The Journal of extra-corporeal technology

Publisher: American Society of Extra-Corporeal Technology


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    Journal of Extra-Corporeal Technology website
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    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology, Journal of extracorporeal technology
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    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neurologic injury after cardiac surgery is principally associated with emboli. Although much work has focused on surgical sources of emboli, less attention has been focused on emboli associated with the heart-lung machine. We tested whether emboli are associated with discrete processes during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). One hundred patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery were enrolled between April 2008 and May 2011 at a single medical center. During each surgical procedure, emboli were counted in three CPB locations: the venous side (Channel 1), before the arterial line filter (Channel 2), and after the arterial line filter (Channel 3). We used prespecified event markers to identify perfusionist interventions. Identical circuits were used on all patients. Of the 100 patients enrolled, 62 underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 17 underwent isolated valve operations, and 21 underwent CABG plus valve. Median counts across Channels 1, 2, and 3 were 69,853, 3,017, and 1,251, respectively. The greatest contributor to emboli in Channels 1, 2, and 3, respectively, were achieving the calculated CPB flow, opening of the electronic arterial line clamp, and introducing a hemofilter. The circuit technology was efficient in reducing total emboli counts from Channels 1-2 irrespective of the size of the emboli. Nearly 71% of all emboli 30-100 microm in size were removed from the circuit between Channels 2 and 3. No significant association was found between emboli counts and S100B release. Emboli occur frequently during CPB and are predominantly associated with the initiation of bypass, operation of the electronic arterial line clamp, and the initiation of a hemofilter. Continued work to reduce the occurrence of emboli is warranted.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 06/2014; 46(2):150-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a lifesaving therapy for patients with cardiopulmonary failure after cardiac surgery. Fluid overload (FO) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in this population. We present our experience using peritoneal dialysis (PD) as an adjunct for fluid removal in eight consecutive neonates requiring ECMO after cardiac surgery between 2010 and 2012. PD was added to FO management when fluid removal goals were not being met by hemofiltration (HF) or hemodialysis (HD). Percent FO was 36% at ECMO initiation; 88% (seven of eight) achieved negative fluid balance before discontinuation of ECMO. PD removed median 119 mL/kg/day (interquartile range [IQR], 70-166) compared with median 132 mL/kg/day (IQR, 47-231) removed by HF/HD. PD and HF/HD fluid removal were performed concurrently 38% of the time. Unlike HF/HD, PD was never stopped secondary to hemodynamic compromise. Median duration of ECMO was 155 hours (IQR, 118-215). Six of eight patients were successfully decannulated. These results suggest PD safely and effectively removes fluid in neonates on ECMO after cardiac surgery. PD may increase total fluid removal potential when combined with other modalities.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 06/2014; 46(2):157-61.
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    ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 27-year-old woman with signs of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (HITT) and left heart failure presenting for urgent implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). HITT can occur in 4.2-6.1% of patients with LVADs. If the patient remains hemodynamically stable, implantation can be delayed for several months until the heparin/PF-4 antibodies decline allowing the use of heparin on cardiopulmonary bypass, However, in most cases related to cardiogenic shock, surgery cannot be delayed. We present the case of a patient who underwent implantation of a HeartMate II LVAD and discuss management strategy using bivalirudin during cardiopulmonary bypass.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 06/2014; 46(2):162-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Patients and parents of Jehovah's Witness (JW) faith present multiple challenges to a medical team, especially in the neonatal and pediatric population. The medical team must balance honoring the parents' request of not receiving blood products and fulfilling our commitment as advocates for the child's wellbeing. A multidisciplinary approach to cardiac surgery must be embraced for bloodless cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to be successful. At our institution, we have developed strategies and techniques for blood conservation that are used preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively for every CPB case with the goal of a bloodless procedure. These protocols include: preoperative erythropoietin, preoperative iron administration, selection of a CPB circuit specific to the patient's height and weight, acute normovolemic hemodilution, retrograde autologous prime and venous autologous prime, tranexamic acid administration, zero-balance ultrafiltration, flushing of the pump suckers post-CPB, modified ultrafiltration, and cell salvage. We present an 8-day-old, 3.2-kg patient of JW faith with aortic valve stenosis and regurgitation and a patent foramen ovale who underwent a bloodless left ventricle-to-aorta tunnel repair and aortic valve repair on CPB.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 06/2014; 46(2):173-6.
