Journal of learning disabilities (J LEARN DISABIL-US )

Publisher: Donald D. Hammill Foundation


Journal of Learning Disabilities provides specials series (in-depth coverage of topics in the field, such as mathematics, sciences and the learning disabilities field as discursive practice), feature articles (extensive literature reviews, theoretical papers, and position papers), research articles (reports of qualitative and quantitative empirical research), and intervention articles (overviews of successful interventions).

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  • 5-year impact
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  • Website
    Journal of Learning Disabilities website
  • Other titles
    Journal of learning disabilities (Austin, Tex.), Journal of learning disabilities
  • ISSN
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  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading comprehension effect sizes among the 10 constructs. The results indicated that six of the component skills exhibited strong relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .50): morphological awareness, language comprehension, fluency, oral vocabulary knowledge, real word decoding, and working memory. Three of the component skills yielded moderate relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .30 and < .50): pseudoword decoding, orthographic knowledge, and phonological awareness. Rapid automatized naming (RAN) was the only component skill that was weakly related to reading comprehension (r = .15). Morphological awareness was a significantly stronger correlate of reading comprehension than phonological awareness and RAN. This study provides the first attempt at a systematic synthesis of the recent research investigating the reading skills of adults with low literacy skills, a historically understudied population. Directions for future research, the relation of our results to the children's literature, and the implications for researchers and adult basic education programs are discussed.
    Journal of learning disabilities 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were tested. In all, 15 children with NLD, 15 with RD, and 15 with TD were administered self-report questionnaires to assess different types of anxiety and depression symptoms. Both NLD and RD children reported experiencing more generalized and social anxiety than TD, the NLD children reported more severe anxiety about school and separation than TD, and the children with RD had worse depressive symptoms than those with NLD or TD.
    Journal of learning disabilities 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Two reasons may be responsible for the poor grasp of the linguistic concepts related to literacy acquisition by preservice and in-service teachers: a lack of attention given to such concepts by teacher educators (college faculty members) and a lack of relevant information provided in the textbooks used in college courses. In an earlier study, the authors found that many teacher educators involved in the training of preservice and in-service teachers were not well acquainted with these concepts. In this study, the authors examined the extent to which textbooks used in reading education courses contain the information about the five components of literacy instruction (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension) recommended by the National Reading Panel. Such scrutiny shows that many textbooks do not adequately cover these five components and the related instructional procedures for teaching them. In addition to the paucity of information about teaching the five components, some textbooks present inaccurate information.
    Journal of learning disabilities 07/2009; 42(5):458-63.
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the learning of teacher candidates taking a language arts course in a special-educator preparation program and that of the second graders they tutored in a supervised field component of the course. Teacher candidates' knowledge of literacy instruction was assessed using five knowledge tasks; children were assessed on several measures of basic reading and spelling skills as well as on their knowledge of phonics concepts such as syllable types. Teacher candidates generally had inaccurate perceptions of their knowledge at pretest, but their knowledge improved significantly on all tasks after course instruction. Tutored children improved significantly from pre- to posttest on all assessments. The study suggests that carefully designed literacy coursework with field experiences can benefit both prospective special educators and struggling readers.
    Journal of learning disabilities 07/2009; 42(5):431-43.
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    ABSTRACT: A primary hypothesized outcome of consultee-centered consultation, including instructional consultation (IC), is that consultees will become more skilled. However, these claims have not been well researched. Data from 274 teachers implementing IC were analyzed to investigate perceptions of satisfaction and skill development. Results indicated that teachers were highly satisfied, perceived outcomes to meet or exceed their expectations, and felt confident about handling similar problems in the future. The majority reported learning one or more skills or strategies from participating and indicated generalization of skills learned from IC to other students. Relationships between satisfaction, generalization, and perceived outcomes are also presented. Although based on descriptive methodology, this analysis of teachers' perceptions of IC provides a window into their experiences.
