Journal of learning disabilities (J LEARN DISABIL-US )

Publisher: Donald D. Hammill Foundation

Description

Journal of Learning Disabilities provides specials series (in-depth coverage of topics in the field, such as mathematics, sciences and the learning disabilities field as discursive practice), feature articles (extensive literature reviews, theoretical papers, and position papers), research articles (reports of qualitative and quantitative empirical research), and intervention articles (overviews of successful interventions).

Impact factor 1.77

  • 5-year impact
    2.52
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.19
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.93
  • Website
    Journal of Learning Disabilities website
  • Other titles
    Journal of learning disabilities (Austin, Tex.), Journal of learning disabilities
  • ISSN
    0022-2194
  • OCLC
    1604299
  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review investigates effective interventions for teaching algebra to students with learning disabilities and evaluates the complexity and alignment of skills with the Common Core State Standards in math. The review includes the results of 10 experimental and 5 single-subject designs (N = 15) producing a moderate overall effect size (g = 0.48). A total of five interventions were identified and analyzed across the studies using effect size data. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.
    Journal of learning disabilities 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The concept of Matthew effects in reading development refers to a longitudinally widening gap between high achievers and low achievers. Various statistical approaches have been proposed to examine this idea. However, little attention has been paid to psychometric issues of scaling. Specifically, interval-level data are required to compare performance differences across performance ranges, but only ordinal-level data are available with current literacy measures. To demonstrate the interpretability problems of contrasting growth slopes, we use data from a longitudinal study of literacy development. We explore the possibility of comparing across ages, matched for performance, and we examine the consequences of nonlinear growth, temporal lag estimates, and individual differences in developmental progression. We conclude that, although conceptually appealing, the widening gap prediction is not empirically testable. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.
    Journal of learning disabilities 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A sample of 446 students (63 with dyslexia) completed a large test battery and a large questionnaire. Five factors were found in both the test battery and the questionnaire. These 10 factors loaded on 5 latent factors (spelling, phonology, short-term memory, rhyme/confusion, and whole-word processing/complexity), which explained 60% of total variance. Three analyses supported the validity of these factors. A confirmatory factor analysis fit with a solution of five factors (RMSEA = .03). Those with dyslexia differed from those without dyslexia on all factors. A combination of five factors provided reliable predictions of dyslexia and nondyslexia (accuracy >90%). We also looked for factorial deficits on an individual level to construct subtypes of dyslexia, but found varying profiles. We concluded that a multiple cognitive deficit model of dyslexia is supported, whereas the existence of subtypes remains unclear. We discussed the results in relation to advanced compensation strategies of students, measures of intelligence, and various correlations within groups of those with and without dyslexia.
    Journal of learning disabilities 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Clinicians uniformly recommend accommodations for college students with learning disabilities; however, we know very little about which accommodations they select and the validity of their recommendations. We examined the assessment documentation of a large sample of community college students receiving academic accommodations for learning disabilities to determine (a) which accommodations their clinicians recommended and (b) whether clinicians' recommendations were supported by objective data gathered during the assessment process. In addition to test and instructional accommodations, many clinicians recommended that students with learning disabilities should have different educational expectations, standards, and methods of evaluation (i.e., grading) than their nondisabled classmates. Many of their recommendations for accommodations were not supported by objective evidence from students' history, diagnosis, test data, and current functioning. Furthermore, clinicians often recommended accommodations that were not specific to the student's diagnosis or area of disability. Our findings highlight the need for individually selected accommodations matched to students' needs and academic contexts.
