Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (J AGR FOOD CHEM )

Publisher: American Chemical Society. Books and Journals Division, American Chemical Society


The Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry publishes research results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of agriculture and food with a focus on original research representing complete studies, rather than incremental studies. The Journal includes topics on chemical/biochemical composition and the effects of processing on the composition and safety of foods, feeds, and other products from agriculture, including wood and other biobased materials, byproducts, and wastes. It covers the chemistry of pesticides, veterinary drugs, plant growth regulators, fertilizers, and other agrochemicals, together with their metabolism, toxicology, and environmental fate. The chemical processes involved in nutrition, phytonutrients, flavors and aromas, are reported on in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. New and expanded features for the journal include editorials, contributed announcements of relevant meetings and listings of new books.

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    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry website
  • Other titles
    Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, Agricultural and food chemistry
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    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

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American Chemical Society

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thearubigins are the most abundant phenolic pigments found in black tea, produced by enzymatic oxidation of green tea flavan-3-ols in tea fermentation of until recently unknown composition. In this study electrospray ionization tandem LC-MS(n) experiments have been applied for the characterization of crude thearubigins isolated from black tea not exceeding 1000 Da. The aim of this study is to confirm the oxidative cascade hypothesis of tea fermentation. The data revealed the presence of two novel classes of compounds in thearubigin fractions. The first class of compounds revealed the presence of polyhydroxylated dimers of the theanaphthaquinone and theasinensin C structures, which were consistent with the polyhydroxylation hypothesis previously formulated. Furthermore, new classes of peroxo-/epoxy- compounds in the series of theasinensin A were identified, thus indicating the presence of H2O2 and its important contribution as a nucleophile in the tea fermentation process.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Myrica faya is a fruit tree endemic of the Macaronesia (Azores, Madeira and Canary Island) and its edible fruits are known as “amorinhos” (little loves), bright red to purple berries, used fresh, in jams and liquors. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of leaves and berries from M. faya is here presented for the first time. The screening of phytochemical compounds was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line UV and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn 7 ). 55 compounds were characterized, mostly galloyl esters of flavonoids and phenolic acids. 26 of the identified compounds (anthocyanins, isoflavonoids, lignans, terpenes, fatty acids and phenylethanoids) have not been reported in Myrica genus so far. From the data here presented, it can be concluded that faya berries represent a rich source of cyanidin-3-glucoside, flavonoids,and vitamin C. In fact, higher antioxidant activity than the well-known Myrica rubra berries (Chinese bayberry) has been observed.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 09/2014; 62:9722-9735.
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    ABSTRACT: This work outlines an optimized gas chromatrography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based protocol for screening of the presence of the three boar-taint-producing compounds indole, skatole (3-methylindole), and androstenone (5α-androst-16-en-3-one) in porcine fat. The study shows that an accuracy suitable for sample screening can be achieved even when speed and ease of sample handling is prioritized and without the use of internal standards. The method provides levels of detection of 82 ng/g for indole, 97 ng/g for skatole, and 623 ng/g for androstenone (in a 2 g natural backfat matrix). A least-squares approach of predicting the sample analyte mass from instrument response is shown to have prediction errors (root-mean-square error) of 96 ng/g for indole, 94 ng/g for skatole, and 331.3 ng/g for androstenone. The method is intended for discrimination of samples in risk groups, and a scheme is proposed to turn the GC-MS response of the boar-taint analytes into risk classes.