Indian Journal of Orthopaedics (Indian J Orthop )

Publisher: Medknow Publications


The Indian Journal of Orthopaedics is the official peer-reviewed, open access publication of the Indian Orthopaedic Association (IOA) and is published on a quarterly basis. IJO is published in the first week of January, April, July and October. The journal, first published on June 1, 1967, now reaches over 6500 members of IOA, making it one of the most read surgical speciality journals in India and South-East Asia. The Indian Journal of Orthopaedics welcomes articles that contribute to orthopaedic knowledge from all sources in all countries.

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Publications in this journal

  • Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 11/2014; 49(1):109-113.
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    ABSTRACT: Decompression and fusion is considered as the 'gold standard' for the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases, however, many disadvantages have been reported in several studies, recently like donor site pain, pseudoarthrosis, nonunion, screw loosening, instrumentation failure, infection, adjacent segment disease (ASDis) and degeneration. Dynamic neutralization system (Dynesys) avoids many of these disadvantages. This system is made up of pedicle screws, polyethylene terephthalate cords, and polycarbonate urethane spacers to stabilize the functional spinal unit and preserve the adjacent motion after surgeries. This was a retrospective cohort study to compare the effect of Dynesys for treating degenerative lumbar diseases with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) based on short term followup. Seventy five consecutive patients of lumbar degenerative disease operated between October 2010 and November 2012 were studied with a minimum followup of 2 years. Patients were divided into two groups according to the different surgeries. 30 patients underwent decompression and implantation of Dynesys in two levels (n = 29) or three levels (n = 1) and 45 patients underwent PLIF in two levels (n = 39) or three levels (n = 6). Clinical and radiographic outcomes between two groups were reviewed. Thirty patients (male:17, female:13) with a mean age of 55.96 ± 7.68 years were included in Dynesys group and the PLIF group included 45 patients (male:21, female:24) with a mean age of 54.69 ± 3.26 years. The average followup in Dynesys group and PLIF group was 2.22 ± 0.43 year (range 2-3.5 year) and 2.17 ± 0.76 year (range 2-3 year), respectively. Dynesys group showed a shorter operation time (141.06 ± 11.36 min vs. 176.98 ± 6.72 min, P < 0.001) and less intraoperative blood loss (386.76 ± 19.44 ml vs. 430.11 ± 24.72 ml, P < 0.001). For Dynesys group, visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg pain improved from 6.87 ± 0.80 to 2.92 ± 0.18 and 6.99 ± 0.81 to 3.25 ± 0.37, (both P < 0.001) and for PLIF, VAS for back and leg pain also improved significantly (6.97 ± 0.84-3.19 ± 0.19 and 7.26 ± 0.76-3.56 ± 0.38, both P < 0.001). Significant improvement was found at final followup in both groups in Oswestry disability index (ODI) score (both P < 0.001). Besides, Dynesys group showed a greater improvement in ODI and VAS back and leg pain scores compared with the PLIF group (P < 0.001, P = 0.009 and P = 0.031, respectively). For radiological, height of the operated level was found increased in both groups (both P < 0.001), but there was no difference between two groups (P = 0.93). For range of motion (ROM) of operated level, significant decrease was found in both groups (P < 0.001), but Dynesys showed a higher preservation of motion at the operative levels (P < 0.001). However, no significant difference was found in the percentage change of ROM of adjacent levels between Dynesys and PLIF (0.74 ± 8.92% vs. 0.92 ± 4.52%, P = 0.91). Some patients suffered from degeneration of adjacent intervertebral disc at final followup, but there was no significant difference in adjacent intervertebral disc degeneration between two groups (P = 0.71). Moreover, there were no differences in complications between Dynesys and PLIF (P = 0.90), although the incidence of complication in Dynesys was lower than PLIF (16.67% vs. 17.78%). Dynamic stabilization system treating lumbar degenerative disease showed clinical benefits with motion preservation of the operated segments, but does not have the significant advantage on motion preservation at adjacent segments, to avoid the degeneration of adjacent intervertebral disk.
    Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 11/2014; 48(6):574-81.