    Journal of learning disabilities 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Previous literature has indicated an important association between reading comprehension and both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and homework habits. This investigation sought to extend previous knowledge by providing information about how ADHD and homework behavior (i.e., completing homework regularly) may jointly influence reading comprehension. Using a genetically sensitive design, this study examined the genetic and environmental influences on and between ADHD, homework behavior and reading comprehension. Participants for this study included 691 twin pairs (351 monozygotic, 340 same-sex dizygotic) from the Florida Twin Project on Behavior and Environment (FTP-BE) and 2647 twin pairs (865 monozygotic, 1782 dizygotic) from the larger Florida Twin Project on Reading (FTP-R) in Grades 3 through 7. Three separate models, each representing a different definition of ADHD (full ADHD, inattention only, and hyperactivity/impulsivity only), showed similar patterns of results; therefore, results of the full ADHD model are discussed. Overlapping genetic influences were found between ADHD, homework behavior, and reading comprehension, but no shared environmental influences among all three. However, shared environmental influences overlapped between homework behavior and reading comprehension. Although the sources of this environmental overlap are unknown, these results have implications for improving homework practices and their subsequent influence on literacy skills through homework environments.
    Journal of learning disabilities 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension difficulties in third grade. A total of 366 children were administered a battery of screening measures at the beginning of kindergarten and progress monitoring probes across the school year. A subset of children also received a 26-week Tier 2 language intervention. Participants' achievement in word reading was assessed at the end of second grade, and their performance in reading comprehension was measured as the end of third grade. Results showed that measures of language ability in kindergarten significantly added to the prediction of reading comprehension difficulties over and above kindergarten word reading predictors and direct measures of word reading in second grade. Response to language intervention also proved to be a unique predictor of reading comprehension outcomes. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for the early identification of reading disabilities.
    Journal of learning disabilities 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading comprehension effect sizes among the 10 constructs. The results indicated that six of the component skills exhibited strong relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .50): morphological awareness, language comprehension, fluency, oral vocabulary knowledge, real word decoding, and working memory. Three of the component skills yielded moderate relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .30 and < .50): pseudoword decoding, orthographic knowledge, and phonological awareness. Rapid automatized naming (RAN) was the only component skill that was weakly related to reading comprehension (r = .15). Morphological awareness was a significantly stronger correlate of reading comprehension than phonological awareness and RAN. This study provides the first attempt at a systematic synthesis of the recent research investigating the reading skills of adults with low literacy skills, a historically understudied population. Directions for future research, the relation of our results to the children's literature, and the implications for researchers and adult basic education programs are discussed.
    Journal of learning disabilities 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the effect of schema-based instruction (SBI) on the proportional problem-solving performance of students with mathematics difficulties only (MD) and students with mathematics and reading difficulties (MDRD). Specifically, we examined the responsiveness of 260 seventh grade students identified as MD or MDRD to a 6-week treatment (SBI) on measures of proportional problem solving. Results indicated that students in the SBI condition significantly outperformed students in the control condition on a measure of proportional problem solving administered at posttest (g = 0.40) and again 6 weeks later (g = 0.42). The interaction between treatment group and students' difficulty status was not significant, which indicates that SBI was equally effective for both students with MD and those with MDRD. Further analyses revealed that SBI was particularly effective at improving students' performance on items related to percentages. Finally, students with MD significantly outperformed students with MDRD on all measures of proportional problem solving. These findings suggest that interventions designed to include effective instructional features (e.g., SBI) promote student understanding of mathematical ideas.
    Journal of learning disabilities 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to identify and characterize surface and phonological subgroups of readers among college students with a prior diagnosis of developmental reading disability (RD). Using a speeded naming task derived from Castles and Coltheart's subtyping study, we identified subgroups of readers from among college students with RD and then compared them on a number of component reading tasks. Most of our adults with RD showed a discrepancy in lexical versus sublexical reading skills. The majority of classified individuals were in the phonological dyslexia group, and this group's performance was worse than that of other groups on a range of reading-related tasks. Specifically, being relatively less skilled at reading nonwords compared to irregular words was associated with deficits in both sublexical and lexical tasks, and with unique deficits compared to the surface dyslexia group not only in an independent measure of phonological coding but also in spelling, rapid automatized naming, and speeded oral reading. The surface dyslexia group was small, and the pattern of results for these readers was not consistent with the predicted profile of a specific deficit in lexical and automatized reading processes. Our surface group did not show reduced skill in lexical mechanisms specifically, nor any unique deficit compared to the phonological group. These results seem more supportive of models of reading that place phonological processing impairments at the core of RD, with all other impairments being clearly subsidiary.
