Journal of Immunological Methods (J IMMUNOL METHODS )

Publisher: Association of Medical Laboratory Immunologists, Elsevier

Journal description

The Journal of Immunological Methods is devoted to covering techniques for: (1) Quantitating and detecting antibodies and/or antigens and haptens based on antigen-antibody interactions. (2) Fractionating and purifying immunoglobulins, lymphokines and other molecules of the immune system. (3) Isolating antigens and other substances important in immunological processes. (4) Labelling antigens and antibodies with radioactive and other markers. (5) Localizing antigens and/or antibodies in tissues and cells, in vivo or in vitro. (6) Detecting, enumerating and fractionating immunocompetent cells. (7) Assaying for cellular immunity. (8) Detecting cell-surface antigens by cell-cell interactions. (9) Initiating immunity and unresponsiveness. (10) Transplanting tissues. (11) Studying items closely related to immunity such as complement, reticuloendothelial system and others. In addition the journal will publish articles on novel methods for analysing the organization, structure and expression of genes for immunologically important molecules such as immunoglobulins, T cell receptors and accessory molecules involved in antigen recognition, processing and presentation. Submitted full length manuscripts should describe new methods of broad applicability to immunology and not simply the application of an established method to a particular substance - although papers describing such applications may be considered for publication as a short Technical Note The Recombinant Technology section will contain articles relating to modification by recombinant techniques of molecules of immunological interest; isolation of novel binding proteins by phage display; gene therapy; transfection; and expression. Immunology Protocols is a section providing detailed, step-by-step descriptions of new and established techniques in immunology. Articles on the molecular biological analysis of immunologically relevant receptor binding sites are also invited.

Current impact factor: 2.01

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.005
2012 Impact Factor 2.225
2011 Impact Factor 2.203
2010 Impact Factor 2.34
2009 Impact Factor 2.347
2008 Impact Factor 2.12
2007 Impact Factor 1.947
2006 Impact Factor 2.402
2005 Impact Factor 2.572
2004 Impact Factor 2.464
2003 Impact Factor 2.744
2002 Impact Factor 2.598
2001 Impact Factor 2.283
2000 Impact Factor 1.995
1999 Impact Factor 1.95
1998 Impact Factor 1.855
1997 Impact Factor 2.043
1996 Impact Factor 1.883
1995 Impact Factor 1.901
1994 Impact Factor 2.029
1993 Impact Factor 2.104
1992 Impact Factor 1.79

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.45
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.50
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.87
Website Journal of Immunological Methods website
Other titles Journal of immunological methods, Immunological methods, JIM
ISSN 0022-1759
OCLC 1783876
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immunoconjugates that deliver cytotoxic payloads to cancer cells represent a promising class of therapeutic agents which are intensively investigated in various clinical applications. Prerequisites for the generation of effective immunoconjugates are antibodies which efficiently deliver the respective cytotoxic payload. To facilitate the selection of human or mouse antibodies that display favorable characteristics as immunotoxins, we developed a novel Pseudomonas exotoxin A (ETA)-based screening protein. The α-Fc-ETA' consists of a multispecies-specific Fc-binding domain antibody genetically fused to a truncated ETA version (ETA'). α-Fc-ETA' non-covalently bound to human and mouse antibodies but did not form immune complexes with bovine immunoglobulins. In combination with antibodies harboring human or mouse Fc domains α-Fc-ETA' inhibited proliferation of antigen-expressing tumor cells. The cytotoxic effects were strictly antibody dependent and were observed with low α-Fc-ETA' concentrations. Mouse antibodies directed against CD7 and CD317/HM1.24 that previously had been used for the generation of functional recombinant immunotoxins, also showed activity in combination with α-Fc-ETA' by inhibiting growth of antigen-positive myeloma and leukemia cell lines. In contrast, α-kappa-ETA', a similarly designed human kappa light chain-specific fusion protein, was only specifically active in combination with antibodies containing a human kappa light chain. Thus, the novel α-Fc-ETA' fusion protein is broadly applicable in screening antibodies and Fc-containing antibody derivatives from different species to select for candidates with favorable characteristics for immunotoxin development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 02/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Specimen collection method and quality insurance is pivotal in biomarker discovery. Pre-analytical variables concerning blood collection and sample handling might affect analytical results and should be standardised prior application. In this study, we examine