Journal of Hydraulic Research (J HYDRAUL RES )

Publisher: International Association for Hydraulic Research; International Association of Hydraulic Engineering and Research

Description

Published bimonthly, this is a leading international scientific Journal for peer-reviewed research and technical developments in hydraulics and water science. All papers are reviewed by at least two members of the Editorial Board, consisting of internationally renowned experts in their specific field. The Journal is free of charge for corporate and individual members.

  • Impact factor
    1.04
    Hide impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    1.15
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.23
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.50
  • Website
    Journal of Hydraulic Research website
  • Other titles
    Journal of hydraulic research, Journal de recherches hydrauliques, Journal of the I.A.H.R., Journal de l'A.I.R.H., IAHR/AIHR journal
  • ISSN
    0022-1686
  • OCLC
    3910556
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Various forms of mass balance equations are commonly used in sediment transport studies and applications. However, the quantities involved in such equations are not always clearly defined, with sediment flux (or solid discharge) as a typical example. Starting with the fundamental definitions, this paper provides a general and consistent framework for integral (Eulerian) mass balances and gives scale-consistent definitions for instantaneous and time-averaged variables. In particular, alternative expressions for the instantaneous and averaged solid discharge are proposed and compared with the existing formulations. Conceptual developments of this study are illustrated using sediment transport data from laboratory experiments.
    Journal of Hydraulic Research 12/2014; 52(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Shallowness defines a wide class of flows of high significance to hydraulic and environmental engineering. This paper discusses research on shallow flows that have been carried out in laboratory and field studies as well as with numerical simulations. Recent advances in experimental and numerical techniques helped to reveal the important features of shallow flows which are directly relevant to rivers. Particular attention is paid to the contribution of large-scale structures to transverse transport of momentum and mass which is assessed for archetypical flow configurations like wakes, shear layers, and bend flows. It is demonstrated that the flow geometry and roughness distribution determine the relative contribution of secondary circulation and large-scale turbulent structures to this transport. For applications in civil and environmental engineering, a proper parameterization of the physical processes is required for representing shallow flows at the large scale. The paper outlines some perspective directions to be developed in the forthcoming years.
    Journal of Hydraulic Research 12/2014; 52(2).
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present and apply a new three-dimensional model for the prediction of canopy-flow and turbulence dynamics in open-channel flow. The approach uses a dynamic immersed boundary technique that is coupled in a sequentially staggered manner to a large eddy simulation. Two different biomechanical models are developed depending on whether the vegetation is dominated by bending or tensile forces. For bending plants, a model structured on the Euler–Bernoulli beam equation has been developed, whilst for tensile plants, an N-pendula model has been developed. Validation against flume data shows good agreement and demonstrates that for a given stem density, the models are able to simulate the extraction of energy from the mean flow at the stem-scale which leads to the drag discontinuity and associated mixing layer.
    Journal of Hydraulic Research 11/2014; 52(6).
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    ABSTRACT: The Terrence J. O'Brien Water Reclamation Plant (WRP) serves a population of around 1.3 million people and service area of 368.8 km2 in Chicago, IL. Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, the agency responsible for the maintenance and operation of the WRP, observed non-uniform distribution of grit deposition between the six grit tanks. Single- and multiphase flow simulations were used to investigate the non-uniform grit distribution and to evaluate potential solution alternatives to ensure the plant operates at an optimal capacity. The simulations revealed the formation of secondary currents due to a bend in the approach conduit; this explained the preferential sediment conveyance along the left side of the conduit and higher deposition at the southernmost grit tanks. Baffles at the centre of the approach conduit and a constriction wall along the left side were recommended for breaking the secondary currents and uniform distribution of the grits.
    Journal of Hydraulic Research 11/2014; 52(6).
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    ABSTRACT: A Lagrangian meshless particle method (moving particle semi-implicit method; MPS) has been widely applied to simulate engineering problems. In this study, a new solid boundary treatment using imaginary particles instead of traditionally predefined ghost particles is developed to accommodate sharp edges in addressing practical problems. The proposed solid boundary treatment in the weakly compressible MPS (WC-MPS) model is verified for a sharp-crested weir flow, and then applied to simulate flow in pool-and-weir fishways with thin walls, which can be considered as a flow system with a series of weirs. It was found that flow characteristics in pool-and-weir fishways can be determined for given design parameters such as pool length, height of weir, fishway bed slope, and water discharge. The plunging flow and skimming flow observed in experiments are reproduced successfully by the WC-MPS model. Simulated results demonstrate satisfactory agreement with experimental data.
