glabrata with different susceptibilities were investigated by checkerboard method and time-killing curve method. The mechanistic studies against the resistant C. glabrata were performed from the two aspects: quantification of expression levels of fluconazole resistance genes (ERG11, CDR1, PDH1 and SNQ2) by real-time quantitative PCR and functional assays of drug efflux pumps. Addition of tacrolimus resulted in a decrease in the MIC of fluconazole from 32 to 8 μg ml-1 against the dose-dependent susceptible C. glabrata, and from 256 to 16 μg ml-1 against the resistant C. glabrata, respectively. The synergy was further confirmed by the time-kill assay. The expression levels of ERG11 and SNQ2 genes were significantly down-regulated after exposure to the drug combination, whereas that of CDR1 gene was significantly up-regulated and no significant change in expression of PDH1 gene was observed. Flow cytometric assays manifested that tacrolimus reduced the efflux of fluconazole. Tacrolimus enhanced the susceptibility of fluconazole against resistant C. glabrata by reducing expression levels of ERG11 and SNQ2 genes and inhibiting fluconazole efflux.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 10/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted as part of the Argentinean Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses Surveillance Network, in the context of the Global Influenza Surveillance carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO). The objective was to study the activity and the antigenic and genomic characteristics of circulating viruses for three consecutive seasons (2010, 2011 and 2012) in order to investigate the emergence of influenza viral variants. During the study period, influenza virus circulation was detected from January to December. Influenza A and B, and all current subtypes of human influenza viruses were present each year. Throughout the 2010 post-pandemic season, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, unexpectedly, almost disappeared. The haemagglutinin (HA) of the A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses studied were segregated in a different genetic group regarding those identified during the 2009 pandemic, although they were still antigenically closely related to the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009. Influenza A(H3N2) viruses were the predominant strains circulating during the 2011 season, accounting for nearly 76% of influenza viruses identified. That year, all HA sequences of the A(H3N2) viruses tested fell into the A/Victoria/208/2009 genetic clade, but remained antigenically related to A/Perth/16/2009 (reference vaccine recommended for this three-year period). A(H3N2) viruses isolated in 2012 were antigenically closely related to A/Victoria/361/2011, recommended by WHO as the H3 component for the 2013 Southern Hemisphere formulation. B viruses belonging to B/Victoria lineage circulated in 2010. A mixed circulation of viral variants of both B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages was detected in 2012, with the former being the most predominant. A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses remained antigenically closely related to the vaccine virus A/California/7/2009; A(H3N2) viruses continually evolved into new antigenic clusters and both B lineages, B/Victoria/2/87-like and B/Yamagata/16/88-like viruses were observed during the study period. The virological surveillance showed that the majority of the circulating strains during the study period were antigenically related to the corresponding Southern Hemisphere vaccine strains except for the 2012 A(H3N2) viruses.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 10/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The fennel seeds essential oil (FSEO) is a kind of plant-derived natural therapeutics against dermatophytes. In this study, the antifungal effects of the FESO were investigated from varied aspects, such as the MIC and MFC, mycelia growth, spores germination and biomass. The results indicated that the FSEO had potent antifungal activities on T. rubrum ATCC4005, T. tonsurans 10-0400, M. gypseum 44693-1 and T. mentagrophytes 10-0060, which is better than the commonly used antifungal agents fluconazole (FCZ) and Amphotericin B (AmB). Flow cytometry and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments suggested that the antifungal mechanism of the FSEO was to damage the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles. Further study revealed that it could also inhibit the mitochondrial enzymes activities, such as succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and ATPase. With better antifungal activity than the commonly used antifungal agents and less possibility to induce drug resistance, the FSEO could be used as a potential antidermatophytic agent.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 10/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intra-familial infection is considered to be one of the main routes of transmission for Helicobacter pylori in Japan. We assessed the genomic profiles of H. pylori isolates from family members by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and identified the original strain infecting the index child. A total of 19 isolates from 5 families were analyzed by MLST using 7 housekeeping genes and by random amplification of polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). The phylogenetic analysis was performed using nucleotide sequences of the 7 loci. Two or more different types of H. pylori strains were indicated in 3 (K-1, K-2 and K-5) out of 5 families. Independent genotypes of H. pylori strains were detected from all members of the other two families suggesting that these strains (K26-28 and K29-33) may be dominant. Mother to child transmission of H. pylori was demonstrated in 4 out of 5 families, whilst transmission from father to child and sibling to sibling were demonstrated in 2 families and 1 family, respectively.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 10/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is a need for new compounds to effectively treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). 1-(3,4-Dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide gluconate (OPB-2045G) is a novel monobiguanide compound with potential bactericidal activity. We sought to elucidate the potency of OPB-2045G bactericidal activity against MRSA and VRE compared to those of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) and povidone iodine (PVP-I). In vitro bactericidal activity was analyzed using minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) as the index. The in vivo bactericidal efficacy of OPB-2045G was examined by determining MRSA and VRE contamination of the normal dorsal skin of mice following removal of hair. After a 3-min treatment period, the MBC of OPB-2045G was lower than that of CHG and PVP-I against standard strains and clinical isolates. Additionally, in our in vivo mouse model, the in vivo bactericidal activity of 1.5% OPB-2045G (a clinically relevant dose) was higher than that of 0.5% CHG and equivalent to that of 10% PVP-I against MRSA. Similarly, the in vivo bactericidal activity of OPB-2045G was higher than those of 0.5% CHG and 10% PVP-I against VRE. OPB-2045G showed more potent bactericidal activity against MRSA and VRE both in vitro and in vivo as compared to CHG and PVP-I, indicating that OPB-2045G may provide better protection against health care-associated infections caused by these pathogens.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 10/2014;