pre-analytical characteristics of blood samples using protein microarray. The influences of 1) standby times until centrifugation (1h, 4h, 24h and 48h), 2) four blood collection methods, and 3) IgG purified from those samples on differentially reactive antigens between samples ("DIRAGs") were investigated. Spearman correlation analyses of intra-individual arrays demonstrated remarkable differences (0.75-0.98 vs. 0.5-0.75) of antibody reactivities within and between serum and plasma samples. Class comparison showed that reactive antigen profiles were best preserved using IgG purified samples of serum tubes without separation gel as after 24hours 83% of the 1h baseline DIRAGs were re-found. Testing dilution series with protein microarrays and Luminex xMap® Technology, we found linear correlations (R(2)=0.94-0.99) between IgG concentration and read-out when using purified IgG instead of serum. Therefore, we highly recommend standardising pre-analytics and proposing the use of purified IgG for autoantibody immune-profiling with protein microarrays to reduce potential unspecific binding of matrix proteins abundant in serum and plasma samples. Although purified IgG cannot completely compensate the influence of pre-analytics, in highly parallel immune-profiling IgG enables reduction of unspecific effects, which occur when using serum or plasma for analysis on protein microarrays. Reproducibility problems due to pre-analytical processing of blood samples might explain discrepant results reported in various biomarker studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 02/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Isolation and characterization of anti HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) has elucidated new epitopes and sites of viral vulnerability. Anti-HIV-1 bNAbs typically show high levels of somatic mutations in their variable region genes. This feature potentially limits antibody identification, since the mutated antibody sequences are no longer complimentary to primers designed based on germline antibody sequences. Here we report a new set of primers for Igλ light chains that aligns to the 5' end of the leader sequence and is highly efficient for the amplification of antibodies that contain mutations and deletions in the 5' end of human Igλ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 02/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this manuscript is to present an approach for evaluating specimen stability for flow cytometric methods used during drug development. While this approach specifically addresses stability assessment for assays to be used in clinical trials with centralized testing facilities, the concepts can be applied to any stability assessment for flow cytometric methods. The proposed approach is implemented during assay development and optimization, and includes suggestions for designing a stability assessment plan, data evaluation and acceptance criteria. Given that no single solution will be applicable in all scenarios, this manuscript offers the reader a roadmap for stability assessment and is intended to guide the investigator during both the method development phase and in the experimental design of the validation plan. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 02/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Soluble Glycoprotein VI (GPVI) is an attractive marker for disorders marked by platelet activation, such as thrombotic microangiopathy, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Several groups have already developed an immunoassay for soluble GPVI; however, there are several discrepancies between the groups' assays. In this study, we prepared the two types of recombinant soluble GPVI, the monomeric form GPVI (GPVI-His) and the dimeric form of GPVI (GPVI-Fc), moreover, we generated four anti-GPVI antibodies, F1232-7-1 (7S1), F1232-10-2 (10S2), F1232-19-1 (19D1), and F1232-21-1 (21D1). The former 2 antibodies (7S1 and 10S2) had a high affinity for both GPVI-His and GPVI-Fc, while the latter 2 antibodies (19D1 and 21D1) showed a high affinity for GPVI-Fc but low affinity for GPVI-His. All of the antibodies comparably recognized surface GPVI on resting platelets. Furthermore, we established two immunoassays for soluble GPVI, 7S1/10S2-HRP and 19D1/21D1-HRP (capture antibody/detection antibody). 7S1/10S2-HRP showed equivalent reactivity with GPVI-His and GPVI-Fc, whereas 19D1/21D1-HRP had high affinity for GPVI-Fc but low reactivity with GPVI-His. In terms of reactivity with platelet-derived soluble GPVI, 7S1/10S2-HRP demonstrated sensitive detection whereas 19D1/21D1-HRP was nonreactive. Taken together, 7S1/10S2-HRP is a suitable candidate for a reliable soluble GPVI immunoassay as it has a high affinity for monomeric GPVI.