  • The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 06/2014; 46(2):127-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory lung injury is an inevitable consequence of cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The lungs are particularly susceptible to the effects of the systemic inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. This insult is further exacerbated by a pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury after termination of bypass. Older patients and those with pre-existing lung disease will clearly be less tolerant of any lung injury and more likely to develop respiratory failure in the postoperative period. A requirement for prolonged ventilation has implications for morbidity, mortality, and cost of treatment. This review contains a summary of recent interventions and changes of practice that may reduce inflammatory lung injury after cardiac surgery. The review also focuses on a number of general aspects of perioperative management, which may exacerbate such injury, if performed poorly.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 06/2014; 46(2):130-41.
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    ABSTRACT: The use of extracorporeal life support systems (ECLS) in patients with postcardiotomy low cardiac output syndrome (LCO) as a bridge to recovery and bridge to implantation of ventricular assist device (VAD) is common nowadays. A 59-year-old patient with acute myocardial infarction received a percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting of the circumflex artery. During catheterization of the left coronary artery (LAD), the patient showed ventricular fibrillation and required defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. After implantation of an intra-aortic balloon pump, the patient immediately was transmitted to the operating room. He received emergency coronary artery bypass grafting in a beating heart technique using pump-assisted minimal extracorporeal circulation circuit (MECC). Two bypass grafts were performed to the LAD and the right posterior descending artery. Despite initial successful weaning off cardiopulmonary bypass with high-dose inotropic support, the patient presented postcardiotomy LCO and an ECLS was implanted. The primary setup of the heparin-coated MECC system was modified and used postoperatively. As a result of the absence of an in-house VAD program, the patient was switched to a transportable ECLS the next day and was transferred by helicopter to the nearest VAD center where the patient received a successful insertion of a left VAD 3 days later.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 06/2014; 46(2):166-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal (GI) complications are an uncommon but potentially devastating complication of cardiac surgery. The reported incidence varies between .3% and 5.5% with an associated mortality of .3-87%. A wide range of GI complications are reported with bleeding, mesenteric ischemia, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, and ileus the most common. Ischemia is thought to be the main cause of GI complications with hypoperfusion during cardiac surgery as well as systemic inflammation, hypothermia, drug therapy, and mechanical factors contributing. Several nonischemic mechanisms may contribute to GI complications, including bacterial translocation, adverse drug reactions, and iatrogenic organ injury. Risk factors for GI complications are advanced age (>70 years), reoperation or emergency surgery, comorbidities (renal disease, respiratory disease, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiac failure), perioperative use of an intra-aortic balloon pump or inotrope therapy, prolonged surgery or cardiopulmonary bypass, and postoperative complications. Multiple strategies to reduce the incidence of GI complications exist, including risk stratification scores, targeted inotrope and fluid therapy, drug therapies, and modification of cardiopulmonary bypass. Currently, no single therapy has consistently proven efficacy in reducing GI complications. Timely diagnosis and treatment, while tailored to the specific complication and patient, is essential for optimal management and outcomes in this challenging patient population.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 06/2014; 46(2):142-9.
  • The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 06/2014; 46(2):119-26.
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    ABSTRACT: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia presents a challenge for anticoagulation techniques during cardiac surgery and ventricular assist device implantation. Bivalirudin is currently recommended for use during cardiopulmonary bypass for patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia but requires the use of special techniques to avoid blood stagnation. We report the successful use of bivalirudin during cardiopulmonary bypass for implantation of the Total Artificial Heart with late operative bleeding likely resulting from heavy cell saver use.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 06/2014; 46(2):170-2.