    Journal of learning disabilities 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Spelling is a prerequisite to expressing vocabulary in writing. Research has shown that children with dyslexia are hesitant spellers when composing. This study aimed to determine whether the hesitant spelling of children with dyslexia, evidenced by frequent pausing, affects vocabulary choices when writing. A total of 31 children with dyslexia, mean age 9 years, were compared to typically developing groups of children: the first matched by age, the second by spelling ability. Oral vocabulary was measured and children completed a written and verbal compositional task. Lexical diversity comparisons were made across written and verbal compositions to highlight the constraint of having to select and spell words. A digital writing tablet recorded the writing. Children with dyslexia and the spelling-ability group made a high proportion of spelling errors and within-word pauses, and had a lower lexical diversity within their written compositions compared to their verbal compositions. The age-matched peers demonstrated the opposite pattern. Spelling ability and pausing predicted 53% of the variance in written lexical diversity of children with dyslexia, demonstrating the link between spelling and vocabulary when writing. Oral language skills had no effect. Lexical diversity correlated with written and verbal text quality for all groups. Practical implications are discussed and related to writing models.
    Journal of learning disabilities 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Rapidly changing environments in day-to-day activities, enriched with stimuli competing for attention, require a cognitive control mechanism to select relevant stimuli, ignore irrelevant stimuli, and shift attention between alternative features of the environment. Such attentional orchestration is essential to the acquisition of reading skills. In the present forced attention dichotic listening study, adults with moderate and severe dyslexia and nondisabled adults were tested on their ability to switch attention between ears for immediate recall. Blocks of pairs of consonant-vowel syllables were counterbalanced into left-ear first or right-ear first ordered conditions. Significant order effects showed that only those with severe dyslexia were poorer in switching attention to the left ear, whereas both groups with dyslexia were poorer switching attention to the right ear. Shifting left appears to be a normative function of reading level, whereas inferior ability to disengage attending to the left ear to report from the right ear qualifies as a dysfunctional facet of dyslexia with etiological significance. No support was found for the traditional proposition that dyslexia may be associated with atypical left hemisphere lateralization. Combining these results with previous dichotic and neuroimaging research implicates a dysfunctional frontostriatal cognitive control network in dyslexia. With due caution, the results suggest that a neurobiological feature of dyslexia may be a lack of control in downwardly modulating excessive left inferior frontal cortex activations. The results are consistent with impoverished connectedness between left anterior and posterior language areas and, pending future confirmation of these findings, suggest the need for a reconceptualization of remedial programming.
    Journal of learning disabilities 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, Tunmer and Chapman provided an alternative model of how decoding and listening comprehension affect reading comprehension that challenges the simple view of reading. They questioned the simple view's fundamental assumption that oral language comprehension and decoding make independent contributions to reading comprehension by arguing that one component of oral language comprehension (vocabulary) affects decoding. They reported results from hierarchical regression analyses, exploratory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling to justify their conclusion. Their structural equation modeling results provided the strongest and most direct test of their alternative view. However, they incorrectly specified their simple view model. When correctly specified, the simple view of reading model and an alternative model in which listening comprehension affects decoding provide identically good fits to the data. This results from the fact that they are equivalent models. Although Tunmer and Chapman's results do not support their assertion that a model in which oral language comprehension affects decoding provides a better fit to their data, the presence of equivalent models provides an ironic twist: The mountain of evidence that supports the simple view of reading provides equivalent support to their alternative interpretation. Additional studies are needed to differentiate these two theoretical accounts.
