Journal of Chronic Diseases (J Chron Dis )

Publisher: Elsevier

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Website Journal of Chronic Diseases website
Other titles Journal of chronic diseases
ISSN 0021-9681
OCLC 1754500
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
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    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
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    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using administrative data for longitudinal research, focusing on loss to follow-up. Comparisons between research relying on primary data collection and that using data bases are made. After development of a suitable framework, follow-up in several well-known projects based on primary data collection (the Seven Countries project on coronary heart disease, the Massachusetts research on long-term care and the Pittsburgh clinical trial of tonsillectomy) is compared with follow-up using the Health Services Commission data base in Manitoba, Canada. Overall follow-up in the Manitoba research compares favorably with participation and follow-up rates in other studies based on primary data collection. Initial nonresponse and nonlocation are major problems with studies using primary data; failure to locate earlier respondents in subsequent waves results in a wide range of overall response rates. Data bases do not require researchers to contact individuals and hence follow-up is simplified. Eight year follow-up rates in the Manitoba data base are almost always over 80% and often over 90%. Because records can be flexibly summarized for each individual over time, data bases facilitate certain types of longitudinal studies which would be difficult, if not impossible, to perform using other methodologies. If the desired data are available and recorded with acceptable accuracy, administrative data banks hold considerable promise for the health care researcher.
    Journal of Chronic Diseases 02/1987; 40(1):41-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Physicians use the concept of stability to estimate the likelihood that a patient will deteriorate during a hospitalization. To determine whether physicians can accurately predict a patient's risk of morbidity, 603 patients admitted to the medical service during a one month period were rated prospectively as to how stable they were. Overall, 15% of patients had deterioration of already compromised systems, while 17% had new complications, such as sepsis. Eight percent of patients had both. Twelve percent of stable patients experienced morbidity; 39% of the somewhat unstable and 61% of the most unstable. When all of the demographic and clinical variables were taken into account including the reason for admission and comorbid diseases, the residents' estimates of the patient's stability was the most significant predictor of morbidity (p less than 0.001). The judgment that a patient was stable had an 87% negative predictive accuracy, while the judgment unstable had a 46% positive predictive accuracy.
    Journal of Chronic Diseases 02/1987; 40(7):705-12.
  • Journal of Chronic Diseases 02/1987; 40(6):635-40.
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    ABSTRACT: The accuracy of routinely collected mortality data for ischemic heart disease (IHD) as indicators of death from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was assessed in ages 25-64 years, according to the WHO criteria defined in 1983. Cases were identified from computer records (linked for individuals) of all death certificates and hospital discharges in Western Australia between 1971 and 1982. Where the official cause was IHD about 90% of deaths fulfilled the WHO criteria for definite or possible AMI. Up to 10% of fatal cases of definite or possible AMI were coded to other causes in the official death statistics, however it appeared that variations in this figure with changes in coding practices could cause appreciable bias in the estimation of secular trends in IHD mortality. This problem could largely be overcome by reviewing fatal events where the death certificate was coded to one of a limited number of other ICD rubrics.
    Journal of Chronic Diseases 02/1987; 40(7):661-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of measurement error on the accuracy of results in two epidemiological study designs involving longitudinal lung function data was assessed using computer modelling. Five realistic data sets (cohorts) were created, each of 400 subjects, half of whom were exposed to an agent whose effects approximated in magnitude that of cigarette smoking. In each cohort, FEV1 decline was modelled after 6, 4 and 2 years of observation with and without error in the measurement of level of FEV1. For each length of observation the effect of exposure on decline was estimated using a follow-up design comparing the FEV1 decline between exposure groups, and a case-control design comparing risk of exposure in subjects in the top 20th percentile of FEV1 decline (cases) to exposure in those in the bottom 20th percentile (controls). For both study designs an exposure effect at p 0.01 could only be consistently detected after 6 years of observation.
    Journal of Chronic Diseases 02/1987;
  • Journal of Chronic Diseases 02/1987; 40(4):365-6.
  • Journal of Chronic Diseases 02/1987; 40(4):368.
  • Journal of Chronic Diseases 02/1987; 40(4):367-8.
  • Journal of Chronic Diseases 02/1987; 40(9):905-6.
