Journal of Applied Electrochemistry (J APPL ELECTROCHEM )

Publisher: Springer Verlag

Description

The Journal of Applied Electrochemistry is the leading journal on technologically orientated aspects of electrochemistry. The interface between electrochemical science and engineering is highlighted emphasizing the application of electrochemistry to technological development and practice. The Journal publishes articles in fields such as cell design corrosion electrochemical reaction engineering the electrochemical treatment of effluents hydrometallurgy molten salt and solid state electrochemistry new battery systems solar cells and surface finishing. It also publishes review articles book reviews and news items and a comprehensive electrochemical events calendar.

  • Impact factor
    1.84
    Show impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    1.96
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.18
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.49
  • Website
    Journal of Applied Electrochemistry website
  • Other titles
    Journal of applied electrochemistry (Online)
  • ISSN
    0021-891X
  • OCLC
    37787244
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's pre-print on pre-print servers such as arXiv.org
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on any open access repository after 12 months after publication
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version (see policy)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this work, the Box–Behnken experimental design and the surface response methodology were applied for the optimization of the operational conditions of the electro-catalytic degradation of wastewaters, resulting from a local textile industry. The experiments were carried out in a laboratory scale batch cell reactor, with monopolar configuration, and electrodes made of boron-doped diamond (anode) and titanium (cathode). The multifactorial experimental design included the following variables: current density (i: 5–10 mA/cm2), pH (3–7), and submerged cathode area (CA: 8–24 cm2). To determine the process efficiency, the degradation percentage of: the chemical oxygen demand (%DCOD), the total organic carbon (%DTOC) and the color (%DC) were defined as response variables. The following optimal conditions for the electro-oxidation (EO) process were obtained: i = 10 mA/cm2, pH = 3 and CA = 16 cm2, reaching ca. 92 % of DC, 37 % of DCOD and 31 % of DTOC. The electro-Fenton (EF) and photo-electro-Fenton (PEF) processes were also evaluated at EO optimal conditions. For the EF process, with addition of iron (0.3 mM), the %DC, %DCOD and %DTOC was enhanced to 95, 52 and 45 %, respectively. For the PEF process (UV = 365 nm), it was possible to reach 98 %DC, 56 %DCOD and 48 %DTOC.
    Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 12/2014; 44(12).
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    ABSTRACT: On April 30, 2014, the World Health Organization’s first global report on the presence of antibiotics in waters focused on their negative consequences, which may include the growth of microorganisms with antimicrobial resistance. The β-lactam antibiotic amoxicillin (AMX) is widely used in human and veterinary medicine, and it has been recently detected in sewage treatment plants and effluents. In this paper, the degradation of acidic aqueous solutions of AMX by electro-Fenton process has been studied at constant current. Experiments have been performed in an undivided cell equipped with a carbon-felt cathode and a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. In such systems, the organic molecules are mainly oxidized by hydroxyl radical (•OH) simultaneously formed on the anode surface from water oxidation as well as in the bulk from Fenton’s reaction between Fe2+ catalyst and electrogenerated H2O2. The decay and mineralization of AMX was monitored by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and TOC measurements. The evolution of the concentration of the final aliphatic carboxylic acids and inorganic ions like ammonium, nitrate and sulfate was assessed by HPLC and ion chromatography, respectively. The effect of the anode material, initial AMX concentration and current density was thoroughly studied. The AMX decay always followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics using either Pt or BDD, and the apparent rate constant increased with applied current. A quicker mineralization was reached with BDD because of the larger production of active •OH. The absolute rate constant between hydroxyl radical and AMX determined by the competition kinetics method using p-hydroxybenzoic acid as the reference compound was found to be (2.02 ± 0.01) × 109 M−1 s−1.
    Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 12/2014; 44(12).
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    ABSTRACT: The properties of the confined aqueous layer potentiodynamically formed on polycrystalline gold in aqueous phosphate and sodium dodecylsulphate solutions were studied using voltammetry, ellipsometry, and contact angle measurements. The nature of the incipient oxide layer was analyzed as a function of the cycling time in the double layer-oxide monolayer potential region. The replacement of the electrolyte by hexane allows the increase of the optical signal. Different potential cycling conditions change the homogeneity of the confined aqueous incipient oxide layer leading to different structural characteristics.
    Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 12/2014; 44(12).
