The Journal of extra-corporeal technology Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: American Society of Extra-Corporeal Technology

Journal description

Current impact factor: 0.00

Impact Factor Rankings

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5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.00
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Website Journal of Extra-Corporeal Technology website
Other titles The Journal of extra-corporeal technology, Journal of extracorporeal technology
ISSN 0022-1058
OCLC 3497615
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies showed that decreased cerebral saturation during cardiac surgery is related to adverse postoperative outcome. Therefore, we investigated the influence of intraoperative events on cerebral tissue saturation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A total of 52 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery using pulsatile CPB were included in this prospective explorative study. Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) was measured in both the left and right cerebral hemisphere. Intraoperative events, involving interventions performed by anesthesiologist, surgeon, and clinical perfusionist, were documented. Simultaneously, in-line hemodynamic parameters (partial oxygen pressure, partial carbon dioxide pressure, hematocrit, arterial blood pressure, and CPB flow rates) were recorded. Cerebral tissue saturation was affected by anesthetic induction (p < .001), placement of the sternal retractor (p < .001), and initiation (p < .001) as well as termination of CPB (p < .001). Placement (p < .001) and removal of the aortic cross-clamp (p = .026 for left hemisphere, p = .048 for right hemisphere) led to changes in cerebral tissue saturation. In addition, when placing the aortic crossclamp, hematocrit (p < .001) as well as arterial (p = .007) and venous (p < .001) partial oxygen pressures changed. Cerebral tissue oximetry effectively identifies changes related to surgical events or vulnerable periods during cardiac surgery. Future studies are needed to identify methods of mitigating periods of reduced cerebral saturation. Keywords: cardiopulmonary bypass, pulsatile flow, cerebral tissue oximetry, near-infrared spectroscopy.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 03/2015; 47(1):32-37.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract: Avoiding or managing hyperkalemia during cardiac surgery, especially in a patient with chronic renal insufficiency, can be challenging. Hyperkalemic cardioplegia solution is usually administered to achieve and maintain an electrical arrest of the heart. This solution eventually mixes in with the systemic circulation, contributing to elevated systemic potassium levels. Administration of packed red blood cells, hemolysis, tissue damage, and acidosis are also common causes of hyperkalemia. Current strategies to avoid or manage hyperkalemia include minimizing the volume of cardioplegia administered, shifting potassium from the extracellular into the intracellular space (by the administration of sodium bicarbonate when the pH is low and/or dextrose–insulin when effects relatively independent of serum pH are desired), using zerobalanced ultrafiltration (Z-BUF) with normal saline as the replacement fluid (to remove potassium from the body rather than simply shift the electrolyte across cellular membranes), and, occasionally, hemodialysis (1). We report the application of Z-BUF using an electrolyte-balanced, low potassium dialysate solution rather than isotonic saline to avoid a high chloride load and the potential for hyperchloremic acidosis to successfully treat hyperkalemia while on cardiopulmonary bypass. Keywords: cardioplegia, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), kidney JECT. 2014;46:262–266
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 09/2014; 46:262-266.
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    ABSTRACT: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia presents a challenge for anticoagulation techniques during cardiac surgery and ventricular assist device implantation. Bivalirudin is currently recommended for use during cardiopulmonary bypass for patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia but requires the use of special techniques to avoid blood stagnation. We report the successful use of bivalirudin during cardiopulmonary bypass for implantation of the Total Artificial Heart with late operative bleeding likely resulting from heavy cell saver use.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 06/2014; 46(2):170-2.
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory lung injury is an inevitable consequence of cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The lungs are particularly susceptible to the effects of the systemic inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. This insult is further exacerbated by a pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury after termination of bypass. Older patients and those with pre-existing lung disease will clearly be less tolerant of any lung injury and more likely to develop respiratory failure in the postoperative period. A requirement for prolonged ventilation has implications for morbidity, mortality, and cost of treatment. This review contains a summary of recent interventions and changes of practice that may reduce inflammatory lung injury after cardiac surgery. The review also focuses on a number of general aspects of perioperative management, which may exacerbate such injury, if performed poorly.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 06/2014; 46(2):130-41.
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    ABSTRACT: The use of extracorporeal life support systems (ECLS) in patients with postcardiotomy low cardiac output syndrome (LCO) as a bridge to recovery and bridge to implantation of ventricular assist device (VAD) is common nowadays. A 59-year-old patient with acute myocardial infarction received a percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting of the circumflex artery. During catheterization of the left coronary artery (LAD), the patient showed ventricular fibrillation and required defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. After implantation of an intra-aortic balloon pump, the patient immediately was transmitted to the operating room. He received emergency coronary artery bypass grafting in a beating heart technique using pump-assisted minimal extracorporeal circulation circuit (MECC). Two bypass grafts were performed to the LAD and the right posterior descending artery. Despite initial successful weaning off cardiopulmonary bypass with high-dose inotropic support, the patient presented postcardiotomy LCO and an ECLS was implanted. The primary setup of the heparin-coated MECC system was modified and used postoperatively. As a result of the absence of an in-house VAD program, the patient was switched to a transportable ECLS the next day and was transferred by helicopter to the nearest VAD center where the patient received a successful insertion of a left VAD 3 days later.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 06/2014; 46(2):166-9.