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 02/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Skin wound healing models can be used to detect changes in immune function in response to interventions. This study used a test-retest format to assess the reliability of a skin suction blister procedure for quantitatively evaluating human immune function in repeated measures type studies. Up to eight suction blisters (~30 mm(2)) were induced via suction on each participant's left and right forearm (randomized order; blister session 1 and 2), separated by approximately one week. Fluid was sampled from each blister, and the top layer of each blister was removed to reveal up to eight skin wounds. Fluid from each wound was collected 4, 7 and 24 hours after blisters were induced, and proinflammatory cytokines were measured. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), to assess skin barrier recovery, was measured daily at each wound site until values were within 90% of baseline values (i.e., unbroken skin). Sleep, stress and inflammation (i.e., factors that affect wound healing and immune function), preceding the blister induction, were assessed via activity monitors (Actical, Philips Respironics, Murrysville, Pennsylvania), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and C-reactive protein (CRP), respectively. Area-under-the-curve and TEWL, between blister session 1 and 2, were compared using Pearson correlations and partial correlations (controlling for average nightly sleep, PSS scores and CRP). The suction blister method was considered reliable for assessing immune response and skin barrier recovery if correlation coefficients reached 0.7. Volunteers (n=16; 12 M; 4 F) were 23±5 years [mean±SD]. Time to skin barrier restoration was 4.9±0.8 and 4.8±0.9 days for sessions 1 and 2, respectively. Correlation coefficients for skin barrier restoration, IL-6, IL-8 and MIP-1α were 0.9 (P<0.0001), 0.7 (P=0.008) and 0.9 (P<0.0001), respectively. When average nightly sleep, PSS scores and CRP (i.e., percent difference between sessions 1 and 2) were taken into consideration, correlations in immune response between sessions 1 and 2 were improved for IL-8 (0.8, P=0.002) and TNF-α (0.7, P=0.02). The skin suction blister method is sufficiently reliable for assessing skin barrier restoration and immune responsiveness. This data can be used to determine sample sizes for cross-sectional or repeated-measures types of studies testing the impact of various stressors on immune response, and/or the efficacy of interventions to mitigate decrements in immune response to stress. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In medicine and chemistry, measurement of concentrations usually involves calibration that maps the observed responses to the underlying concentration using inversion of a standard curve. The Enzyme-linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) is one example of such methods that is commonly used to measure antibody concentration. A problem in this and similar type of technology is that an accurate measurement is obtainable only if the observations fall within the optimal, near-linear range of the standard curve. It is common to conduct a series of doubling or tripling dilutions of the samples, so that at least some of the diluted samples are within the optimal range. A single dilution may then be selected for statistical analysis. This common practice does not fully utilize the data from multiple dilutions and reduces accuracy. We consider two weighted average estimators for fully utilizing the information from multiple dilutions. The first uses weights inversely proportional to the variances of the dilution-specific calibrated values; the second is a simplified form of the first. Simulation results demonstrated the superiority of this weighted estimation approach over the conventional approach of analyzing a single selected dilution. We apply the methods to an experimental study of malaria vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reliable antibody based-assays are needed to evaluate the immunogenicity of current vaccines, impact of altered dosing schemes or of new vaccine formulations. An ideal assay platform would allow multiplex type-specific detection with minimal sample requirement.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 12/2014; 19.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are major reagents for research and clinical diagnosis. For their inherently high specificities to intended antigen targets and thus low toxicity in general, they are pursued as one of the major classes of new drugs. Yet binding properties of most monoclonal antibodies are not well characterized in terms of affinity constants and how they vary with presentations and/or conformational isomers of antigens, buffer compositions, and temperature. We here report a microarray-based label-free assay platform for high-throughput measurements of monoclonal antibody affinity constants to antigens immobilized on solid surfaces. Using this platform we measured affinity constants of over 1,410 rabbit monoclonal antibodies and 46 mouse monoclonal antibodies to peptide targets that are immobilized through a terminal cysteine residue to a glass surface. The experimentally measured affinity constants vary from 10 pM to 200 pM with the median value at 66 pM. We compare results of the microarray-based platform with those of a benchmarking surface-plasmon-resonance-based (SPR) sensor (Biacore 3000).
