Journal of Hygiene (J Hyg )

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

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  • Other titles
    The Journal of hygiene
  • ISSN
    0022-1724
  • OCLC
    1782234
  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Cambridge University Press

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    • Author can archive a pre-print version
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    • Author can archive a post-print version
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    • Author's post-print for STM journals, on departmental website, institutional repository, non-commercial subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, Europe PMC or arXiv, after a 6 months embargo
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    • Publisher last reviewed on 07/10/2014
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Kanzerogenitätsprüfungen von Glasfasern mit unterschiedlicher Beständigkeit und ihre Bewertung. F. Pott, H. W. Schlipköter, M. Roller, R. M. Rippe, P.-G. Germann, U. Mohr, B. Bellmann Zbl. Bakt. Hyg. 189: 563 566, 1990;
    Journal of Hygiene 08/1990;
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    ABSTRACT: A survey was undertaken of the occurrence, serotype, antimicrobial sensitivity and plasmid content of members of the tribe Proteeae in the environment of two calf-rearing units in the county of Avon in South West England. Examples of the following species were found: Proteus mirabilis, Prot. vulgaris, Prot. vulgaris Biogroup 2, Morganella morganii, Providencia stuartii, Prov. alcalifaciens and Prov. rettgeri. A wide range of serotypes was found, many having been previously reported from nosocomial isolates. A total of 15% of isolates carried plasmids; six pairs of isolates were identified which had identical serotypes but different patterns of plasmid carriage. The antimicrobial sensitivity of the isolates was generally similar to isolates of Proteeae from humans. Although no truly aminoglycoside-resistant isolates were found, some isolates of Prov. stuartii and Prov. rettgeri had MIC's higher than the other isolates to gentamicin and netilmicin, suggesting the presence of low levels of the enzyme AAC 2'. The study demonstrates that there is a considerable diversity of species and types of Proteeae associated with calves and their environment. It seems likely that a potential cause of colonization of the human gut by Proteeae is the consumption of meat.
    Journal of Hygiene 01/1987; 97(3):405-17.
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    ABSTRACT: The bacteriological investigation of an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in Glasgow Royal Infirmary affecting 16 patients is described. Most of the patients had been treated in high-dependency areas on two floors of the hospital supplied by the same two air-conditioned ventilation systems. The source of infection was traced to contamination of a cooling tower from which a plume of spray discharged into the intake vents of the two ventilation systems. Rubber grommets within the cooling tower probably provided a nidus of infection there. The control and management of the outbreak are discussed: a policy of frankness about the course and progress of the investigations was adopted and helped to allay anxiety on the part of both staff and media.
    Journal of Hygiene 01/1987; 97(3):393-403.
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    ABSTRACT: In Salmonella typhimurium phage type 204c isolated in Britain, gentamicin resistance is specified by plasmids of the I1 compatibility group which also confer resistance to apramycin. These plasmids have been subdivided into three types within the I1 group on the basis of their antibiotic resistance specificity, their ability to produce colicin Ib and their restriction enzyme digest fragmentation patterns. All three have been identified in strains from cattle, but as yet only two types have been found in strains from humans. It is suggested that the use of apramycin in animal husbandry is responsible for the appearance of gentamicin resistance in multiresistant strains of phage type 204c, a phage type already epidemic in bovine animals and with an increasing incidence in humans.
    Journal of Hygiene 01/1987; 97(3):419-26.
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    ABSTRACT: Since the aminoglycoside antibiotic apramycin was licensed for veterinary use in 1980, all isolates of Escherichia coli and salmonellas received at the Central Veterinary Laboratory have been monitored for resistance to apramycin and the related antibiotic gentamicin. During the period 1982-4, the incidence of resistance in E. coli to apramycin increased from 0.6% in 1982 to 2.6% in 1984. In salmonellas the incidence of resistance to apramycin increased from 0.1% in 1982 to 1.4% in 1984. Resistance to both apramycin and gentamicin was detected in six different salmonella serotypes, although an isolate of Salmonella thompson from poultry was resistant to gentamicin but not apramycin. Most of the cultures were isolated from pigs, although the incidence of apramycin resistance in S. typhimurium (DT 204C) from calves has shown a recent dramatic increase. All the isolates with one exception produced the enzyme aminoglycoside 3-N-acetyltransferase IV (ACC(3)IV). The resistance was transferable by conjugation in most of the strains examined, and the plasmids specifying the resistance have been found to belong to a number of different incompatibility groups. Plasmids from three E. coli strains were compatible with all the reference plasmids and belonged to a previously undescribed group which was investigated further. It is suggested that bacteria from humans should be examined for resistance to apramycin and gentamicin to determine the possibility of the antibiotic-resistance bacteria, and their genes, spreading from animals to humans.
