Investigative Radiology (INVEST RADIOL)

Publisher: Association of University Radiologists, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

Journal description

Investigative Radiology publishes original, peer-reviewed reports on clinical and laboratory investigations in diagnostic imaging, the diagnostic use of radioactive isotopes, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, digital subtraction angiography, and related modalities. Emphasis is on early and timely publication. Primarily research-oriented, the journal also includes a wide variety of features of interest to clinical radiologists.

Current impact factor: 4.45

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 4.453
2012 Impact Factor 5.46
2011 Impact Factor 4.593
2010 Impact Factor 4.665
2009 Impact Factor 4.85
2008 Impact Factor 5.289
2007 Impact Factor 4.234
2006 Impact Factor 3.398
2005 Impact Factor 3.173
2004 Impact Factor 2.32
2003 Impact Factor 1.99
2002 Impact Factor 2.67
2001 Impact Factor 2.298
2000 Impact Factor 1.41
1999 Impact Factor 1.757
1998 Impact Factor 0.922
1997 Impact Factor 0.915
1996 Impact Factor 0.89
1995 Impact Factor 0.712
1994 Impact Factor 0.841
1993 Impact Factor 0.776
1992 Impact Factor 0.658

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 4.44
Cited half-life 6.40
Immediacy index 1.39
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 1.31
Website Investigative Radiology website
Other titles Investigative radiology
ISSN 0020-9996
OCLC 1753822
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • Pre-print must be removed upon acceptance for publication
    • Post-print may be deposited in personal website or institutional repository
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must include statement that it is not the final published version
    • Published source must be acknowledged with full citation
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Must link to publisher version
    • NIH authors will have their accepted manuscripts transmitted to PubMed Central on their behalf after a 12 months embargo (see policy for details)
    • Wellcome Trust and HHMI authors will have their accepted manuscripts transmitted to PubMed Central on their behalf after a 6 months embargo (see policy for details)
    • Publisher last reviewed on 19/03/2015
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with hepatic metastases who are candidates for Y90-radioembolization (Y90-RE) usually have advanced tumor stages with involvement of both liver lobes. Per current guidelines, these patients have usually undergone several cycles of potentially hepatotoxic systemic chemotherapy before Y90-RE is at all considered, requiring split (lobar) treatment sessions to reduce hepatic toxicity. Assessing response to Y90-RE early, that is, already after the first lobar session, would be helpful to avoid an ineffective and potentially hepatotoxic second lobar treatment. We investigated the accuracy with which diffusion- weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI-MRI) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can provide this information. An institutional review board-approved prospective intraindividual comparison trial on 35 patients who underwent fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT and DWI-MRI within 6 weeks before and 6 weeks after Y90-RE to treat secondary-progressive liver metastases from solid cancers (20 colorectal, 13 breast, 2 other) was performed. An increase of minimal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin) or decrease of maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) by at least 30% was regarded as positive response. Long-term clinical and imaging follow-up was used to distinguish true- from false-response classifications. On the basis of long-term follow-up, 23 (66%) of 35 patients responded to the Y90 treatment. No significant changes of metastases size or contrast enhancement were observable on pretreatment versus posttreatment CT or magnetic resonance images. However, overall SUVmax decreased from 8.0 ± 3.9 to 5.5 ± 2.2 (P < 0.0001), and ADCmin increased from 0.53 ± 0.13 × 10 mm/s to 0.77 ± 0.26 × 10 mm/s (P < 0.0001). Pretherapeutic versus posttherapeutic changes of ADCmin and SUVmax correlated moderately (r = -0.53). In 4 of the 35 patients (11%), metastases were fluorodeoxyglucose-negative such that no response assessment was possible by PET. In 25 (71%) of the 35 patients, response classification by PET and DWI-MRI was concordant; in 6 (17%) of the 35, it was discordant. In 5 of the 6 patients with discordant classifications, follow-up confirmed diagnoses made by DWI. The positive predictive value to predict response was 22 (96%) of 23 for MRI and 15 (88%) of 17 for PET. The negative predictive value to predict absence was 11 (92%) of 12 for MRI and 10 (56%) of 18 for PET. Sensitivity for detecting response was significantly higher for MRI (96%; 22/23) than for PET (65%; 15/23) (P < 0.02). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging appears superior to PET/CT for early response assessment in patients with hepatic metastases of common solid tumors. It may be used in between lobar treatment sessions to guide further management of patients who undergo Y90-RE for hepatic metastases.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.