    Journal of Immunological Methods 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) has been developed for quantitation of porcine trypsin as a process residual in cell therapy products based on its capture by either of two immobilized anti-trypsins, α-1-Antitrypsin (α1AT) or soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) followed by detection with a polyclonal goat anti-porcine trypsin-IgG conjugated with peroxidase. It was demonstrated that an extended range of antigen quantitation could be achieved that covered nearly three orders of magnitude of trypsin concentration. The utility of the assay was demonstrated by its application to samples generated in a cell-based therapeutic manufacturing setting.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present study we evaluated the anti-Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin profiles of a group of 118 individuals living in an endemic area. The aim of the study was to select biomarkers to support the ophthalmological diagnosis of Retinal/Retinochoroidal scars presumably caused by T. gondii infection. Overall anti-T. gondii reactivity of the IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE and IgG subclasses was investigated by flow cytometry-based anti-fixed tachyzoite antibodies (FC-AFTA) in four groups of subjects, referred to as: i) TOXO(L) – seropositive patients with Retinal/Retinochoroidal scars presumably caused by T. gondii infection; these patients were further subdivided according to morphological aspects of their ocular scar lesions as A, B or C; ii) TOXO(NL) – seropositive patients without ocular scar lesions; iii) NEG(L) – T gondii seronegative patients presenting retinal lesions; and iv) NEG(NL)- T gondii seronegative without retinal lesions (negative controls). Our data demonstrated that anti-T. gondii IgG profiles were able to discriminate the mean reactivity of TOXO(L) from all other clinical groups. Analysis of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin profiles revealed that IgM and IgG were good biomarkers capable of discriminating between individual reactivity in patients with Retinal/Retinochoroidal scars presumably caused by T. gondii infection [TOXO(L)] from those caused by other clinical conditions. Furthermore, anti-T. gondii IgG1 reactivity was able to discriminate TOXO(L) from all other clinical groups. In conclusion, the pre-selected IgM, IgG and IgG1 anti-T. gondii antibody subclasses were able to segregate both TOXO(L) and the other subgroups, including the scar lesion group types (A, B, C), from other clinical conditions. These results suggest the applicability of this technique in the clinical laboratory to detect putative biomarker for diagnosis of ocular lesions in T. gondii-infected patients. Studies in other areas implementing the methods described in the present study would be of value and enable evaluation of a system for classification of presumed ocular toxoplasmosis scar lesions. This classification would make comparative studies on ocular toxoplasmosis conducted in different regions around the world possible.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Different immune cell types are present within atherosclerotic plaques. Dendritic cells (DC) are of special interest, since they are considered as the ‘center of the immuniverse’. Identifying inflammatory DC subtypes within plaques is important for a better understanding of the lesion pathogenesis and pinpoints their contribution to the atherosclerotic process. We have developed a flow cytometry-based method to characterize and isolate different DC subsets (i.e. CD11b+, Clec9A+ and CD16+ conventional (c)DC and CD123+ plasmacytoid (p)DC) in human atherosclerotic plaques. We revealed a predominance of pro-inflammatory CD11b+ DC in advanced human lesions, whereas atheroprotective Clec9A+ DC were almost absent. CD123+ pDC and CD16+ DC were also detectable in plaques. Remarkably, plaques from distinct anatomical locations exhibited different cellular compositions: femoral plaques contained less CD11b+ and Clec9A+ DC than carotid plaques. Twice as many monocytes/macrophages were observed compared to DC. Moreover, relative amounts of T cells/B cells/NK cells were 6 times as high as DC numbers.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Qualified or validated assays are essential in clinical trials. Short-term stimulation of whole blood and intracellular cytokine staining assay is commonly used to measure immunogenicity in tuberculosis vaccine clinical trials. Previously, the short-term stimulation process of whole blood with BCG was optimized. We aimed to qualify the intracellular cytokine staining process and assess the effects of long-term cryopreservation. Our hypotheses were that the assay is robust in the measurement of the mycobacteria-specific T cells, and long-term cryopreservation of fixed cells from stimulated whole blood would not compromise reliable measurement of mycobacteria induced CD4 T cell immunity.