    Journal of learning disabilities 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a systematic, explicit, intensive Tier 3 (tertiary) intervention on the mathematics performance of students in second grade with severe mathematics difficulties. A multiple-baseline design across groups of participants showed improved mathematics performance on number and operations concepts and procedures, which are the foundation for later mathematics success. In the previous year, 12 participants had experienced two doses (first and second semesters) of a Tier 2 intervention. In second grade, the participants continued to demonstrate low performance, falling below the 10th percentile on a researcher-designed universal screener and below the 16th percentile on a distal measure, thus qualifying for the intensive intervention. A project interventionist, who met with the students 5 days a week for 10 weeks (9 weeks for one group), conducted the intensive intervention. The intervention employed more intensive instructional design features than the previous Tier 2 secondary instruction, and also included weekly games to reinforce concepts and skills from the lessons. Spring results showed significantly improved mathematics performance (scoring at or above the 25th percentile) for most of the students, thus making them eligible to exit the Tier 3 intervention.
    Journal of learning disabilities 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The structural validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis for a clinical sample of 1,537 students diagnosed with specific learning disabilities (SLD) by school psychologists in two large southwestern school districts. Results indicated that a bifactor model consisting of four first-order domain specific factors and a general intelligence breadth factor fit the data best. Consequently, the structural validity of the WISC-IV for students with SLD was supported by the results of the present study. The general intelligence factor contributed the most information, accounting for 48% of the common variance. Given this structure, it was recommended that score interpretation should emphasize the Full-Scale IQ score because of the marginal contributions of the first-order domain-specific factors and their low precision of measurement independent of the general factor.
    Journal of learning disabilities 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This research synthesis was conducted to understand the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve learning from informational text for students with learning disabilities in elementary school (K-5). The authors identified 18 studies through a comprehensive search. The interventions were evaluated to determine treatment effects and to understand implementation and methodological variables that influenced outcomes. Moderate to large effect sizes on researcher-developed measures for cognitive strategy interventions were reported. Interventions that utilized graphic organizers as study guides to support social studies learning were also associated with improved outcomes. The findings are considered within the context of limited implementation of standardized measures. The authors extend findings from previous research by reporting a paucity of interventions to enhance higher-level cognitive and comprehension skills. The majority of reviewed studies targeted fact acquisition and main idea identification, and overall encouraging findings were noted for these skills. Implications for future research are discussed.
    Journal of learning disabilities 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Three cohorts of third-grade students (N = 813) were evaluated on achievement, cognitive abilities, and behavioral attention according to contrasting research traditions in defining math learning disability (LD) status: low achievement versus extremely low achievement and IQ-achievement discrepant versus strictly low-achieving LD. We use methods from these two traditions to form math problem solving LD groups. To evaluate group differences, we used MANOVA-based profile and canonical analyses to control for relations among the outcomes and regression to control for group definition variables. Results suggest that basic arithmetic is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates low-achieving problem solvers (including LD, regardless of definition) from typically achieving students. Word problem solving is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates IQ-achievement-discrepant from strictly low-achieving LD students, favoring the IQ-achievement-discrepant students.
    Journal of learning disabilities 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia, gifted children, gifted children with dyslexia). The test battery included measures of literacy (reading/spelling) and cognitive abilities related to literacy and language (phonological awareness [PA], rapid automatized naming [RAN], verbal short-term memory [VSTM], working memory [WM], grammar, and vocabulary). It was hypothesized that gifted children with dyslexia would outperform children with dyslexia on literacy tests. In addition, a core-deficit model including dyslexia-related weaknesses and a compensational model involving giftedness-related strengths were tested using Bayesian statistics to explain their reading/spelling performance. Gifted children with dyslexia performed on all literacy tests in between children with dyslexia and TD children. Their cognitive profile showed signs of weaknesses in PA and RAN and strengths in VSTM, WM, and language skills. Findings indicate that phonology is a risk factor for gifted children with dyslexia, but this is moderated by other skills such as WM, grammar, and vocabulary, providing opportunities for compensation of a cognitive deficit and masking of literacy difficulties.
    Journal of learning disabilities 06/2014;