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    ABSTRACT: Optimal anticoagulation plays a pivotal role in successful outcome of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Heparin has been the anticoagulant of choice owing to its advantages like easy monitoring and reversibility. However, if heparin resistance is encountered, one has to decide whether to treat heparin resistance with fresh-frozen plasma or antithrombin concentrates or to choose one of the heparin alternatives for anticoagulation. We report a case of heparin resistance resulting from antithrombin III deficiency in a patient on venovenous ECMO, in which anticoagulation was managed with bivalirudin. The dose of bivalirudin for anticoagulation in ECMO has not been standardized and different authors have reported different doses. We found a bivalirudin dose of .1-.2 mg/kg/h to be adequate to maintain a target activated clotting time of 200-220 seconds. Platelet counts were stable throughout and no major bleeding or thrombotic complications took place. We found bivalirudin to be a feasible and effective anticoagulant and safe to use for long durations in ECMO without any major complications.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 03/2014; 46(1):94-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Patients, payers, and the public have increased expectations concerning the quality, safety and costs of our health care delivery systems. Whether or not to redesign our complex delivery systems is no longer in question. In order to succeed in optimizing care and outcomes (clinical and financial) for our stakeholders, we must design and evaluate tests of change. This journey will require a fundamental shift in our traditional thinking about healthcare delivery systems, including how: (1) each of us relates (effectively or not) to one another, and (2) the value of our patient's care is impacted accordingly. With this challenge in mind, this article will provide insight to the reader concerning clinical microsystems, small groups of professionals who work together on a regular basis to provide care to discrete populations of patients. The reader will learn how to leverage these microsystems to meet our stakeholders' expectations, namely to optimize the quality, safety and costs of our health care delivery systems.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 03/2014; 46(1):33-7.
  • The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 03/2014; 46(1):103-4.
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    ABSTRACT: The most common cardiac surgical procedures are coronary artery bypass graft surgery and aortic or mitral valve repair or replacement. Underlying conditions include coronary artery disease and heart failure, manifesting as exertional angina, dyspnea, and poor exercise tolerance. The major goals of surgery are to alleviate symptoms and improve patient survival. These, therefore, should inform the choice of primary outcome measures in clinical studies enrolling patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Studies focusing on surrogate outcome measures are relied on all too often. Many are of questionable significance and often have no convincing relationship with patient outcome. Traditional "hard endpoint" outcome measures include serious complications and death with the former including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Such serious adverse outcomes are commonly collected in registries, but because they occur infrequently, they need to be large to reliably detect true associations and treatment effects. For this reason, some investigators combine several outcomes into a single composite endpoint. Cardiovascular trials commonly use major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) as a composite primary endpoint. However, there is no standard definition for MACE. Most include MI, stroke, and death; others include rehospitalization for heart failure, revascularization, cardiac arrest, or bleeding complications. An influential trial in noncardiac surgery found that perioperative beta-blockers reduced the risk of MI but increased the risk of stroke and death. Such conflicting findings challenge the veracity of such composite endpoints and raise a far more important question: which of these endpoints, or even others that were unmeasured, are most important to a patient recovering from surgery? Given the primary aims of cardiac surgery are to relieve symptoms and improve good quality survival, it is disability-free survival that is the ultimate outcome measure. The question then becomes: what is disability and how should it be quantified after cardiac surgery?
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 03/2014; 46(1):23-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Developing technologies have changed both the components and the management style when extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used to support critically ill cardiac and respiratory patients. The Cardiohelp system is a small, portable extracorporeal system just recently available within the United States. Manufacturing standards and quality processes have made mechanical failure and malfunction of extracorporeal components less common; however, there is still potential for mechanical failure or component malfunction before or during extracorporeal support. This case review describes the malfunction of a Retroguard unidirectional flow valve integrated into the priming setup of a Cardiohelp system during the priming process.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 03/2014; 46(1):98-100.
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    ABSTRACT: Failure of components integrated into the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit, although rare, can bring about catastrophic results. One of these components is the heat exchanger of the membrane oxygenator. In this compartment, unsterile water from the heater cooler device is separated from the sterile blood by stainless steel, aluminum, or by polyurethane. These areas are glued or welded to keep the two compartments separate, maintaining sterility of the blood. Although quality control testing is performed by the manufacturer at the factory level, transport presents the real possibility for damage. Because of this, each manufacturer has included in the instructions for use a testing procedure for testing the integrity of the heat exchanger component. Water is circulated through the heat exchanger before priming and a visible check is made of the oxygenator bundle to check for leaks. If none are apparent, then priming of the oxygenator is performed. In this particular case, this procedure was not useful in detecting communication between the water and blood chambers of the oxygenator.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 03/2014; 46(1):91-3.