    Investigative Radiology 03/2015; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000144
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the risk of gadoxetate disodium in liver imaging for the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment. We performed a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label phase 4 study in 35 centers from May 2009 to July 2013. The study population consisted of patients with moderate to severe renal impairment scheduled for liver imaging with gadoxetate disodium. All patients received a single intravenous bolus injection of 0.025-mmol/kg body weight of liver-specific gadoxetate disodium. The primary target variable was the number of patients who develop NSF within a 2-year follow-up period. A total of 357 patients were included, with 85 patients with severe and 193 patients with moderate renal impairment, which were the clinically most relevant groups. The mean time period from diagnosis of renal disease to liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was 1.53 and 5.46 years in the moderate and severe renal impairment cohort, respectively. Overall, 101 patients (28%) underwent additional contrast-enhanced MRI with other gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents within 12 months before the start of the study or in the follow-up. No patient developed symptoms conclusive of NSF within the 2-year follow-up. Gadoxetate disodium in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment did not raise any clinically significant safety concern. No NSF cases were observed.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.
    Investigative Radiology 03/2015; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000145
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to demonstrate experimentally that radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of ferucarbotran-accumulated healthy liver tissues causes excess iron deposition in the ablated liver tissues on postablation days and produces sustained T2*-weighted low signals indicative of ablative margins surrounding hepatic tumors. We conducted 3 experiments using 30 rats. In experiment 1, we administered either ferucarbotran (n = 6) or saline (n = 4), acquired T2*-weighted images (T2*-WIs) of the liver by using a 3-T magnetic resonance scanner, and subsequently performed RFA of healthy liver lobes. We acquired follow-up T2*-WIs up to day 7 and histologically analyzed the liver specimens. In another 4 rats, we performed sham operation, instead of RFA, in ferucarbotran-accumulated liver lobes, followed by the same image acquisition and histological analysis. In experiment 2, we administered Fe-labeled ferucarbotran, subsequently performed either RFA (n = 4) or sham operation (n = 4) in the liver, and acquired autoradiograms of the liver specimens on day 7. In experiment 3, we conducted RFA treatment for 8 rats bearing orthotopic hepatic tumors after ferucarbotran administration and monitored tumor growth by using serial T2*-WIs. On days 4 and 7 of the experiment 1, T2*-WIs of 6 rats with systemic ferucarbotran administration and subsequent hepatic RFA showed low-signal regions indicative of ablated liver tissues, whereas high-signal areas were seen in 4 saline-administered rats. Neither high nor low signal areas were detected in 4 sham-operated rats. Histologically, larger amounts of iron were observed in the RFA-induced necrotic liver tissues in the ferucarbotran-administered rats than in the saline-administered-rats. The Fe autoradiography of the rats in experiment 2 revealed accumulation of ferucarbotran-derived iron in necrotic liver tissues. Among 6 hepatic tumors grown in 6 rats of the experiment 3, a total of 4 tumors were stable in size, but the other 2 increased markedly on day 7. Retrospectively, T2*-WIs showed the former tumor sites surrounded completely by low-signal areas on day 4. The RFA of ferucarbotran-accumulated healthy liver tissues in the rats caused excess iron deposition in the ablated liver tissues and produced sustained T2*-weighted hypointense regions. Similar hypointense regions surrounding hepatic tumors were indicative of ablative margins.