    Journal of Hydraulic Research 11/2014; 52(6).
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    ABSTRACT: John Fisher Kennedy (1933–1991) had a remarkably accomplished career in hydraulic engineering, including his service as President of the International Association for Hydraulic Research (1980–1983). Though alluvial river behaviour was the hydraulics topic closest to his heart, Kennedy also made scholarly contributions to other hydraulics topics: notably, river thermal and ice processes, the design and operation of thermal- and hydro-power plants, as well as various hydraulic structures. He had an energetic entrepreneurial spirit and was an engaging communicator, often speaking and writing about progress in hydraulic engineering, history of hydraulics, and leadership in hydraulics. Additionally, as a bibliophile he was always keen to share his knowledge of culture, history, and music. His impressive career as marked by many achievements including being one of the youngest engineers ever elected to the prestigious US National Academy of Engineering. We reflect upon Kennedy's work and the qualities that made him a prominent engineer and educator.
    Journal of Hydraulic Research 11/2014; 52(6).
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes data assimilation for estimating bed roughness factor due to vegetation in natural rivers. An adjoint shallow-water model was developed for variational data assimilation. Optimal values for distributed bed roughness coefficients were determined using a quasi-Newtonian method with flow and adjoint variables. The data assimilation technique was applied to inverse estimation of the distributed coefficients in the lower reaches of the Asahi River in Japan during flooding in 2011. For practical use, the assimilated data comprised water levels measured along the river at regular time intervals. Results show that the magnitude of each coefficient distributed over targeted subregions was reasonably consistent with the vegetation species established in the corresponding subregion, considering characteristic values of vegetation related to the flow resistance.
    Journal of Hydraulic Research 11/2014; 52(6).
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    ABSTRACT: In culvert-based navigation lock filling–emptying systems, inertia effects have a significant influence on the filling–emptying time and cause a (damped) oscillation of the water surface in the lock chamber around its equalization level, referred to as the overtravel phenomenon. In this paper, the derivation of analytical formulae for the lock filling–emptying time and overtravel peak of systems consisting of a number of identical culverts is revisited. In comparison to earlier publications, the underlying assumptions are made explicit and the importance of accounting for the surface area ratio of lock chamber to upper reservoir in case of filling (or lower reservoir in case of emptying) is pointed out. Additionally, it is shown how the applicability of the analytical formulae can be extended to lock filling–emptying systems with more complex lay-outs by using an “equivalent culvert” approach. The validity of the analytical formulae is thoroughly assessed, first by comparing to an accurate numerical solution of the governing non-linear second-order differential equations, and second, by means of experiments in a physical model.
    Journal of Hydraulic Research 10/2014;
  • Journal of Hydraulic Research 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Unstructured block ramps (UBR) are fish-friendly structures to stabilize a river bed. They are increasingly used to replace drops and represent large macro-roughness elements randomly placed on the river bed. Laser Doppler Anemometry measurements were conducted to determine the mean flow characteristics in a laboratory channel covered by block ramps. The resulting local time-averaged flow quantities allow for considerations of the flow field heterogeneity and for the identification of migration corridors for a certain target fish. Double-averaging (in time and in space) was applied to characterize the flow conditions taking into account the strongly heterogeneous bed of an unstructured block ramp. By applying this method, the characteristic vertical profiles describing the general flow conditions are presented. Based on geometrical and physical considerations, a suggestion is made to sub-divide the interfacial sublayer of macro-rough beds into upper and lower parts. The aim of this research is to present not only the flow field, but also to highlight the ecological value of UBR.
    Journal of Hydraulic Research 09/2014; 52(5).