    Journal of learning disabilities 07/2009; 42(5):444-57.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the extent to which knowledge of evidence-based reading instruction and mathematics is assessed on licensure tests for prospective special education teachers, this study drew on information provided by Educational Testing Service (ETS), the American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence, and National Evaluation Systems (now Evaluation Systems group of Pearson). It estimated the percentage of test items on phonemic awareness, phonics, and vocabulary knowledge and on mathematics content. It also analyzed descriptions of ETS's tests of "principles of teaching and learning." Findings imply that prospective special education teachers should be required to take both a dedicated test of evidence-based reading instructional knowledge, as in California, Massachusetts, and Virginia, and a test of mathematical knowledge, as in Massachusetts. States must design their own tests of teaching principles to assess knowledge of evidence-based educational theories.
    Journal of learning disabilities 07/2009; 42(5):464-74.
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    ABSTRACT: Several national reports have suggested the usefulness of systematic, explicit, synthetic phonics instruction based on English word structure along with wide reading of quality literature for supporting development in early reading instruction. Other studies have indicated, however, that many in-service teachers are not knowledgeable in the basic concepts of the English language. They may be well versed in children's literature but not know how to address the basic building blocks of language and reading. The authors hypothesized that one of the reasons for this situation is that many instructors responsible for training future elementary teachers are not familiar with the concepts of the linguistic features of English language. This hypothesis was tested by administering a survey of language concepts to 78 instructors. The results showed that even though teacher educators were familiar with syllabic knowledge, they performed poorly on concepts relating to morphemes and phonemes. In a second study, 40 instructors were interviewed about best practices in teaching components and subskills of reading. Eighty percent of instructors defined phonological awareness as letter-sound correspondence. They also did not mention synthetic phonics as a desirable method to use for beginning reading instruction, particularly for students at risk for reading difficulties. In conclusion, providing professional development experiences related to language concepts to instructors could provide them the necessary knowledge of language concepts related to early literacy instruction, which they could then integrate into their preservice reading courses.
    Journal of learning disabilities 07/2009; 42(5):392-402.
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the effectiveness of an assessment and intervention study targeting prekindergarten children at risk for reading failure. Across 38 child care sites, 220 children were identified as "at risk" for reading failure due to their performance on a screening measure of early literacy skills and randomly assigned to receive immediate or delayed intervention. The intervention consisted of eighteen 30-minute lessons delivered twice weekly for 9 weeks and focused on teaching critical emergent literacy skills within small groups. Hierarchical linear models were used to nest children within center and measure treatment and dosage effects for students' residualized gains in rhyming, alliteration, picture naming, and print and letter knowledge skills. Results indicated significant treatment effects on two of four outcome variables (rhyming and alliteration) and significant dosage effects on all four variables. The study demonstrated a significant positive impact of this intervention for prekindergartners at risk for reading failure.
    Journal of learning disabilities 05/2009; 42(4):336-55.
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    ABSTRACT: Despite reports of academic difficulties in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about the relationship between performance on tests of academic achievement and measures of attention. The current study assessed intellectual ability, parent-reported inattention, academic achievement, and attention in 45 children (ages 7-15) diagnosed with ADHD. Hierarchical regressions were performed with selective, sustained, and attentional control/switching domains of the Test of Everyday Attention for Children as predictor variables and with performance on the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition as dependent variables. It was hypothesized that sustained attention and attentional control/switching would predict performance on achievement tests. Results demonstrate that attentional control/ switching accounted for a significant amount of variance in all academic areas (reading, math, and spelling), even after accounting for verbal IQ and parent-reported inattention. Sustained attention predicted variance only in math, whereas selective attention did not account for variance in any achievement domain. Therefore, attentional control/switching, which involves components of executive functions, plays an important role in academic performance.