    Investigative Radiology 02/2015; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000137
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Calculation of accurate T1 relaxivity (r1) values for gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast agents (GBCAs) is a complex process. As such, often referenced r1 values for the GBCAs at 1.5 T, 3 T, and 7 T are based on measurements obtained in media that are not clinically relevant, derived from only a small number of concentrations, or available for only a limited number of GBCAs. This study derives the r1 values of the 8 commercially available GBCAs in human whole blood at 1.5 T, 3 T, and 7 T. Eight GBCAs were serially diluted in human whole blood, at 7 concentrations from 0.0625 to 4 mM. A custom-built phantom held the dilutions in air-tight cylindrical tubes maintained at 37 ± 0.5°C by a heat-circulating system. Images were acquired using inversion recovery sequences with inversion times from 30 milliseconds to 10 seconds at 1.5 T and 3 T as well as 60 milliseconds to 5 seconds at 7 T. A custom MATLAB program was used to automate signal intensity measurements from the images acquired of the phantom. SigmaPlot was used to calculate T1 relaxation times and, finally, r1. Measured r1 values in units of s[BULLET OPERATOR]mM at 1.5 T (3 T/7 T) were 3.9 ± 0.2 (3.4 ± 0.4/2.8 ± 0.4) for Gd-DOTA, 4.6 ± 0.2 (4.5 ± 0.3/4.2 ± 0.3) for Gd-DO3A-butrol, 4.3 ± 0.4 (3.8 ± 0.2/3.1 ± 0.4) for Gd-DTPA, 6.2 ± 0.5 (5.4 ± 0.3/4.7 ± 0.1) for Gd-BOPTA, 4.5 ± 0.1 (3.9 ± 0.2/3.7 ± 0.2) for Gd-DTPA-BMA, 4.4 ± 0.2 (4.2 ± 0.2/4.3 ± 0.2) for Gd-DTPA-BMEA, 7.2 ± 0.2 (5.5 ± 0.3/4.9 ± 0.1) for Gd-EOB-DTPA, and 4.4 ± 0.6 (3.5 ± 0.6/3.4 ± 0.1) for Gd-HP-DO3A. The agents can be stratified by relaxivity, with a significant additional dependency on field strength. This report quantifies, for the first time, T1 relaxivity for all 8 gadolinium chelates in common clinical use worldwide, at current relevant field strengths, in human whole blood at physiological temperature (37°C). The measured r1 values differ to a small degree from previously published values, where such comparisons exist, with the current r1 measurements being that most relevant to clinical practice. The macrocyclic agents, with the exception of Gd-DO3A-butrol, have slightly lower r1 values when compared with the 2 much less stable linear agents, Gd-DTPA-BMA and Gd-DTPA-BMEA. The 2 agents with hepatobiliary excretion, Gd-EOB-DTPA and Gd-BOPTA, have, at 1.5 and 3 T, substantially higher r1 values than all other agents.
    Investigative Radiology 02/2015; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000132
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cardiac C-arm computed tomography (CT) uses a standard C-arm fluoroscopy system rotating around the patient to provide CT-like images during interventional procedures without moving the patient to a conventional CT scanner. We hypothesized that C-arm CT can be used to visualize and quantify the size of perfusion defects and late enhancement resulting from a myocardial infarction (MI) using contrast-enhanced techniques similar to previous CT and magnetic resonance imaging studies. A balloon occlusion followed by reperfusion in a coronary artery was used to study acute and subacute MI in 12 swine. Electrocardiographically gated C-arm CT images were acquired the day of infarct creation (n = 6) or 4 weeks after infarct creation (n = 6). The images were acquired immediately after contrast injection, then at 1 minute, and every 5 minutes up to 30 minutes with no additional contrast. The volume of the infarct as measured on C-arm CT was compared against pathology. The volume of acute MI, visualized as a combined region of hyperenhancement with a hypoenhanced core, correlated well with pathologic staining (concordance correlation, 0.89; P < 0.0001; mean [SD] difference, 0.67 [2.98] cm). The volume of subacute MI, visualized as a region of hyperenhancement, correlated well with pathologic staining at imaging times 5 to 15 minutes after contrast injection (concordance correlation, 0.82; P < 0.001; mean difference, -0.64 [1.94] cm). C-arm CT visualization of acute and subacute MI is possible in a porcine model, but improvement in the imaging technique is important before clinical use. Visualization of MI in the catheterization laboratory may be possible and could provide 3-dimensional images for guidance during interventional procedures.
    Investigative Radiology 01/2015; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000138