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    ABSTRACT: A mathematical model for the simulation of dispersed turbulent liquid–solid flows in vertical pipes is presented. The model is based on the Eulerian–Eulerian approach and solves the averaged mass and momentum conservation equations for both phases, coupled by means of interfacial momentum transfer terms. Its distinctive feature is the modelling of interphase friction and turbulence modulation. In particular, specific source terms which generalize some existing correlations originally developed for gas–solid flows are introduced in the conservation equations for the turbulent kinetic energy of the fluid and its dissipation rate to account for turbulence modulation. By comparison with experimental data available in the literature for different flow conditions, the model revealed that it is capable of reproducing the main features of the flow. Moreover, it proved capable of predicting the effect of particle size on turbulence modulation in liquid–solid flows.
    Journal of Hydraulic Research 09/2014; 52(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Scale effects of round-crested weir flow originate from viscosity and surface tension. No general weir flow equation accounting for these is available in the literature. In this work an equation is developed accounting for scale effects. Given the lack of knowledge on the laminar boundary layer development for these flows, detailed two-dimensional and integral laminar boundary layer solutions were obtained, from which an analytical solution results. The surface tension effect is included by allowing for high streamline curvature effects, as is typical for flow over very small weir models. The developments were used to successfully predict the discharge characteristics of circular weirs of small crest radius of curvature. The research indicates a minimum of R=0.01 m. Provided that 0.01 mR Keywords: Experimentation; scale effects; surface tension; viscosity; weir flow Document Type: Research Article DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221686.2014.910277 Affiliations: 1: (IAHR Member), Professor, University of Cordoba, Campus Rabanales, Leonardo Da Vinci Building, E-14071, Cordoba, Spain 2: (IAHR Honorary Member), Professor, VAW, ETH Zurich, CH-8093, Zürich, Switzerland., Email: hager@vaw.baug.ethz.ch Publication date: September 3, 2014 $(document).ready(function() { var shortdescription = $(".originaldescription").text().replace(/\\&/g, '&').replace(/\\, '<').replace(/\\>/g, '>').replace(/\\t/g, ' ').replace(/\\n/g, ''); if (shortdescription.length > 350){ shortdescription = "" + shortdescription.substring(0,250) + "... more"; } $(".descriptionitem").prepend(shortdescription); $(".shortdescription a").click(function() { $(".shortdescription").hide(); $(".originaldescription").slideDown(); return false; }); }); Related content In this: publication By this: publisher By this author: Castro-Orgaz, Oscar ; Hager, Willi H. GA_googleFillSlot("Horizontal_banner_bottom");
    Journal of Hydraulic Research 09/2014; 52(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional hydrodynamic and ecological modelling was used to explore strategies to mitigate the impacts of high biomass algal blooms (Aulacoseira sp.) on the drinking water intakes of the city of Buenos Aires, in the Río de la Plata. An automated real-time and a four-day forecast warning system was implemented in 2010 in order to predict the occurrence of such blooms near the intakes. Since the adoption of the technology, blooms of Aulacoseira sp. were neither predicted nor observed, demonstrating that the system did not create a false positive. Further, a historical high biomass bloom event was successfully predicted and then used to test two engineering solutions, designed to mitigate the impact of strong blooms. It was found that extending the raw drinking water intakes offshore beyond the high algae concentration provided a 50% reduction in Aulacoseira sp. concentrations. Alternatively, placing groynes around the intake sites induced a dilution of the phytoplankton patch and reduced the concentrations by 40%.
    Journal of Hydraulic Research 09/2014; 52(5).
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of an upstream obstacle – a backward-facing step (BFS) – on a very low head (VLH) water-turbine model has been investigated. The motivation of this study was to quantify the interaction between the VLH turbine and BFS, an abstraction of typical obstacles present in existing channels. Power measurements were obtained for three configurations; the turbine in the absence of the BFS was first examined as a baseline test, followed by configurations with the BFS placed at distances of half a turbine diameter and one turbine diameter upstream. It was found that turbine efficiency is comparable between the case with no step upstream and when the step is placed at one diameter. However, the configuration at half a diameter exhibited an efficiency deficit of approximately 7%. Particle image velocimetry measurements were then used to quantity the flowfield associated with loss in efficiency from the no step to the half a diameter step configuration. It was determined that the losses could be attributed to a highly non-uniform inlet velocity profile, which results in unsteady loading across the turbine blades.
    Journal of Hydraulic Research 09/2014; 52(5).