  • The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 06/2014; 46(2):127-9.
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    ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 27-year-old woman with signs of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (HITT) and left heart failure presenting for urgent implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). HITT can occur in 4.2-6.1% of patients with LVADs. If the patient remains hemodynamically stable, implantation can be delayed for several months until the heparin/PF-4 antibodies decline allowing the use of heparin on cardiopulmonary bypass, However, in most cases related to cardiogenic shock, surgery cannot be delayed. We present the case of a patient who underwent implantation of a HeartMate II LVAD and discuss management strategy using bivalirudin during cardiopulmonary bypass.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 06/2014; 46(2):162-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal (GI) complications are an uncommon but potentially devastating complication of cardiac surgery. The reported incidence varies between .3% and 5.5% with an associated mortality of .3-87%. A wide range of GI complications are reported with bleeding, mesenteric ischemia, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, and ileus the most common. Ischemia is thought to be the main cause of GI complications with hypoperfusion during cardiac surgery as well as systemic inflammation, hypothermia, drug therapy, and mechanical factors contributing. Several nonischemic mechanisms may contribute to GI complications, including bacterial translocation, adverse drug reactions, and iatrogenic organ injury. Risk factors for GI complications are advanced age (>70 years), reoperation or emergency surgery, comorbidities (renal disease, respiratory disease, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiac failure), perioperative use of an intra-aortic balloon pump or inotrope therapy, prolonged surgery or cardiopulmonary bypass, and postoperative complications. Multiple strategies to reduce the incidence of GI complications exist, including risk stratification scores, targeted inotrope and fluid therapy, drug therapies, and modification of cardiopulmonary bypass. Currently, no single therapy has consistently proven efficacy in reducing GI complications. Timely diagnosis and treatment, while tailored to the specific complication and patient, is essential for optimal management and outcomes in this challenging patient population.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 06/2014; 46(2):142-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a lifesaving therapy for patients with cardiopulmonary failure after cardiac surgery. Fluid overload (FO) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in this population. We present our experience using peritoneal dialysis (PD) as an adjunct for fluid removal in eight consecutive neonates requiring ECMO after cardiac surgery between 2010 and 2012. PD was added to FO management when fluid removal goals were not being met by hemofiltration (HF) or hemodialysis (HD). Percent FO was 36% at ECMO initiation; 88% (seven of eight) achieved negative fluid balance before discontinuation of ECMO. PD removed median 119 mL/kg/day (interquartile range [IQR], 70-166) compared with median 132 mL/kg/day (IQR, 47-231) removed by HF/HD. PD and HF/HD fluid removal were performed concurrently 38% of the time. Unlike HF/HD, PD was never stopped secondary to hemodynamic compromise. Median duration of ECMO was 155 hours (IQR, 118-215). Six of eight patients were successfully decannulated. These results suggest PD safely and effectively removes fluid in neonates on ECMO after cardiac surgery. PD may increase total fluid removal potential when combined with other modalities.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 06/2014; 46(2):157-61.
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    ABSTRACT: Whole blood from the heart-lung (bypass) machine may be processed through a cell salvaging device (i.e., cell saver [CS]) and subsequently administered to the patient during cardiac surgery. It was determined at our institution that CS volume was being discarded. A multidisciplinary team consisting of anesthesiologists, perfusionists, intensive care physicians, quality improvement (QI) professionals, and bedside nurses met to determine the challenges surrounding autologous blood delivery in its entirety. A review of cardiac surgery patients' charts (n = 21) was conducted for analysis of CS waste. After identification of practices that were leading to CS waste, interventions were designed and implemented. Fishbone diagram, key driver diagram, Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles, and data collection forms were used throughout this QI process to track and guide progress regarding CS waste. Of patients under 6 kg (n = 5), 80% had wasted CS blood before interventions, whereas those patients larger than 36 kg (n = 8) had 25% wasted CS before interventions. Seventy-five percent of patients under 6 kg who had wasted CS blood received packed red blood cell transfusions in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit within 24 hours of their operation. After data collection and didactic education sessions (PDSA Cycle I), CS blood volume waste was reduced to 5% in all patients. Identification and analysis of the root cause followed by implementation of education, training, and management of change (PDSA Cycle II) resulted in successful use of 100% of all CS blood volume.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 03/2014; 46(1):45-52.