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to construct objective and accurate analytical models of tea categories based on their polyphenols and caffeine. A total of 522 tea samples of 4 commonly consumed teas with different fermentation degrees (green tea, white tea, oolong tea, and black tea) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with spectrophotometry, utilizing ISO 14502, as analytical tools. The content of polyphenols and caffeine varied significantly according to differently fermented teas, indicating that these active constituents may discriminate fermentation degrees effectively. By principal component analysis (PCA) and stepwise linear discriminant analysis (S-LDA), the vast majority of tea samples could be successfully differentiated according to their chemical markers. This study yielded three discriminant functions with the capacity to simultaneously discriminate the four tea categories with a 97.8% correct rate. In classification of oolong and other teas, there were one discriminant function and two equations with best discriminant capacity. Furthermore, the classification of different degrees of fermentation of oolong and external validation achieved the desired results. It is suggested that polyphenols and caffeine are the distinct variables to establish internationally recognized models of teas.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Minerals and antioxidative capacity of raw okara that was obtained as a byproduct from six soybean varieties during hydrothermal cooking (HTC) of soy milk were assessed. Lipoxygenase (Lox), an enzyme deteriorating the sensory characteristics of okara, was also investigated. All genotypes had very similar concentrations of Lox (4.32−5.62%). Compared to raw soybeans, the applied HTC significantly reduced Lox content in okara (0.54−0.19%) and lowered its activity to 0.004 − 0.007 μmol g−1min−1. Correlation between the content of Lox in soybeans and that in okara (r= 0.21;p< 0.05) was not registered. This indicates that the content of this enzyme in okara depended much more on the technological process than on soybean genotype. Very strong correlation (r= 0.99; p< 0.05) between okara Lox content and its activity was found. The most abundant minerals in raw okara were potassium (1.04−1.21 g/100g), phosphorus (0.45−0.50 g/100 g), calcium (0.26− 0.39 g/100 g), and iron (5.45−10.95 mg/100 g). A very high antioxidant capacity (19.06−29.36 mmol Trolox kg−1) contributes to the nutritional value of raw okara.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 08/2014; 62:9017-9023.
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of lignosulfonate (SXSL) and long-chain fatty alcohols (LFAs) on the rheology and enzymatic hydrolysis of high-solid corncob slurries were investigated. The application of 2.5% (w/w) SXSL increased the substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) of high-solid corncob slurries at 72 h from 31.7 to 54.0%, but meanwhile it increased the slurry's yield stress and complex viscosity to make the slurry difficult to stir and pump. The smallest molecular weight (MW) SXSL fraction had the strongest enhancement on SED. The SXSL fraction with large MW had a negative effect on rheology. n-Octanol (C8) and n-decanol (C10) improved the rheological properties of high-solid slurry and are strong enough to counteract the negative effect of SXSL. Furthermore, C8 and C10 clearly enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis of high-solid corncob slurries with and without SXSL. A mechanism was proposed to explain the observed negative effect of SXSL and the positive effect of LFAs on the rheological properties.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of water-soluble polysaccharides (RVLWP) and alkali-soluble polysaccharides (RVLAP) from Russula vinosa on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver damage in mice. For the in vitro antioxidant activities, RVLWP and RVLAP exhibited potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (IC50, 1.55 ± 0.04 mg/ml and 3.37 ± 0.21 mg/ml respectively), hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity (IC50, 6.07 ± 0.24 mg/ml and 9.23 ± 0.54 mg/ml respectively), lipid peroxidation inhibitory effect (IC50, 0.52 ± 0.095 mg/ml and 0.86 ± 0.043 mg/ml respectively), moderate reducing power and Fe2+ chelating activity (IC50, 1.86 ± 0.0036 mg/ml and 0.22 ± 0.0057 mg/ml respectively). Ascorbic acid was employed as the standard antioxidant in the present study. For the in vivo hepatoprotective activity, administration of RVLWP and RVLAP (200 mg/kg) significantly prevented the elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in acute liver damage induced by CCl4, and suppressed hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. Mice treated with RVLWP and RVLAP demonstrated a better profile of antioxidants with augmented activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the liver. The results suggest that RVLWP and RVLAP protect the liver from CCl4-induced hepatic damage via antioxidant mechanisms.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cuticle composition and structure may be relevant factors affecting the storage potential of fruits, but very few studies have analyzed fruit cuticle composition from a postharvest perspective. In this work, the chemical composition of waxes and cutin (major cuticular components) was analyzed in cuticle samples isolated from 'Celeste' and 'Somerset' cherries (Prunus avium L.) after cold storage at 0 ºC. Total cuticle amounts per surface unit (μg cm-2) increased along cold storage. The triterpene ursolic acid, the alkane nonacosane, linoleic acid and β-sitosterol were the most abundant components of cuticular waxes, whereas cutin composition was dominated by C18-type monomers. In spite of being comprised of similar chemical families, cultivar-related differences were found regarding the abundance and the evolution of some compound families during cold storage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on changes in cuticle composition of sweet cherry during postharvest storage.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 08/2014; 62:8722-8729.