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    ABSTRACT: In an effort to provide optimal patient care, perfusionists should rely on information provided by current research. Present statistics, however, document a substantial underuse of evidence-based clinical practice and therapies not only in perfusion, but throughout the entire medical field. This investigation applied a statistical method--binomial proportion analysis--to aid in uncovering the trends in perfusion practice from 2004 to 2011. Through the analysis of national adult perfusion practice surveys, the feasibility of using binomial proportion statistical analysis is assessed in its ability to track adult perfusion practice proportional differentials over time and evaluate the adoption and attitudes toward the compliance of evidence-based practice within the field of perfusion. Surveys conducted in 2004 and 2006 on adult perfusion practice in the United States--although not published--are compared with data obtained by a similar survey distributed in 2011 through an international perfusion network system and perfusion mailing system, Perflist and Perfmail. The increase of perfusionists who practice retrograde and antegrade autologous priming (R/A AP) seen from 2004 to 2006 (35-50%) was statistically significant (Z(cal) = -2.30, p < .05) and from 2006 to 2011 (Z(calc) = -5.23; p < .05). Although the increase in biocompatible circuit (BC) use by perfusionists from 2004-2006 (53-64%) was not statistically significant (Z(calc) = -1.69, p < .05), the use of BCs did continue to increase (86%) significantly from 2006 to 2011 (Z(calc) = -9.15, p < .05). Other trends were observed; however, statistical significance was variable. This investigation demonstrates that binomial proportion statistical analysis is an effective method of evaluating perfusion practice trends and adoptions based on increasing or decreasing perfusion population proportion compliance over time.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 03/2014; 46(1):53-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Acquired antithrombin (AT) deficiency has been associated with patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a result of hemodilution, blood coagulation activation, and the use of heparin. Replacement of AT has been typically utilized through the use of fresh-frozen plasma or AT concentrate. Antithrombin alfa (ATryn) is a recombinant form of AT (rAT) with an identical amino acid sequence as that of plasma-derived antithrombin. The primary objective of this study is to examine the relationship of rAT dose to measured plasma antithrombin activity in a small series of patients who received rAT while on ECMO. A retrospective chart review was performed of all patients at Medical City Children's Hospital who received ATryn while supported on ECMO between December 2011 and April 2012. Five patients were identified and the patients' weight, bolus dose of ATryn, drip rate of ATryn, and AT blood levels were collected for analysis. The median age of these patients was 1 month (range, 1 day to 3.75 years). Because no dosing guidelines exist for pediatric ECMO, a starting dose of ATryn was chosen based on the manufacturer's labeled indication (prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with AT hereditary deficiency). The median dose of rAT was 368 IU/kg/day (range, 104-520 IU/kg/day) to obtain AT activity level of 80-120%. The average time to reach the targeted AT activity level (80-120%) was 12.7 hours (range, 11-17 hours). Our findings suggest that the published ATryn dose may be inadequate to reach desired AT activity concentrations for pediatric patients on ECMO. Difference in patient population, use of extracorporeal circuits, and the use of heparin are likely explanations for this finding. We would also recommend frequent checking of AT levels while delivering this drug because making timely adjustments is necessary for achieving and maintaining the target AT activity level.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 03/2014; 46(1):84-90.
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    ABSTRACT: The use of intravenous fluids is routine in patients undergoing surgery or critical illness; however, controversy still exists regarding optimum fluid therapy. Recent literature has examined the effects of different types, doses, and timing of intravenous fluid therapy. Each of these factors may influence patient outcomes. Crystalloids consist of isotonic saline or balanced electrolyte solutions and widely distribute across extracellular fluid compartments, whereas colloids contain high-molecular-weight molecules suspended in crystalloid carrier solution and do not freely distribute across the extracellular fluid compartments. Colloids vary in composition and associated potential adverse effects. Recent evidence has highlighted safety and ethical concerns regarding the use of colloid solutions in critically ill patients, particularly the use of synthetic starch solutions, which have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Crystalloid solutions with a chloride-rich composition (e.g., isotonic saline) have been associated with metabolic acidosis, hyperchloremia, increased incidence of acute kidney injury, and increased requirement for renal replacement therapy. An optimum dose of intravenous fluids remains controversial with no definitive evidence to support restrictive versus liberal approaches. Further high-quality trials are needed to elucidate the optimum fluid therapy for patients, but currently a balanced approach to type, dose, and timing of fluids is recommended.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 03/2014; 46(1):28-32.

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