  • The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 03/2014; 46(1):67-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive deterioration can reliably be measured after procedures requiring anesthesia and surgery. Cardiac surgery has had the spotlight because of the high reported incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in early studies, but such effects occur after other surgical procedures as well. "Early" postoperative cognitive dysfunction should be considered as a different phenomenon, relating to acute pharmacological, physiological, and stress-related recovery. The focus should be on what is affecting patients at 3 months, 12 months, and 5 years later. Like with many other aspects of perioperative risk, a significant element is the patient's preoperative cognitive status. We now know that up to one-third of overtly "normal" elective cardiac surgical patients enter surgery with some degree of pre-existing cognitive impairment or, when applying psychogeriatric measures, mild cognitive impairment. The latter is a known prodrome or early stage of the amyloid associated Alzheimer's disease dementia. Inflammatory responses during cardiac surgery have been recognized for years, but our understanding of the complexity of systemic inflammatory response has grown significantly with the ability to assay neurohumoral markers such as interleukins. The blood-brain barrier is made vulnerable by both pre-existing disorders (mild cognitive impairment/amyloid; vascular disease) and by the inflammatory response to surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. Inflammation affecting the brain at this time may set in motion accelerated neurological and hence cognitive decline that, despite an initial recovery and even functional improvement, may proceed to further long-term decline at an accelerated rate in susceptible individuals. Clinical data are emerging from longer-term studies to support this concern, but evidence for effective preventive or therapeutic strategies is limited.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 03/2014; 46(1):15-22.
  • The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 03/2014; 46(1):101-2.
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    ABSTRACT: Gaseous microemboli (GME) define small bubbles as < 200 microm in size. GME are reported to increase morbidity after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and cardiac surgery. To prevent intrusion of GME into the systemic circulation during CPB, arterial line filtration is generally recommended. New trends in oxygenator design promote location of arterial filtration as an integral part of the oxygenator housing. The present experimental study aimed to evaluate the GME removal properties of an integrated arterial screen filter in a standard microporous oxygenator. The GME properties of Terumo Capiox FX25 with an integrated arterial screen filter was assessed in an experimental setup and compared with Capiox RX25, in which no arterial screen filter is present. A blood analog prime solution was recirculated using a roller pump at 4 and 6 L per minute flow rate, respectively, through a customized CPB circuit comprising oxygenator, reservoir, and connecting tubing. A controlled volume of air was introduced into the circuit. The GME activity was measured and computed using a Gampt BCC200 ultrasonic device placing one probe at the venous inlet and one other at the arterial outlet of the oxygenator. Transmembrane delta values of GME activity were used to calculate the removal efficacy based on counts and volume of GME. Use of screen filtration reduced the GME volume by 99.1% +/- .1% compared with 98.0% +/- .1% for controls at 4 L/min flow rate (p < .001). At 6 L/min, the reduction was 97.9% +/- .1% compared with 97.0% +/- .1% (p < .001). In contrast, the reduction of GME counts was less effective after screen filtration compared with controls: 89.6 +/- .6% versus 91.4 +/- .4% at 4 L/min and 55.6% +/- 1.6% versus 76.0% +/- 1.4% at 6 L/min, respectively (p < .001). The tested oxygenator with incorporated arterial screen filter reduced GME activity based on the calculated volume at the same time as counts of GME increased.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 03/2014; 46(1):60-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to determine the best measure of heparin anticoagulation in neonatal patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Activated clotting time (ACT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and antifactor Xa levels, along with corresponding heparin infusion rates and heparin bolus volumes, were collected from neonates receiving ECMO at our institution from 2008 to 2013. After natural log transformation of antifactor Xa, ACT, and aPTT, overall correlations between antifactor Xa levels and either ACT or aPTT and correlations between these tests and heparin infusion rates were evaluated using linear mixed models that accounted for both within- and between-patient correlations. Twenty-six neonates with an average weight of 3.4 kg (standard deviation .7) had a total of 27 separate ECMO runs during the study period. Within each patient, ACT (r = .40, p < .0001) and aPTT (r = .48, p < .0001) were both directly correlated with antifactor Xa levels. In contrast, between patients, only aPTT maintained a direct correlation with antifactor Xa (r = .61, p = .07), whereas ACT showed a statistically significant inverse correlation with antifactor Xa (r = -.48, p = .04). Compared with ACT, aPTT is more consistently reflective of the anticoagulation status both within each patient on ECMO and between patients treated with ECMO. Future efforts to develop standardized heparin infusion algorithms for patients on ECMO should consider using aPTT levels to monitor anticoagulation.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 03/2014; 46(1):69-76.