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    ABSTRACT: Intestinal inflammation is a natural process crucial for the maintenance of gut functioning. However, abnormal or prolonged inflammatory responses may lead to the onset of chronic degenerative diseases, typically treated by means of pharmacological interventions. Dietary strategies for prevention of inflammation are a safer alternative to pharmacotherapy. Anthocyanins and other polyphenols have been documented to display anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, three bioactive fractions (anthocyanin, phenolic and water soluble fractions) were extracted from a wild blueberry powder. The Caco-2 intestinal model was used to test the immunomodulatory effect of the above fractions. Only the anthocyanin-rich fraction reduced in a dose-dependent manner the activation of NF-κB, induced by IL-1β in intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Specifically, concentrations of 50 µg mL-1 and 100 µg mL-1 decreased NF-κB activation by 68.9% and 85.2%, respectively (p≤0.05). These preliminary results provide further support for the role of food bioactives as potential dietary anti-inflammatory agents.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The application of phenolic compounds to suppress Maillard chemistry and off-flavor development in UHT milk during processing and storage was investigated. Five phenolic compounds were examined for structure-reactivity relationships (catechin, genistein, daidzein, 1,2,3-trihydroxybenene, and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenene). The levels of key transient Maillard reaction (MR) intermediates, (reactive carbonyl species) and select off-flavor markers (methional, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline) were quantified by LC/MS/MS and GC/MS-ToF, respectively. The addition of phenolic compounds prior to UHT processing significantly reduced the concentration of MR intermediates and related off-flavor compounds compared to a control sample (p<0.05). All phenolic compounds demonstrated unique structure reactivity and notably, those with a more activated A-ring for aromatic electrophilic substitution (catechin, genistein and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene) showed the strongest suppression effect on the off-flavor markers and reactive carbonyl species. Sensory studies were in agreement with the analytical data. The cooked flavor intensity was rated lower for the recombination model samples of the catechin treated UHT milk compared to the control UHT milk. Additionally, consumer acceptability studies showed catechin treated UHT milk to have significantly higher liking scores when compared the control sample (Fisher's LSD = 0.728).
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The nitrogen isotope composition (δ15N) of different amino acids carries different dietary information. We hypothesized that transamination and de novo synthesis create three groups that largely explain their dietary information. Rats were fed with 15N-labeled amino acids. The redistribution of the dietary 15N labels among the muscular amino acids was analyzed. Subsequently, the labelling was changed and the nitrogen isotope turnover was analyzed. The amino acids had a common nitrogen half-life of ~20 d, but differed in δ15N. Non-transaminating and essential amino acids largely conserved the δ15N of the source and, hence, trace the origin in heterogeneous diets. Non-essential and non-transaminating amino acids showed a nitrogen isotope composition between their dietary composition and that of their de novo synthesis pool, likely indicating their fraction of de novo synthesis. The bulk of amino acids, which are transaminating, derived their N from a common N pool and hence their δ15N was similar.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2014; 62(32):8008 - 8013.
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    ABSTRACT: The dependence of the curcumin loading capacity (CLC) of octenylsuccinate oat β-glucan (OSG) micelles on the structural parameters (degree of substitution, DS; molecular weight, Mw) of OSG was unknown and explored in this study. Meanwhile, the curcumin-loaded OSG micelle (COM) was firstly characterized. The results from response surface methodology revealed that the linear effects of Mw and stirrer input power, as well as the quadratic effect of DS, were significant (p<0.05). The maximum CLC value of OSG micelle was obtained as 4.21 µg/mg. Dynamic light scattering showed that the average size and ζ-potential of COM were 308 nm and -10.8 mV, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy evidenced that COM was elliptical in shape. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimeltry, and X-ray diffraction revealed that curcumin was loaded in OSG micelles in an amorphous form by interacting with OSG molecules.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2014;