    Journal of Hygiene 01/1987; 97(3):445-56.
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    ABSTRACT: The carriage of Staphylococcus aureus was studied in a group of 28 men living in a totally isolated environment for a year. Initially, nasal, axillary and perineal swabs were taken at weekly intervals, but from week 24 throat swabs were taken from known nasal carriers. Several attempts were made during the study to eradicate S. aureus. Eight subjects consistently carried their own phage type throughout the study, despite the application of antibacterial agents. In three subjects strains were isolated late in the study of a phage type which had either not been isolated before in this study, or had not been found for a prolonged period. Nine of the 12 nasal carriers also yielded S. aureus from the throat. It is apparent that following attempted eradication, S. aureus may seem to disappear, only to reappear some time later; 'eradication' in this case would be an erroneous appellation.
    Journal of Hygiene 01/1987; 97(3):427-44.
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 571 swine sera collected at an abattoir in the city of Obihiro, Hokkaido during the period February-November 1984 were tested for antibody against human (H1N1) influenza virus strains. A high prevalence of antibody was observed for only 3 months from April to June in that year, in 81/180 sera (45.0%) to A/USSR/92/77 strain and in 50/180 sera (27.8%) to a current epidemic strain (A/Hokkaido/1/84). Some cross-reactions were observed between the A/USSR/92/77 and A/Hokkaido/1/84 antibodies (r = 0.75). Only minor relationships were noted between the A/New Jersey/8/76 (swine type H1N1) and A/USSR/92/77 (r = 0.35) or A/Hokkaido/1/84 (r = 0.51) antibodies. Absorption of sera positive for antibody to the A/Hokkaido/1/84 strain with the homologous virus strain removed all detectable antibodies, while the absorption of the sera with the A/New Jersey/8/76 strain produced incomplete absorption in one half of the sera tested. These results strongly suggest that the swine became infected with a human H1N1 virus as piglets during an epidemic of influenza which occurred in the human population during January and February 1984.
    Journal of Hygiene 01/1987; 97(3):503-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The apparent reduction in the incidence of subsequent joint sepsis and of re-operation without evidence of infection during the course of a prospective study was an artifact of the analysis method.
    Journal of Hygiene 01/1987; 97(3):501-2.
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    ABSTRACT: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the levels of brucella-specific IgG, IgM and IgA in 173 patients with acute brucellosis, 22 patients with chronic brucellosis and in 281 controls consisting of 98 patients with other infectious etiologies, 20 patients with non-infectious diseases and 163 normal healthy adults. The ELISA results were compared with culture findings, the results of slide agglutination tests with Brucella melitensis (M), B. abortus (A) and Ross Bengal (RB) antigens, and of tube and microagglutination tests. Brucella cultures were positive in 53 and 5% of patients with acute and chronic brucellosis respectively. The slide agglutination tests with A, M, A plus M and RB antigens were positive in 42, 44, 51 and 98% of patients with acute brucellosis and in 23, 27, 27 and 64% of patients with chronic brucellosis. There was no significant difference in the results between the tube and microagglutination tests regardless of the type of antigen used. At a titre of greater than or equal to 80 or greater than or equal to 160 these tests were positive in 98% and 92% of patients with acute brucellosis and 60 and 40% of patients with chronic brucellosis. The brucella culture and agglutination tests were negative for all the controls. Brucella ELISA immunoglobulins (Ig) were detected in some individuals in the control groups but the majority of these had titres of less than or equal to 100 for IgG, IgM, and IgA. However, patients with brucellosis had significantly higher ELISA titres in all classes of Ig than controls but the sensitivity and specificity within each Ig class varied with the titre considered. At a titre of greater than or equal to 1600 the brucella IgG had a sensitivity and specificity of 98% for patients with acute or chronic brucellosis; this decreased with lower reciprocal titres. The brucella IgM titre of greater than or equal to 400 had a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 98% for patients with acute brucellosis. However, in patients with chronic brucellosis the brucella IgM was very low. The brucella IgA titre of greater than or equal to 200 showed a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 99% for patients with either acute or chronic brucellosis. This study indicates that brucella ELISA is a rapid, sensitive and specific assay, provides a profile of Ig classes in the diagnosis of acute and chronic brucellosis, is useful for mass screening and could be considered the method of choice for the serological diagnosis of brucellosis.