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship between social network interaction and total and cardiovascular mortality in 17,433 Swedish men and women between the ages of 29 and 74 during a 6 year follow-up period. The study group was interviewed concerning their social network interactions and a total score was formed which summarized the availability of social contact. A number of sociodemographic and health related background variables known to be associated with mortality risk were also considered. Mortality was examined by linking the interview material with the Swedish National Mortality Registry. In the 6-year follow-up period 841 deaths occurred. The crude relative risk of dying during this period was 3.7 (95% CL 3.2; 4.3) when the lower social network tertile was compared to the upper two tertiles. When controlling for potential confounding effects, only age had a major influence on the association between social network interaction and mortality (RR age-adjusted = 1.46, 95% CL 1.25; 1.72). Controlling for age and sex, age and educational level, age and employment status, age and immigrant status, age and smoking, age and exercise habits and age and chronic disease at interview left the relative risk virtually unchanged. Controlling simultaneously for age, smoking, exercise and chronic illness yielded a risk estimate of 1.36 (95% CL 1.06; 1.69). Similar results were obtained when separately analyzing for cardiovascular disease mortality in an identical manner.
    Journal of Chronic Diseases 02/1987; 40(10):949-57.
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    ABSTRACT: Health insurance systems are generating large numbers of claims filed by physicians and hospitals for reimbursement and accounting purposes. This paper describes and evaluates a measure of health status derived from physician and hospital claims filed for a sample of older Canadians during 1970–1977. Information on the number, type, and seriousness of reported diagnoses and the number and duration of hospitalizations and surgeries during each year were combined to generate annual Illness Scales ranging from 0 to 24. Alpha coefficients, measures of internal consistency, were between 0.82 and 0.84. Consistent with high validity, Illness Scale scores increased with age, were significantly associated with other health measures, and were strongly predictive of death and hospitalization in the following year. The ability to develop valid and reliable health status measures from insurance claims substantially expands the potential use of these data for research and evaluation.
    Journal of Chronic Diseases 02/1987;
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    Journal of Chronic Diseases 02/1987; 40(7):737-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The Framingham Heart Study has been the foundation upon which several national policies regarding risk factors for coronary heart disease mortality are based. The NHANES I Epidemiologic Followup Study is the first national cohort study based upon a comprehensive medical examination of a probability sample of United States adults. The average follow-up time was 10 years. This study afforded an opportunity to evaluate the generalizability of the Framingham risk model, using systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and cigarette smoking, to the U.S. population with respect to predicting death from coronary heart disease. The Framingham model predicts remarkably well for this national sample. The major risk factors for coronary heart disease mortality described in previous Framingham analyses are applicable to the United States white adult population.
    Journal of Chronic Diseases 02/1987; 40(8):775-84.
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    ABSTRACT: In the Beta Blocker Heart Attack Trial, a double blind, randomized, controlled study, patients taking propranolol (180 or 240 mg/day) initiated 5-21 days post myocardial infarction had 26% fewer deaths than those taking placebo over a 25 month (mean) followup. Detailed analysis of the circumstances surrounding the BHAT deaths failed to reveal any striking difference between propranolol and placebo in the type of clinical event preceding death, the incidence and type of acute and prodromal signs and symptoms, the location of death, the activity preceding death or the percentage of deaths that were sudden or instantaneous, suggesting that propranolol may exert an "across the board" effect and improve survival by a combination of mechanisms. An unexpected finding was that the protective effect of propranolol appeared to occur during the hours of 10 p.m. to 7 a.m.
    Journal of Chronic Diseases 02/1987; 40(1):75-82.
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    ABSTRACT: Hospital admissions for herniated lumbar intervertebral disc or sciatica were followed up over a period of 11 years in 57,000 men and women who had participated in medical check-ups in various parts of Finland. Information on their hospitalizations after the baseline examination was obtained by record linkage to the National Hospital Discharge Register. To identify factors predicting back diseases, four controls matched individually for sex, age and place of residence were chosen for each of the 592 incidence cases who were free from severe back trouble and aged 20-59 at entry. Low or intermediate social class and blue-collar occupations in services or industry in men and symptoms suggesting psychological distress in women proved significant predictors for hospitalization due to herniated lumbar disc or sciatica. An association with the risk was suggested for smoking or chronic cough in men and parity in women. Marital status or leisure time physical activity were not predictive of herniated lumbar intervertebral disc or sciatica.
    Journal of Chronic Diseases 02/1987; 40(3):251-8.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper asks the question: among 1474 Framingham Study participants aged 35-68 years who were healthy at their fourth examination (1954-1958), what are the physiologic, behavioral, and demographic characteristics that distinguish those who survive and report good function from those who do not after 21 years of biennial observations? Although a larger proportion of women than men survived, their functional status was not as good. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, ventricular rate, and education were all significantly related to functional status for men, with all but the last of these factors inversely related to good function. For women, the only significant predictor other than age was education, which, as with men, was directly associated with good function. The effect of education is probably mediated by numerous factors such as availability and use of health care services, quality of health care, occupation, and lifestyle.
    Journal of Chronic Diseases 02/1987; 40 Suppl 1:159S-167S, 181S-2.