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study is designed to examine the feasibility of diffusion-sensitized multishot split-echo rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) for diffusion-weighted ophthalmic imaging free of geometric distortions at 3.0 and 7.0 T in healthy volunteers and patients with intraocular masses. A diffusion-sensitized multishot split-echo RARE (ms-RARE) variant is proposed as an alternative imaging strategy for diffusion-weighted imaging. It is compared with standard single-shot echo planar imaging (EPI) and readout-segmented EPI in terms of geometric distortions in a structure phantom as well as in vivo at 3.0 and 7.0 T. To quantify geometric distortions, center of gravity analysis was carried out. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping in a diffusion phantom was performed to verify the diffusion sensitization within ms-RARE. An in vivo feasibility study in healthy volunteers (n = 10; mean age, 31 ± 7 years; mean body mass index, 22.6 ± 1.7 kg/m) was conducted at 3.0 and 7.0 T to evaluate clinical feasibility of ms-RARE. As a precursor to a broader clinical study, patients (n = 6; mean age, 55 ± 12 years; mean body mass index, 27.5 ± 4.7 kg/m) with an uveal melanoma and/or retinal detachment were examined at 3.0 and 7.0 T. In 1 case, the diseased eye was enucleated as part of the therapy and imaged afterward with magnetic resonance microscopy at 9.4 T. Macrophotography and histological investigation was carried out. For qualitative assessment of the image distortion, 3 independent readers reviewed and scored ms-RARE in vivo images for all subjects in a blinded reading session. Statistical significance in the difference of the scores (a) obtained for the pooled ms-RARE data with b = 0 and 300 s/mm and (b) for the 3 readers was analyzed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. The assessment of geometric integrity in phantom imaging revealed the ability of ms-RARE to produce distortion-free images. Unlike ms-RARE, modest displacements (2.3 ± 1.4 pixels) from the fast low angle shot imaging reference were observed for readout-segmented EPI, which were aggravated for single-shot EPI (8.3 ± 5.7 pixels). These observations were confirmed in the in vivo feasibility study including distortion-free diffusion-weighted ophthalmic images with a 0.5 × 0.5 × 5 mm spatial resolution at 3.0 T and as good as 0.2 × 0.2 × 2 mm at 7.0 T. The latter represents a factor of 40 enhancement in spatial resolution versus clinical protocols recently reported for diffusion-weighted imaging of the eye at 1.5 T. Mean ADC values within the vitreous body were (2.91 ± 0.14) × 10 mm/s at 3.0 T and (2.93 ± 0.41) × 10 mm/s at 7.0 T. Patient data showed severe retinal detachment in the anatomical images. Whereas the tumor remained undetected in T1-weighted and T2-weighted imaging at 3.0/7.0 T, in vivo ADC mapping using ms-RARE revealed the presence of a uveal melanoma with a significant contrast versus the surrounding subretinal hemorrhage. This observation was confirmed by high-resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance microscopy and histology. Qualitative analysis of image distortion in ms-RARE images obtained for all subjects yielded a mean ± SD image quality score of 1.06 ± 0.25 for b = 0 s/mm and of 1.17 ± 0.49 for b = 300 s/mm. No significant interreader differences were observed for ms-RARE with a diffusion sensitization of b = 0 s/mm and 300 s/mm. This work demonstrates the capability of diffusion-sensitized ms-RARE to acquire high-contrast, high-spatial resolution, distortion-free images of the eye and the orbit at 3.0 and 7.0 T. Geometric distortions that are observed for EPI-based imaging approaches even at lower field strengths are offset by fast spin-echo-based imaging techniques. The benefits of this improvement can be translated into the assessment of spatial arrangements of the eye segments and their masses with the ultimate goal to provide guidance during diagnostic treatment of ophthalmological diseases.
    Investigative Radiology 01/2015; 50(5). DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000129
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and in vivo viscoelasticity of the liver and spleen before and after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) implantation. Ten patients with portal hypertension were examined twice by 3-dimensional multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography as well as prior and subsequent TIPS intervention; HVPG was also measured during TIPS placement. Five harmonic vibrations (25-60 Hz) were transferred to the abdominal region and recorded for the reconstruction of 2 viscoelastic constants, |G | and φ, corresponding to the magnitude and the phase angle of the complex shear modulus G of the liver and spleen. All patients had cirrhosis, yielding high |G*| values in the liver (8.34 ± 2.18 kPa) and spleen (8.44 ± 1.36kPa). In both organs, a decrease of |G*| after TIPS placement was observed (liver: 8.34 ± 2.18kPa vs 7.02 ± 1.46 kPa, P = 0.01; spleen: 8.44 ± 1.36 kPa vs 7.06 ± 1.32 kPa, P = 0.01), whereas φ was insensitive to TIPS. Relative changes in |G*| of the spleen were correlated with the relative change of HVPG (R = 0.659, P = 0.013). The observed linear correlation between spleen viscoelasticity HVPG raises the prospect of an image-based noninvasive assessment of portal pressure by magnetic resonance elastography in the follow-up of TIPS placements.