    Journal of Hygiene 01/1987; 97(3):457-69.
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    ABSTRACT: Amounts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibodies were determined in sera from patients with either active or inactive tuberculosis and in healthy subjects by an immunoenzymatic assay in which whole BCG cells attached covalently to polystyrene disks were used as antigen. Statistically significant differences (P less than 0.005) were found both between the active and inactive tuberculosis groups and between the active group and healthy controls. No significant differences were found between the inactive group and controls. Since this procedure is efficient (91%) and can be used in areas which lack laboratory equipment, it appears promising for individual serodiagnosis and for epidemiological surveys.
    Journal of Hygiene 01/1987; 97(3):483-7.
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    ABSTRACT: In two trials the efficacy of inactivated vaccines against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia was tested by exposing vaccinated cattle to droplet infection provided by close contact with experimentally infected 'donors'. Complete protection was given by an extreme form of vaccination in which a heavy suspension of killed Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides emulsified with Freund's complete adjuvant was given in two large doses. 'Mouse-protective antibody' (MPA) was also produced, i.e. serum transferred to mice 2-4 h before intraperitoneal challenge prevented the development of mycoplasmaemia. However, the study did not answer the question 'Is MPA protective for cattle?'. No protection was given by a milder form of vaccination in which a lighter suspension of killed mycoplasmas emulsified with Freund's incomplete adjuvant was given in a comparatively small dose on a single occasion.
    Journal of Hygiene 11/1986; 97(2):305-15.
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmid profiles have been established for 68 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from 13 episodes of epidemic spread in hospital wards between 1958 and 1962. Despite the original lack of care in preservation of strains the profiles give, in general, the same epidemiological patterns as were established originally on the basis of phage type, antibiotic sensitivity, ward and date of isolation.
    Journal of Hygiene 11/1986; 97(2):211-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of nasal colonization and infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among patients and staff was studied in a section of a Paediatric Surgical Unit in Lisbon between February and July 1985. Nasal colonization was demonstrated in 41% of burned patients, 5% of non-burned patients and 35% of the nurses. Infection by MRSA occurred in 30% of the burns. The isolates had identical serological patterns, slight differences on phage typing and were resistant to methicillin, cephalosporins, tetracycline, erythromycin and aminoglycosides. A chloramphenicol resistance plasmid of 3 Md was present in those isolates which were chloramphenicol resistant and a small plasmid of 1.7 Md which coded for constitutive erythromycin resistance was present in many isolates. Gentamicin, tetracycline and inducible erythromycin resistance were chromosomal. Several reasons for the apparent low virulence of the isolates are discussed. Attempts to control the outbreak by the discharge of colonized or infected patients, improvement of nursing practices and treatment with temporary removal from work of the colonized nurses did not eliminate the organism from the unit.
    Journal of Hygiene 11/1986; 97(2):265-72.
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    ABSTRACT: One thousand pharyngeal swab specimens were processed for aerobic culture to determine the carriage rate of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). The isolates were identified and their sensitivity determined to 11 antibacterial drugs following standard techniques. Similar pharyngeal carriage rates of GNB were found among the various groups of healthy subjects. Patients had higher colonization rates (27%) than healthy subjects (16%). The increase in prevalence of GNB seemed to be associated with underlying diseases and duration of hospitalization. Klebsiella (36%) was the most frequent genus amongst the 215 isolates of GNB followed by pseudomonas (13%), enterobacter (13%) and acinetobacter (10%). Others were less frequently isolated. Over 70% of all isolates were resistant to ampicillin (79%) and carbenicillin (72%); 55, 45 and 43% were resistant to cephalothin, tetracycline and streptomycin, respectively. The great majority of the strains were sensitive to the remaining six drugs. The hospital isolates were more resistant than the non-hospital isolates to most drugs tested. The hospital strains were also more often multiply resistant (89%) than the non-hospital strains (60%). Sixty-five different resistance antibiograms of 1-10 drugs were observed among 191 strains. More varied types of antibiograms were observed among hospital strains. The high frequency of multiple drug resistance of the isolates is an indication of the extensive use of antibacterial drugs, indicating the need for a policy for judicious use of drugs.
    Journal of Hygiene 11/1986; 97(2):247-53.