    Journal of learning disabilities 04/2009; 42(3):240-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The investigators used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) to estimate whether and to what extent the timing and persistence of mathematics difficulties (MD) in kindergarten predicted children's first through fifth grade math growth trajectories. Results indicated that children persistently displaying MD (i.e., those experiencing MD in both fall and spring of kindergarten) had the lowest subsequent growth rates, children with MD in spring only had the second-lowest growth rates, and children with MD in the fall only (and who had thus recovered from their MD by the spring of kindergarten) had the next-lowest growth rates. The children who did not have MD in either fall or spring of kindergarten had the highest growth rates. These results were observed prior to and after statistical control for additional variables. They indicate that measuring the timing and persistence of kindergarten children's mathematics learning difficulties may help identify those most at risk for failing to become mathematically proficient during elementary school.
    Journal of learning disabilities 04/2009; 42(4):306-21.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to synthesize research that compares children with and without reading disabilities (RD) on measures of short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM). Across a broad age, reading, and IQ range, 578 effect sizes (ESs) were computed, yielding a mean ES across studies of -.89 (SD = 1.03). A total of 257 ESs were in the moderate range for STM measures (M = -.61, 95% confidence range of -.65 to -.58), and 320 ESs were in the moderate range for WM measures (M = -.67, 95% confidence range of -.68 to -.64). The results indicated that children with RD were distinctively disadvantaged compared with average readers on (a) STM measures requiring the recall of phonemes and digit sequences and (b) WM measures requiring the simultaneous processing and storage of digits within sentence sequences and final words from unrelated sentences. No significant moderating effects emerged for age, IQ, or reading level on memory ESs. The findings indicated that domain-specific STM and WM differences between ability groups persisted across age, suggesting that a verbal deficit model that fails to efficiently draw resources from both a phonological and executive system underlies RD.
    Journal of learning disabilities 04/2009; 42(3):260-87.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effects of using an assistive software homophone tool on the assisted proofreading performance and unassisted basic skills of secondary-level students with reading difficulties. Students aged 13 to 15 years proofread passages for homophonic errors under three conditions: with the homophone tool, with homophones highlighted only, or with no help. The group using the homophone tool significantly outperformed the other two groups on assisted proofreading and outperformed the others on unassisted spelling, although not significantly. Remedial (unassisted) improvements in automaticity of word recognition, homophone proofreading, and basic reading were found over all groups. Results elucidate the differential contributions of each function of the homophone tool and suggest that with the proper training, assistive software can help not only students with diagnosed disabilities but also those with generally weak reading skills.
    Journal of learning disabilities 04/2009; 42(4):322-35.
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    ABSTRACT: This study used confirmatory factor analysis to compare one-, two-, and three-factor models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms to determine which model is the best fit for the data. Participants were 190 clinic-referred college students who had been evaluated for ADHD, 155 of whom had received a diagnosis. Data consisted of both self- and other (e.g., parent) ratings of both current and childhood symptoms. Symptoms came directly from the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. A three-factor model, consistent with the DSM-III, was superior for current and childhood symptoms, regardless of rater (i.e., self or parent). The primary implication for these findings is that there may be a viable Impulsive subtype of ADHD within the adult population. Further research might include a closer examination of the unique functional limitations associated with impulsivity, as well as the development of diagnostic items that maximize model fit.
    Journal of learning disabilities 03/2009; 42(3):250-9.
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    ABSTRACT: There exists a substantial number of studies that have identified a subset of low-achieving mathematics students who do not develop a reliance on retrieval for simple addition but who continue to use a counting strategy to solve these problems. There are few studies, however, that have focused on how retrieval of simple addition facts may be improved. This study employed a combined methodological approach to examine the effect extended practice had on increasing a reliance on retrieval for simple addition. An intervention aimed at improving the efficiency of extended practice was also piloted. Although most students improved with extended practice, the extent of improvement was not practical for all students and the intervention did not generally improve the effectiveness of extended practice. The findings emphasize the critical importance of continuing such research and draw attention to the complexities involved in addressing retrieval difficulties for simple addition.
    Journal of learning disabilities 03/2009; 42(3):215-29.