    Investigative Radiology 01/2015; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000136
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to develop a new method of displaying dynamic cerebral computed tomographic (CT) angiography (CTA) data sets in which the time delay to maximum enhancement (Tdelay) is displayed in a range of colors (color-coded CT angiography [cCTA]). This institutional review board-approved study included multiparametric CT data sets from 16 patients with different types of supra-aortic large vessel occlusions. Color-coded CT angiography was reconstructed from CT perfusion raw data sets. All voxel enhancement curves were fitted to f(t) = α · AIFmtt(t - Δt), with AIFmtt(t), indicating enhancement of AIF dilated by convolution with boxcar function (with mean transit time [mtt]); α, scaling factor; and Δt, transition along the time. The time delay to maximum enhancement was defined as Tdelay = Δt +0.5 · mtt. Values of Tdelay were color-coded and superimposed on temporal maximum intensity projections CTA resulting in colored angiographic composite images. For a pilot clinical evaluation, diagnostic confidence in determining the pathology, quality of the visualization of leptomeningeal collaterals, and additional diagnostic information were assessed. The reconstruction of cCTA was technically feasible in all 16 patients. Both diagnostic confidence (P < 0.01) and the quality of the visualization of collaterals (P < 0.0001) were significantly higher when using the combination of single-phase CTA and cCTA compared with single-phase CTA alone. Additional diagnostic information was obtained with cCTA regarding occlusion type (reader 1: 5 cases and reader 2: 4 cases), differentiation between arteries and veins (11/13), differentiation between antegrade and retrograde filling (12/13), as well as leptomeningeal collateralization (13/14). Color-coded CT angiography is a technically feasible technique that provides additional information on cerebral hemodynamics in ischemic stroke patients.
    Investigative Radiology 01/2015; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000134
  • Investigative Radiology 01/2015; 50(5):366. DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000140
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of krypton ventilation imaging with intraindividual comparison to xenon ventilation computed tomography (CT). In a first step, attenuation of different concentrations of xenon and krypton was analyzed in a phantom setting. Thereafter, 7 male New Zealand white rabbits (4.4-6.0 kg) were included in an animal study. After orotracheal intubation, an unenhanced CT scan was obtained in end-inspiratory breath-hold. Thereafter, xenon- (30%) and krypton-enhanced (70%) ventilation CT was performed in random order. After a 2-minute wash-in of gas A, CT imaging was performed. After a 45-minute wash-out period and another 2-minute wash-in of gas B, another CT scan was performed using the same scan protocol. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were measured. Unenhanced and krypton or xenon data were registered and subtracted using a nonrigid image registration tool. Enhancement was quantified and statistically analyzed. One animal had to be excluded from data analysis owing to problems during intubation. The CT scans in the remaining 6 animals were completed without complications. There were no relevant differences in oxygen saturation or heart rate between the scans. Xenon resulted in a mean increase of enhancement of 35.3 ± 5.5 HU, whereas krypton achieved a mean increase of 21.9 ± 1.8 HU in enhancement (P = 0.0055). The use of krypton for lung ventilation imaging appears to be feasible and safe. Despite the use of a markedly higher concentration of krypton, enhancement is significantly worse when compared with xenon CT ventilation imaging, but sufficiently high for CT ventilation imaging studies.
    Investigative Radiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000130
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility and the accuracy of spectral computed tomography (spectral CT) to determine the tissue concentrations and localization of high-attenuation, iodine-based contrast agents in mice. Iodine tissue concentrations determined with spectral CT are compared with concentrations measured with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). All animal procedures were performed according to the US National Institutes of Health principles of laboratory animal care and were approved by the ethical review committee of Maastricht, The Netherlands. Healthy Swiss mice (n = 4) were injected with an iodinated emulsion radiolabeled with indium as multimodal contrast agent for CT and SPECT. The CT and SPECT scans were acquired using a dedicated small-animal SPECT/CT system. Subsequently, scans were performed with a preclinical spectral CT scanner equipped with a photon-counting detector and 6 energy threshold levels. Quantitative data analysis of SPECT and spectral CT scans were obtained using 3-dimensional volumes-of-interest drawing methods. The ICP-MS on dissected organs was performed to determine iodine uptake per organ and was compared with the amounts determined from spectral CT and SPECT. Iodine concentrations obtained with image-processed spectral CT data correlated well with data obtained either with noninvasive SPECT imaging (slope = 0.96, r = 0.75) or with ICP-MS (slope = 0.99, r = 0.89) in tissue samples. This preclinical proof-of-concept study shows the in vivo quantification of iodine concentrations in tissues using spectral CT. Our multimodal imaging approach with spectral CT and SPECT using radiolabeled iodinated emulsions together with ICP-based quantification allows a direct comparison of all methods. Benchmarked against ICP-MS data, spectral CT in the present implementation shows a slight underestimation of organ iodine concentrations compared with SPECT but with a more narrow distribution. This slight deviation is most likely caused by experimental rather than technical issues.
    Investigative Radiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000126
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Current technological advances in CT, specifically those with a major impact on clinical imaging, are discussed. The intent was to provide for both medical physicists and practicing radiologists a summary of the clinical impact of each advance, offering guidance in terms of utility and day-to-day clinical implementation, with specific attention to radiation dose reduction.