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    ABSTRACT: Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) represent an interesting alternative in obtaining electricity in a clean and efficient way. Portable power sources are one of the most promising applications of passive DMFCs. One of the requirements in these devices is to use high alcohol concentration, which due to methanol crossover causes a considerable loss of fuel cell efficiency. In order to develop methanol tolerant cathodes with suitable activity, different supported catalysts namely PtCo/C and PtCoRu/C, were prepared either via ethylene glycol reduction (EG) with or without microwave heating assistance (MW) or via the alloy method, the latter followed by a thermal treatment in a reducing atmosphere (N2/H2). All cathode-catalysts were tested to determine the role of the components in simultaneously enhancing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and discouraging the methanol oxidation reaction. According to the synthesis methodology, X-ray photoelectron spectra showed that the amount of metal oxides on the surface varies, being higher on the PtCo/C EG and PtCoRu/C EG catalysts. The electrochemical characterization of the catalysts was accomplished in a three electrodes electrochemical cell with a glassy carbon rotating disk electrode covered with a thin catalytic film as working electrode. To study the ORR and the influence of different methanol concentrations, linear sweep voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry were employed. The PtCo/C EG, with an important metal oxide amount on the surface, and the PtCoRu/C MW and EG electrodes, both with RuO2 on their surfaces, were the most tolerant to methanol presence.
    Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 12/2014; 44(12).
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, we present a comparison among three glassy carbon electrodes modified by Co-porphyrin, ortho-phenylenediamine, or both simultaneously. This comparison shows the differences among the electrochemical behavior, morphological characteristics and electrocatalytic behavior toward the sulfite oxidation of these electrodes. The electrode modified by Co-porphyrin, ortho-phenylenediamine and copolymer has been investigated in detail for the comparision of electrocatalytic activity towards the sulfite oxidation. In the case of the glassy carbon-modified electrodes, the presence of the copolymer enhances the electrocatalytic performance of the modified electrodes in spite of the non-catalytic response (compared to the bare glassy carbon) of both homopolymer-modified electrodes toward the oxidation of sulfite. Additionally, the oxidation of sulfite extracted from red wine is shown. The copolymer-modified electrode is capable of oxidizing the extracted free sulfite in a 0.02 M NaOH solution. Through the addition of standards method, a concentration of free sulfite in a Chilean red wine sample was determined to be 44 ppm.
    Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 12/2014; 44(12).
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    ABSTRACT: CuInS2 thin films were fabricated by one-step electrochemical deposition from a single alkaline aqueous solution and using conductive glass as the substrate. The electrolyte consisted in 0.01 mol L−1 CuCl2, 0.01 mol L−1 InCl3, 0.5 mol L−1 Na2SO3 and 0.2 mol L−1 Na3C3H5O(COO)3 (CitNa) at pH 8. The films were analyzed using a variety of techniques such as X-ray diffractometry, micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoelectrochemistry. After carrying out a thermal treatment in sulfur vapor, chalcopyrite CuInS2 thin films were obtained. Etching the films in KCN solution was found to be a key step, enabling a final adjustment in the stoichiometry. These thin films exhibited p-type semiconductor behavior with the bandgap of 1.43 eV. The results show that electrodeposition provides a cost-effective and versatile method for the preparation of thin films of CuInS2, even when acidic precursors need to be avoided.
    Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 12/2014; 44(12).
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    ABSTRACT: This work describes a comparison of the performance of different microchip configuration for microchip capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. Two electrodes gold and multistrand carbon fibers and two microchip construction materials polydimethylsiloxane/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS/PDMS) and polydimethylsiloxane/glass hybrid (PDMS/glass) were analyzed. The electrode is integrated into the microchip for in-channel triple pulse amperometric detection. Two different mixtures were analyzed (i.e., paracetamol (PA)-4-aminophenol (4-AP) and Dopamine (DO)-Dopac) to demonstrate the electrode and microchips performance. Other variables, such as injection and separation potentials, buffer pH, surfactants addition and injection time, were also analyzed. Hydrodynamic voltammograms were used to select working potential values, and +0.9 V for PA and 4-AP and +0.8 V for DO and dopac were chosen. The migration potential was modified in the 1,500–2,500 V range, and the employed value depends on the microchip materials. The separation process was tested by analyzing the current and migration time variation coefficients. The experimental results demonstrated that the hybrid PDMS/glass microchip with a carbon fiber electrode exhibited a better performance for both samples analyzed.
    Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 12/2014; 44(12).
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    ABSTRACT: Electro catalyst Pt–Co/multi-walled C nanotubes were synthesized by using the modified polyol method with glycol as reducer. The magnetic-field-assisted fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) was proposed, to orient catalyst layers and increase the efficiency of catalyst utilization. PEMFCs with the magnetic-field-treated MEA (M-MEA) exhibited significant performance improvement over common MEA (C-MEA) without magnetic-field treatment. Under the same operating conditions, the maximum power density of MEA increased from 149.6 to 223.8 mW cm−2 when C-MEA was replaced by M-MEA. Scanning electron microscope images showed that catalysts exhibited a “cluster-like structure” in M-MEA opposed to a chaotic arrangement in C-MEA. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements revealed that M-MEA reaction resistance was lower than that of C-MEA. Cyclic voltammetry data showed an increment of almost 29.6 % in electrochemical surface area as a result of the magnetic-field treatment.
    Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 11/2014; 44(11).
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    ABSTRACT: The carbon-supported PdCo@Pt core–shell nanoparticles for an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were prepared via a two-step process at room temperature. The as-prepared PdCo@Pt/C with an average particle size of ~3.5 nm exhibited a well-defined nanostructure consisting of Pd-rich core and Pt shell formed by displacing Co core with Pt. Compared to pure Pt, PdCo@Pt/C showed a higher current density in the kinetic controlled region and more positive half-wave potential for the ORR. In a cycling stability test of the PdCo@Pt/C electrocatalyst, no remarkable activity loss was seen.
    Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 11/2014; 44(11).
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    ABSTRACT: Zinc oxide nanoparticle-coupled imine linkage-based receptors (T4, T5 and T6) were studied for their voltammetric characteristics. T4 and T5 having electron withdrawing and electron donating substituents at meta position of the imine linkage showed prominent cathodic (reduction of imine group) peaks at −0.930 and −1.850 V, respectively, while T6 (without any substituent) showed a cathodic peak at −1.220 V. Voltammograms of the receptors indicated that T4 and T5 responded quantitatively for aluminium ions, while T6 responded for cobalt ions. All the three receptors exhibited linear dynamic concentration ranges between 0.1 and 0.42 µM with regression coefficients ≥0.98. Calibration curves for the determination of aluminium and cobalt ions based on DPV data are reported and supported with potentiometric studies. Energy minimization studies using Gaussian 03W software also supported stability of the complexes. The proposed analytical method has been validated with complexometric method for metal detection in real-time samples.
    Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 11/2014; 44(11).
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of anode orientation (whether an anode is located above or under a cathode) and flow channel design (parallel or serpentine flow channel) on the performance of refuelable zinc-air fuel cells (RZAFC) continuously fed with KOH electrolyte were investigated. The performance test was conducted at different electrolyte flow rates of 2, 4, and 6 ml h−1. A polarization test of the cell was conducted at the initial stage of operation, followed by a long-term current discharge test in potentiostatic mode. The spent zinc powders were characterized by a scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The experimental results revealed that the anode-bottom orientation in the cell performed much better than the anode-top orientation with 11.4 times higher zinc utilization. The performance reduction of the anode-top orientation cell was caused by the cathode overpotential, due to the flooding of the cathode by water crossover from the anode, which was induced by the gravity force. For the flow channel design effects, there was an optimum electrolyte flow rate, to yield a maximum current discharge capacity, of 4 ml h−1 in this study. At this optimum flow rate, the total charge per gram of zinc delivered from the anode serpentine cell was 1.75 times higher than that from the anode-parallel one.
    Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 11/2014; 44(11).
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the effects of a graphene nanosheet (GNS) conductive additive on the performance of a highly packed (2.5 g cm−3) lithium-ion battery cathode containing 92 wt% Li1.1(Mn0.6Ni0.4)0.9O2 microspheres (approximately 6 μm in diameter). GNSs, approximately 2.0 nm thick and 0.5–1.0 μm in width, are introduced into an electrode slurry in the form of a dispersion in N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone. They are substantially smaller than the oxide particles; therefore, their presence exerts no adverse influence on the packing density of the electrode. A small quantity of the GNS additive (≤200 ppm relative to the oxide mass) can significantly increase the overall electronic conductance and improve the conductance uniformity of the oxide electrode, leading to reduced polarization and enhanced specific capacity and rate performance. However, the GNS additive also promotes solid-electrolyte interphase formation, resulting in resistance buildup and capacity deterioration upon cycling. This study is the first to identify such an adverse effect caused by a graphene additive. The interplay between the positive and negative effects has led to an optimal GNS additive content of approximately 100 ppm, enhancing both the rate and cycle life performance.
    Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 11/2014; 44(11).
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    ABSTRACT: Oxygen reduction electrocatalysts based on the monoethanolmine complexes {[CoEtm]2(μ-Etm)4Ni(NO3)2} and {[CoEtm]2(μ-Etm)4Ni(NO3)2} + activated carbon AG-3 have been obtained by high-temperature synthesis. The nature of active centers on the synthesized electrocatalysts was described. Using potentiostatic and cyclic potentiodynamic voltammetry, the kinetic characteristics of catalysts in the oxygen electroreduction reaction were determined. Thermal decomposition of the thermally unstable complexes was described and character of the active centers formed was discussed. The optimal synthesis temperature of electrocatalysts is 600 °C in an inert atmosphere. The calculated exchange current densities for the oxygen electroreduction reaction at the catalysts in 1 M KOH at 20 °C was j 0 = 1.01 × 10−3 A g−1–3.3 × 10−3 A g−1. The Tafel slopes of stationary polarization curves are 0.054–0.063 V for b 1 and 0.106–0.125 V for b 2 . The prepared electrocatalysts can be recommended only for electrochemical systems with alkaline electrolyte.
    Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 11/2014; 44(11).
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    ABSTRACT: Nano-second pulse electrochemical micro-machining is essentially employed in high precision metal processing applications. Simulation wise, such a process involves heavy time-accurate calculations necessary to obtain the confined anodic current density distribution, crucial for the machining copy accuracy. A new alternative simulation method is presented, entitled the Pulse Shortcut Strategy (PSS), that avoids the entire time-accurate procedure and significantly reduces the computational effort and runtime. The PSS relies on calculating a current density Correction Factor (CF) that is based on the local electrolyte resistance, the interface polarization and double layer (DL) properties in combination with the nano-second pulse characteristics. The same confining effect is achieved by simulating a computationally cheap stationary current density distribution and altering it locally through the space-dependent CF. When the system has constant electrolyte resistivity, constant DL capacitance and linear polarization, the CF calculation reacts in full agreement with the time-accurate simulation results for any pulse on-time/off-time combination. The PSS accuracy is compared with full time-accurate simulations and represents a mutual validation method between the two. These results offer promising perspectives for the simulation of nano-second pulse electrochemical micro-machining, making it more attractive from a practical point of view once the general interest in the technology emerges. The approach can be generalized to other pulsating electrochemical systems.
    Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 11/2014; 44(11).
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    ABSTRACT: Biochar prepared from the pyrolysis of maple wood was studied as supercapacitor electrode materials. Three kinds of electrodes were fabricated: mini-chunk electrodes, thin-film electrodes, and large-disk-chunk electrodes. Their capacitive behaviors were studied using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge–discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The mini-chunk supercapacitor shows an electrochemical behavior similar to the supercapacitor using the thin-film electrodes. It exhibits outstanding performance characteristic of a high specific capacitance of approximately 32 F g−1 and a high stability without obvious capacitance decays upon 2,600 potential cycles. This indicates that the mini-chunk supercapacitor can be used as an mF-scale power source for electronic device applications. Moreover, the mini-chunk electrode provides a simple and fast technique to evaluate biochar materials used as potentially high-performance, low-cost, and environmental friendly supercapacitor electrodes without the need of binder and complicated fabrication procedures. However, the supercapacitor using large-disk-chunk biochar electrodes shows lower specific capacitive performance due to the high ohmic resistance stemming from long tubular structures within biochar.
    Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 10/2014; 44(10).
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, graphene was added to LiFePO4 via a hydrothermal method to improve the lithium-ion-diffusion ability of LiFePO4. The influence of graphene addition on LiFePO4 was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, cycling test, and AC impedance analysis. The addition of graphene to LiFePO4 resulted in the formation of a LiFePO4–graphene composite; XRD observations revealed the composite to have a single phase with an olivine-type structure. Furthermore, LiFePO4 particles in the composite were stacked on the graphene sheet surface, thereby enabling the composite to form an effective conducting network and facilitate the penetration of the surface of active materials by an electrolyte. The lithium-ion-diffusion ability of the LiFePO4–graphene composite was greater than that of pure LiFePO4. Of a number of materials studied [namely, pure LiFePO4, LiFePO4–graphene (1 %), LiFePO4–graphene (5 %), and LiFePO4–graphene (8 %)], LiFePO4–graphene (5 %) delivered the best electrochemical performance with a lithium-ion-diffusion coefficient of 8.18 × 10−12 cm2 s−1 and the highest specific discharge capacity of 149 mAh g−1 at 0.17 C; in contrast, the corresponding values for pure LiFePO4 were 3.01 × 10−12 cm2 s−1 and 109 mAh g−1, respectively. Further, LiFePO4–graphene (5 %) showed a very high specific discharge capacity of 170 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C, which is equal to the theoretical capacity of LiFePO4.
    Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 10/2014; 44(10).
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was evaluated for the electroanalytical determination of millimolar concentrations of Cu2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ using chronoamperometry. The interfering role that each ion plays on the quantitative determination of other metal ion concentrations was also assessed. No interference from other metal ions was observed when Fe3+ and Fe2+ were analysed. By contrast, reduction of Fe3+ took place at the same potential where [Cu2+] was measured causing a minor interference to the Cu2+ signal. A multiple linear regression (MLR) calibration model was made for each analyte using real bioleaching samples, which demonstrated high coefficients of determination and adequate standard errors. The methods developed were used to monitor bioleaching of chalcopyrite for 4 months. The electroanalytical methods are particularly well-suited for analysing Cu2+, Fe3+ and Fe2+ concentration in acidic mine drainage (AMD) and bioleaching environments.
    Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 10/2014; 44(10).