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The N-glycan of the IgG constant region (Fc) plays a central role in tuning and directing multiple antibody functions in vivo, including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement deposition, and the regulation of inflammation, among others. However, traditional methods of N-glycan analysis, including HPLC and mass spectrometry, are technically challenging and ill suited to handle the large numbers of low concentration samples analyzed in clinical or animal studies of the N-glycosylation of polyclonal IgG. Here we describe a capillary electrophoresis-based technique to analyze plasma-derived polyclonal IgG-glycosylation quickly and accurately in a cost-effective, sensitive manner that is well suited for high-throughput analyses. Additionally, because a significant fraction of polyclonal IgG is glycosylated on both Fc and Fab domains, we developed an approach to separate and analyze domain-specific glycosylation in polyclonal human, rhesus and mouse IgGs. Overall, this protocol allows for the rapid, accurate, and sensitive analysis of Fc-specific IgG glycosylation, which is critical for population-level studies of how antibody glycosylation may vary in response to vaccination or infection, and across disease states ranging from autoimmunity to cancer in both clinical and animal studies.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interferon beta may induce antibodies in multiple sclerosis patients and the incidence of immunogenicity depends on the type of product. These antibodies can reduce the efficacy of interferon beta. Two transgenic immune tolerant mouse models for human interferon beta (hIFNβ) (C57Bl/6, and C57Bl/6×FVB/N F1 hybrid mice) have been developed previously for studying immunogenicity. These models, however, may not be used for every interferon beta product because of the lack of immunogenicity in the wildtype genetic background. We therefore developed a modified transgenic mouse model by backcrossing the F1 hybrid C57Bl/6×FVB/N transgenic mice with wildtype FVB/N for 10 generations. These F10 offspring (referred to hear as FVB/N) have a genetic background consisting of mostly FVB/N (99.9%) and very little C57Bl/6 (0.1%), and are expected to have the more sensitive antibody producing phenotype of the parental FVB/N strain. The newly generated "FVB/N" strain was assessed for antibody formation against different rhIFNβ formulations compared to the C57Bl/6, and C57Bl/6×FVB/N transgenic mouse models. The new FVB/N transgenic mouse model was more sensitive for all tested rhIFNβ products, and the difference in antibody titers between the transgenic and non-transgenic mice of the FVB/N strain was much bigger compared to the antibody levels of the C57Bl/6, and C57Bl/6×FVB/N strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 12/2014; 415:17-23.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Eco29k I restriction endonuclease is a Sac II isoschizomer that recognizes the sequence 5′-CCGCGG-3′ and is encoded, along with the Eco29k I methylase, in the Escherichia coli strain 29 k. We have expressed the Eco29k I restriction–methylation system (RM2) in E. coli strain TG1 to produce the strain AXE688. We have developed a directed molecular evolution (DME) mutagenesis method that uses Eco29k I to restrict incoming parental DNA in transformed cells. Using our DME method, we have demonstrated that our AXE688 strain results in mutated directed molecular evolution libraries with diversity greater than 107 from a single transformation and with greater than 90% recombinant clones.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To generate high-titer monoclonal antibodies, strong immuno-stimulation must be used for eliciting an intense cellular immune response. Here, we report that antigen-specific antibody production was potentiated by Peptide-25 derived from Ag85B of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and that the production of antigen-specific IgG1 in particular was markedly potentiated; specifically, this occurred because the use of Peptide-25 resulted in an increase in the number of antigen-specific antibody-producing cells. We studied the activation of T cells by the peptide by examining gene expression. The observed expression pattern of GATA-3 and T-bet suggests that the peptide modulates the Th1/Th2 balance during immunization. This potentiation, which was remarkably high in BALB/c mice, could be applied in the immunization performed for monoclonal antibody production in vivo and in vitro.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 12/2014;