    Investigative Radiology 12/2014; 50(2). DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000125
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether texture features of rectal cancer on T2-weighted (T2w) magnetic resonance images can predict tumoral response in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). We prospectively enrolled 15 consecutive patients (6 women, 63.2 ± 13.4 years) with rectal cancer, who underwent pretreatment and midtreatment 3-T magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment protocol consisted of neoadjuvant CRT with oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracile. Texture analysis using a filtration-histogram technique was performed using a commercial research software algorithm (TexRAD Ltd, Somerset, England, United Kingdom) on unenhanced axial T2w images by manually delineating a region of interest around the tumor outline for the largest cross-sectional area. The technique selectively filters and extracts textures at different anatomic scales followed by quantification of the histogram using kurtosis, entropy, skewness, and mean value of positive pixels. After CRT, all patients underwent complete surgical resection and the surgical specimen served as the gold standard. Six patients showed pathological complete response (pCR), and 4 patients, partial response (PR). Five patients were classified as nonresponders (NRs). Pretreatment medium texture-scale quantified as kurtosis was significantly lower in the pCR subgroup in comparison with the PR + NR subgroup (P = 0.01). Midtreatment kurtosis without filtration was significantly higher in pCR in comparison with PR + NR (P = 0.045). The change in kurtosis between midtreatment and pretreatment images was significantly lower in the PR + NR subgroup compared with the pCR subgroup (P = 0.038). Pretreatment area under the receiver operating characteristic curves, to discriminate between pCR and PR + NR, was significantly higher for kurtosis (0.907, P < 0.001) compared with all other parameters. The optimal cutoff value for pretreatment kurtosis was 0.19 or less. Using this value, the sensitivity and specificity for pCR prediction were 100% and 77.8%, respectively. Texture parameters derived from T2w images of rectal cancer have the potential to act as imaging biomarkers of tumoral response to neoadjuvant CRT.
    Investigative Radiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000116
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to compare pulmonary blood flow (PBF) measurements acquired with 3 previously published models (low-dose "single bolus," "dual bolus" and a "nonlinear correction" algorithm) for addressing the nonlinear relationship between contrast agent concentration and magnetic resonance signal in the arterial input function (AIF) and to compare both lung signal and PBF measurements obtained using gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA, Magnevist) with those obtained using the high-relaxivity agent gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA, Multihance). Ten of 12 healthy humans were successfully scanned on 2 consecutive days at 1.5 T. Contrast-enhanced pulmonary perfusion scans were acquired with a 3-dimensional spoiled gradient echo pulse sequence and interleaved variable density k-space sampling with a 1-second frame rate and 4 × 4 × 4-mm resolution. Each day, 2 perfusion scans were acquired with either Gd-DTPA or Gd-BOPTA; the order of the administered contrast agent was randomized. Region of interest analysis was used to determine PBF on the basis of the indicator dilution theory. Linear mixed-effects modeling was used to compare the AIF models and contrast agents. With Gd-DTPA, no significant differences were observed between the mean PBF calculated for the single bolus (323 ± 110 mL/100mL/min), dual bolus (315 ± 177 mL/100mL/min), and nonlinear correction (298 ± 100 mL/100mL/min) approach. With Gd-BOPTA, the mean PBF using the dual bolus approach (245 ± 103 mL/100mL/min) was lower than with the single bolus (345 ± 130 mL/100mL/min P < 0.01) and nonlinear correction (321 ± 115 mL/100mL/min; P = 0.02). Peak lung enhancement was significantly higher in all regions with Gd-BOPTA than with Gd-DTPA (P < 0.01). The dual bolus approach with Gd-BOPTA resulted in a significantly lower PBF than did the other combinations of contrast agent and AIF model. No other statistically significant differences were found. Given the much higher signal in the lung parenchyma using Gd-BOPTA, the use of Gd-BOPTA with either single bolus or the nonlinear correction method appears most promising for voxelwise perfusion quantification using 3-dimensional dynamic contrast-enhanced pulmonary perfusion magnetic resonance imaging.
    Investigative Radiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000122
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether hepatic extracellular volume fractions (fECVs) measured using multiphasic liver computed tomography (CT) can be used to quantify the severity of hepatic fibrosis (HF). This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. A total of 141 patients (male-female ratio, 109:32; mean [SD] age, 59.4 [11.4] years) histologically diagnosed with HF (F0-F1 = 33 and F2-F4 = 108) underwent multiphasic liver CT. Absolute enhancements (in Hounsfield unit) of the liver parenchyma (Eliver) and aorta (Eaorta) 3 minutes after contrast administration were measured on subtraction images of precontrast and equilibrium phase scans using nonrigid registration software. The fECV was calculated using the following equation: fECV (%) = Eliver/Eaorta × (100 - Hematocrit [%]). Correlation between fECV and HF stage was evaluated using the Spearman correlation coefficient. The fECVs were compared between F0-F1 and ≥F2 as well as between child A and child B or C. Diagnostic performance of fECV in predicting significant HF (≥F2) was assessed using receiver operating curve analysis. The fECVs showed a significant correlation with pathologic HF staging (r = 0.493, P < 0.001). The F2-F4 showed significantly higher fECVs than did F0 to F1 (33.6% [4.7%] vs 27.7% [4.4%]; P < 0.001). The fECVs were significantly higher in the patients with child B or C than those with child A (35.2% [7.0%] vs 31.3% [4.2%]; P < 0.001). The fECV values higher than 28.76% provided 87.5% sensitivity and 71.0% specificity in detecting significant HF (area under the curve, 0.832; P < 0.0001). Because fECV was shown to increase along with HF progression, the estimation of fECV using routine multiphasic liver CT may have the potential to detect significant HF.
    Investigative Radiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000123
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of a dynamic, multiphasic contrast-enhanced volume-interpolated sequence with advanced parallel imaging techniques, Dixon fat saturation, and view sharing with 5 hepatic arterial subphases for the detection of focal liver lesions. Twenty-four consecutive patients (13 females, 11 males; mean [SD] age, 58 [15] years) with focal liver lesions were included in this prospective study. The examination was performed at a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging system (MAGNETOM Skyra; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). Five dynamic arterial subphases with a temporal resolution of 2.6 seconds, starting 17 seconds after injection of the hepatobiliary contrast agent gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Eovist; Bayer HealthCare, Leverkusen, Germany), were acquired using an accelerated parallel imaging volume-interpolated sequence with view sharing (multiarterial controlled aliasing in parallel imaging results in higher acceleration-Dixon-time-resolved angiography with interleaved stochastic trajectories-volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination [MA-CDT-VIBE]). The fourth of the 5 arterial acquisition phases (ie, at 24.8 seconds after the start of contrast agent injection) was considered the equivalent of a standard hepatic arterial phase (equivalent standard arterial phase [ESAP]). The diagnostic value of all 5 dynamic arterial phases for the detection of focal liver lesions, as compared with the single ESAP, was judged in 2 independent consensus readings. The 2 consensus reading groups were blinded to each others' results. The complete, comprehensive multisequence magnetic resonance imaging examination, including T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and multiphasic contrast-enhanced sequences, served as the standard of reference for lesion detection. Forty-six percent of the patients (11/24) had hypervascular lesions. In 79 % of all patients (19/24), the best arterial parenchymal contrast of one of the MA-CDT-VIBE acquisition phases was considered better than that of the ESAP. In one third of all cases (8/24 for the first and 6/24 for the second consensus reading), MA-CDT-VIBE showed an improved lesion detection rate compared with ESAP, especially in hypervascular lesions (4/11, representing 36% of all patients with hypervascular lesions). There was a high degree of interrater agreement between the 2 consensus reading groups (the Cohen κ, 0.71-1.00; P < 0.001). Compared with a standard hepatic arterial phase, MA-CDT-VIBE with 5 hepatic arterial subphases demonstrated greater diagnostic accuracy for the detection of hypervascular focal liver lesions and provided a robust and optimized hepatic arterial acquisition phase.
    Investigative Radiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000118
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Very short acquisition times and the increasing use of low-kilovolt protocols in standard computed tomographic (CT) angiography (CTA) examinations demand modifications in the contrast media (CM) injection regimen. The aim of this study was to optimize the use of tube voltage-adjusted CM delivery parameters, especially injection duration and iodine delivery rate (IDR), in thoracoabdominal CTA in a porcine model. Eight pigs (53-72 kg) were examined with a third-generation dual-source CT system with a dynamic CTA protocol (4-dimensional spiral, 454-mm scan length, 2.5-second temporal resolution, 70-second total acquisition time). Six CM injection protocols were applied in randomized order and intraindividually compared. The standard CTA protocol was performed at 120 kV, with an injection of 300 mg iodine/kg body weight and a flow of 5 mL/s (IDR, 1.5 g/s). On the basis of phantom measurements for the low-kilovolt CTA protocols, the iodine dosage was adjusted to 150 mg iodine/kg (70 kV) and 210 mg iodine/kg (90 kV). Therefore, either the IDR was kept constant and the injection time was reduced, or the injection time was kept constant and the IDR was reduced by modifying the CM flow or concentration. Time attenuation curves, time to peak, and peak enhancement were calculated for different locations within the aorta, renal arteries, and large veins. The heart rates were comparable among the different injection protocols (66.9-78.1 beats per minute). The average injection peak pressure depended on the flow rate and CM concentration and ranged from 42.9 to 114.7 psi. The average arterial peak enhancement was comparable for protocols with identical injection times and reduced IDR (362.4 HU [standard 120-kV protocol; 300 mg iodine/kg; IDR, 1.5 g/s], 360.0 HU [70 kV; 150 mg iodine/kg; IDR, 0.75 g/s], 365.4 HU [70 kV; 150 mg iodine/kg; IDR, 0.75 g/s; CM, 150 mg iodine/mL], 344.3 HU [90 kV; 210 mg iodine/kg; IDR, 1.1 g/s]). Higher peak enhancements could be achieved by applying protocols with identical IDR and a reduced injection time (502.5 HU [70 kV; 150 mg iodine/kg; IDR, 1.5 g/s] and 394.6 HU [90 kV; 210 mg iodine/kg; IDR, 1.5 g/s]). By adjusting the IDR, low-kilovolt CTA is able to achieve comparable aortic enhancement with a significant reduction in CM dosage. A shorter injection time at constant IDR results in higher enhancement and a narrower scan window and might be preferable for fast CTA acquisition techniques. The optimization of CM injection protocols is mandatory to achieve state-of the art CTA at low kilovolt and can reduce CM doses to patients.
    Investigative Radiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000119
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to prospectively investigate the usefulness of chemical-shift and diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) for distinguishing thymic lymphoid hyperplasia (TLH), normal thymus (NT), and thymoma (THY) by using the signal intensity index (SII) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). We examined 87 subjects (44 males, 43 females; range, 15-71 years) with generalized MG and antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor seropositivity who underwent surgery. They were divided into a TLH/NT group (A, 64 patients; TLH, 49; NT, 15) and a THY group (B, 24 patients; nonadvanced THY, 15; advanced THY, 9) on the basis of histological findings. One patient with contemporary findings of TLH and nonadvanced THY at histology was listed in both groups (87 subjects, 88 findings). Chemical-shift MRI (CS-MRI) was performed with dual-echo acquisition, and the SII was measured for each subject. Diffusion-weighted MRI was performed at b values of 0, 150, 500, and 800 s/mm, and the ADC value was obtained on the ADC map after excluding the 0-s/mm b value diffusion weighting. All measures were performed independently by 2 radiologists, and interreader agreement was assessed by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient. Differences on SII and ADC levels between the groups and subgroups were tested using the Student t test. Logistic regression models were estimated, and discrimination abilities were individuated according to the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). The optimal cut points for the differentiation of the groups and subgroups were obtained by using the Youden index. The interreader agreement was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient: SII, 0.998; ADC, 0.944). For CS-MRI, the mean (SD) SII value was significantly different between the groups (A, 36.37% [12.60%]; B, -0.06% [3.85%]; P < 0.001). No overlap in indexes was found with sensitivity, specificity, and cut point of 100%, 100%, and 6.37%, respectively. Conversely, the mean SII value was not different between the subgroups of each group (A, P = 0.607; B, P = 0.252). For DW-MRI, the mean (SD) ADC values were significantly different between the groups (A, 1.92 [0.21] × 10·mm/s; B, 1.36 [0.33] × 10 mm/s; P < 0.001) and between the subgroups of group A (TLH, 1.86 [0.17] × 10 mm/s; NT, 2.10 [0.23] × 10 mm/s; P = 0.002), although overlapped values were found. The AUROC of ADC in discriminating TLH/NT from THY was 0.931 (95% confidence interval, 0.863-0.998), and the optimal cut point for this distinction was 1.625 × 10 mm/s (Youden index, J = 0.760) with sensitivity of 96.8% and specificity of 79.2%. For the subgroups of group A, the AUROC of ADC in discriminating NT from TLH was 0.794 (95% confidence interval, 0.666-0.923), and the optimal cut point for this distinction was 2.01 × 10 mm/s (Youden index, J = 0.458) with sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 79.2%. CS-MRI and DW-MRI are both useful tools for examining patients with MG. The SII is more accurate than the ADC to differentiate TLH and NT from THY (AUROC, 1.000 and 0.931, respectively). Furthermore, the ADC is a noninvasive parameter that could be used for distinguishing TLH from NT, which is useful in selecting patients for surgery because, for nonthymomatous MG, acceptable rates of complete stable remission after thymectomy are found in TLH but not in NT.
    Investigative Radiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000120