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    ABSTRACT: Bone loss following open fracture or infected gap nonunion is a difficult situation to manage. There are many modes of treatment such as bone grafting, vascularized bone grafting and bone transport by illizarov and monolateral fixator. We evaluated the outcome of rail fixator treatment in reconstructing bone and limb function. We felt that due to problems such as heavy apparatus, persistent pain, deformity of joints and discomfort caused by an Ilizarov ring fixator, rail fixator is a good alternative to treat bone gaps. 20 patients (17 males and 3 females with mean age 30.5 years) who suffered bone loss due to open fracture and chronic osteomyelitis leading to infected gap nonunion. Ten patients suffered an open fracture (Gustilo type II and type III) and 10 patients suffered bone gap following excision of necrotic bone after infected nonunion. There were 19 cases of tibia and one case of humerus. All patients were treated with debridement and stabilization of fracture with a rail fixator. Further treatment involved reconstructing bone defect by corticotomy at an appropriate level and distraction by rail fixator. We achieved union in all cases. The average bone gap reconstructed was 7.72 cm (range 3.5-15.5 cm) in 9 months (range 6-14 months). Normal range of motion in nearby joint was achieved in 80% cases. We had excellent to good limb function in 85% of cases as per the association for the study and application of the method of ilizarov scoring system[ASAMI] score. All patients well tolerated rail fixator with good functional results and gap reconstruction. Easy application of rail fixator and comfortable distraction procedure suggest rail fixator a good alternative for gap reconstruction of limbs.
    Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 11/2014; 48(6):612-6.
  • Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 11/2014; 48(6):632-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Literature describing the application of modern segmental instrumentation to thoracic and lumbar fracture dislocation injuries is limited and the ideal surgical strategy for this severe trauma remains controversial. The purpose of this article was to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of single-stage posterior reduction with segmental instrumentation and interbody fusion to treat this type of injury. A retrospective review of 30 patients who had sustained fracture dislocation of the spine and underwent single stage posterior surgery between January 2007 and December 2011 was performed. All the patients underwent single stage posterior pedicle screw fixation, decompression and interbody fusion. Demographic data, medical records and radiographic images were reviewed thoroughly. Ten females and 20 males with a mean age of 39.5 years were included in this study. Based on the AO classification, 13 cases were Type B1, 4 cases were B2, 4 were C1, 6 were C2 and 3 cases were C3. The average time of the surgical procedure was 220 min and the average blood loss was 550 mL. All of the patients were followed up for at least 2 years, with an average of 38 months. The mean preoperative kyphosis was 14.4° and reduced to -1.1° postoperatively. At the final followup, the mean kyphosis was 0.2°. The loss of correction was small (1.3°) with no significant difference compared to postoperative kyphotic angle (P = 0.069). Twenty seven patients (90%) achieved definitive bone fusion on X-ray or computed tomography imaging within 1 year followup. The other three patients were suspected possible pseudarthrosis. They remained asymptomatic without hardware failure or local pain at the last followup. Single stage posterior reduction using segmental pedicle screw instrumentation, combined with decompression and interbody fusion for the treatment of thoracic or lumbar fracture-dislocations is a safe, less traumatic and reliable technique. This procedure can achieve effective reduction, sagittal angle correction and solid fusion.
    Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 11/2014; 48(6):568-73.
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    ABSTRACT: With changing trends in treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures (DMCF), plating remains the standard procedure for fixation. An attracting alternative method of fixation is the titanium elastic nailing (TEN). However, prospective randomized studies comparing the two methods of fixation are lacking. We assessed the effectiveness of minimally invasive antegrade TEN and plating technique for the treatment of DMCF. 80 unilateral displaced midclavicular fractures operated between October 2010 and May 2013 were included in study. This prospective comparative study was approved by the local ethical committee. Followups were at 2(nd) and 6(th) weeks and subsequently at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months postoperatively. Primary outcome was measured by the Constant score, union rate and difference in clavicular length after fracture union. Secondary outcome was measured by operative time, intraoperative blood loss, wound size, cosmetic results and complications. During analysis, we had 37 patients in the plate group and 34 patients in the TEN group. There was no significant difference in Constant scores between the two groups. However, faster fracture union, lesser operative time, lesser blood loss, easier implant removal and fewer complications were noted in the TEN group. The use of minimally invasive antegrade TEN for fixation of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures is recommended in view of faster fracture union, lesser morbidity, better cosmetic results, easier implant removal and fewer complications; although for comminuted fractures plating remains the procedure of choice.
    Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 11/2014; 48(6):587-93.
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    ABSTRACT: A 53-year-old woman developed a vaginal mass following an uncemented total hip arthroplasty. The mass was in direct communication with the hip through an acetabular medial wall defect after loosening of the acetabular component. The mass formation was caused simultaneously by changes secondary to polyethylene wear, a tiny delamination of the porous titanium mesh coating and a broken antirotational tab on the acetabular cup, all of which may have served as sources of metal particles. A careful evaluation of the patient's history, symptoms, X-ray findings and computed tomography scans should always be performed to ensure accurate diagnosis.
    Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 11/2014; 48(6):628-30.
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    ABSTRACT: Retro-odontoid cysts associated with chronic atlantoaxial subluxation are extremely rare. This article describes a case of retro-odontoid cystic mass associated with chronic atlantoaxial subluxation and its management with posterior C1 and partial C2 laminectomy and C1-C2 pedicle screw fixation without resection of the retro-odontoid cyst. A 64-year-old woman experienced a sudden onset of neck pain, hand and foot paresthesia. Atlantoaxial instability associated with a retro-odontoid cystic mass was found in the imaging. The patient underwent posterior C1 and partial C2 laminectomy and C1-C2 pedicle screws fixation without resection of the retro-odontoid cyst. During the 24 months followup period, the cyst disappeared completely and the patient remained symptom free and returned to independent daily living. These findings suggest that posterior laminectomy and fixation without resection of the retro-odontoid cyst is relatively simple and safe and the results are satisfactory.
    Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 11/2014; 48(6):621-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Fingertip defect can be treated with many flaps such as random pattern abdominal flap, retrograde digital artery island flap, V-Y advancement flap, etc. However, swelling in the fingertip, dysfunction of sensation, flexion and extension contracture or injury in the hemi-artery of the finger usually occurs during the recovery phase. Recently, digital artery perforator flaps have been used for fingertip reconstructions. With the development of super microsurgery techniques, free flaps can be more effective for sensory recovery and durability of the fingertip. Six cases (six fingers) of fingertip defects were treated with free digital artery perforator flaps of appropriate size and shape from the proximal phalanx. During surgery, the superficial veins at the edge of flap were used as reflux vessels and the branches of the intrinsic nerve and dorsal digital nerve toward the flap were used as sensory nerves. The proximal segment of the digital artery (cutaneous branches) towards the flap was cut off to form the pedicled free flap. The fingertips were reconstructed with the free flap by anastomosing the cutaneous branches of digital artery in the flap with the distal branch or trunk of the digital artery, the flap nerve with the nerve stump and the veins of the flap with the digital artery accompanying veins or the superficial veins in the recipient site. Six flaps survived with successful skin grafting. Patients were followed up for 6-9 months. The appearance and texture of the flaps was satisfactory. The feeling within the six fingers recovered to S4 level (BMRC scale) and the two point discrimination was 3-8 mm. Free digital artery perforator flap is suitable for repairing fingertip defect, with good texture, fine fingertip sensation and without sacrificing the branch of the digital artery or nerve.
    Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 11/2014; 48(6):594-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with Parkinson's disease and poliomyelitis can have a femoral neck fracture; yet, the optimal methods of treatment for these hips remains controversial. Many constrained or semi-constrained prostheses, using constrained liners (CLs) with a locking mechanism to capture the femoral head, were used to treat femoral neck fractures in patients with neurological disorders. We retrospectively studied a group of patients with Parkinson's disease and poliomyelitis who sustained femoral neck fractures and were treated by total hip arthroplasty using an L-MoM prosthesis. We retrospectively reviewed 12 hips in 12 patients who underwent large-diameter metal-on-metal (L-MoM) total hip replacement between May 2007 and October 2009. Eight of the 12 patients (8 hips; 66.7%) had Parkinson's disease and 4 patients (4 hips; 33.3%) were affected with poliomyelitis. The followup time was 5.2 years (range 3.6-6.0 years). At the latest followup, all the patients showed satisfactory clinical and radiographic results, with pain relief. No complications, such as dislocation or aseptic loosening occurred. We believe the use of L-MoM can diminish the rate of instability or dislocation, after operation. The L-MoM is an option for patients with Parkinson's disease and poliomyelitis with femoral neck fracture.
    Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 11/2014; 48(6):605-11.
  • Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 11/2014; 48(6):631-2.
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    ABSTRACT: Biomechanical studies have shown C2 pedicle screw to be the most robust in insertional torque and pullout strength. However, C2 pedicle screw placement is still technically challenging. Smaller C2 pedicles or medial localization of the vertebral artery may preclude safe C2 pedicle screw placement in some patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the pullout strength of spinous process screws with pedicle screws in the C2. Eight fresh human cadaveric cervical spine specimens (C2) were harvested and subsequently frozen to -20°C. After being thawed to room temperature, each specimen was debrided of remaining soft tissue and labeled. A customs jig as used to clamp each specimen for screw insertion firmly. Screws were inserted into the vertebral body pairs on each side using one of two methods. The pedicle screws were inserted in usual manner as in previous biomechanical studies. The starting point for spinous process screw insertion was located at the junction of the lamina and the spinous process and the direction of the screw was about 0° caudally in the sagittal plane and about 0° medially in the axial plane. Each vertebrae was held in a customs jig, which was attached to material testing machine (Material Testing System Inc., Changchun, China). A coupling device that fit around the head of the screw was used to pull out each screw at a loading rate of 2 mm/min. The uniaxial load to failure was recorded in Newton'st dependent test (for paired samples) was used to test for significance. The mean load to failure was 387 N for the special protection scheme and 465 N for the protection scheme without significant difference (t = -0.862, P = 0.403). In all but three instances (38%), the spinous process pullout values exceeded the values for the pedicle screws. The working distances for the spinous process screws was little shorter than pedicle screws in each C2 specimen. Spinous process screws provide comparable pullout strength to pedicle screws of the C2. Spinous process screws may provide an alternative to pedicle screws fixation, especially with unusual anatomy or stripped screws.
    Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 11/2014; 48(6):550-4.
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    ABSTRACT: The use of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques represents the most recent modification of methods used to achieve lumbar interbody fusion. The advantages of minimally invasive spinal instrumentation techniques are less soft tissue injury, reduced blood loss, less postoperative pain and shorter hospital stay while achieving clinical outcomes comparable with equivalent open procedure. The aim was to study the clinicoradiological outcome of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. This prospective study was conducted on 23 patients, 17 females and 6 males, who underwent MIS-transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) followed up for a mean 15 months. The subjects were evaluated for clinical and radiological outcome who were manifested by back pain alone (n = 4) or back pain with leg pain (n = 19) associated with a primary diagnosis of degenerative spondylolisthesis, massive disc herniation, lumbar stenosis, recurrent disc herniation or degenerative disc disease. Paraspinal approach was used in all patients. The clinical outcome was assessed using the revised Oswestry disability index and Macnab criteria. The mean age of subjects was 55.45 years. L4-L5 level was operated in 14 subjects, L5-S1 in 7 subjects; L3-L4 and double level was fixed in 1 patient each. L4-L5 degenerative listhesis was the most common indication (n = 12). Average operative time was 3 h. Fourteen patients had excellent results, a good result in 5 subjects, 2 subjects had fair results and 2 had poor results. Three patients had persistent back pain, 4 patients had residual numbness or radiculopathy. All patients had a radiological union except for 1 patient. The study demonstrates a good clinicoradiological outcome of minimally invasive TLIF. It is also superior in terms of postoperative back pain, blood loss, hospital stay, recovery time as well as medication use.
    Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 11/2014; 48(6):562-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Expansive open door laminoplasty with the use of titanium miniplate is becoming popular. Usually, the plate is applied at each level to prevent re-closure of the opened lamina. However, it is also used at alternating levels (i.e., C3, C5 and C7) in clinical settings in order to reduce the cost. Whether they have any difference in clinical efficacy? There is a lack of comparative data between the two kinds of plate fixation in the literature. 83 patients who underwent cervical laminoplasty with alternating levels plate fixation (51 patients in Group A) or all levels plate fixation (32 patients in Group B) between January 2008 and October 2012 were evaluated in our institute retrospectively. Clinical and radiologic outcomes were assessed. No statistical difference was found in the mean operation time, blood loss, incidence of significant axial symptoms and C5 palsy, preoperative anteroposterior diameter (APD) and preoperative Japanese Orthopedic Association score between the two groups. However, Group B showed a higher rate of neurologic recovery after surgery. Postoperative increased APD and open angle in Group B were significantly larger than Group A. The mean cost for Group B (12801 ± 460.6 USD) was higher than Group A (8906 ± 566.7 USD). Despite the higher cost of all level fixation, it is more effective in maintaining the expansion of the spinal canal and can obtain better clinical improvement compared to alternating levels fixation.
    Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 11/2014; 48(6):582-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Hemophilic pseudotumor involving the spine is extremely uncommon and presents a challenging problem. Preoperative planning, angiography, intra and perioperative monitoring with factor VIII cover and postoperative care for hemophilic pseudotumor is vital. Recognition of the artery of Adamkiewicz in the thoracolumbar junction helps to avoid intraoperative neurological injury. We report the case of a 26-year-old male patient with hemophilia A, who presented with a massive pseudotumor involving the first lumbar vertebra and the left iliopsoas. Preoperative angiography revealed the artery of Adamkiewicz arising from the left first lumbar segmental artery. Excision of pseudotumor was successfully carried out with additional spinal stabilization. At 2 years followup, there was no recurrence and the patient was well stabilized with a satisfactory functional status. Surgical excision gives satisfactory outcome in such cases.
    Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 11/2014; 48(6):617-20.
  • Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 11/2014; 48(6):541-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Pedicle screw fixation has achieved significant popularity amongst spinal surgeons for both single and multilevel spinal fusion. Suboptimal placements of pedicle screws may lead to neurological and vascular complications. There have been many advances in techniques available for navigating through the pedicle; however, these techniques are not without drawbacks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of the pedicle piercer with warning device. Eight normal adult thoracolumbar specimens from cadavers consisting of 80 vertebras (T8-L5) were selected and randomly allocated into four groups. Each group contained 20 vertebra. Group 1 was tested for maximum pressure of the piercer within the vertebrae (F1). Group 2 was tested for maximum pressure of the warning piercer penetrating front cortex of the vertebral body (F2). Group 3 was tested for the maximum pressure of piercer penetrating vertebral body endplate (F3) and pedicle notch (F41, F42). Group 4 was tested for maximum pressure of the piercer penetrating the vertebral lateral cortex (F6), the medial and lateral cortex of pedicle (F51, F52). In the second experiment of this study, 4 normal adult specimens consisting of 40 vertebra and 80 pedicles were used for testing the alarm effects of pedicle piercer. The following indicators were adopted for the tests including true positive/negative, false positive/negative, sensitivity, specificity, availability, Youden index, and diagnostic efficiency. SPSS 16.0 was used for statistical analysis. There were statistically significant differences between F1, and F2, F3, F41, F42, F51, F52 respectively (P < 0.05). F1 = 8.970 ± 0.2698, F3 = 13.055 ± 0.6718. We found that the threshold value of piercer warning was from 9.6 to 12.3 Kgf. Sensitivity was 92.31%, specificity was 95.12%, usability was 87.45%, Youden index was 87.43% and diagnostic efficiency was 92.5% respectively. Warning piercer is a safe, simple, sensitive device for detecting pedicle breach during regular pedicle screw placement surgery.
    Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 11/2014; 48(6):545-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Coracoid process fracture is an uncommon injury and can be easily missed. An associated acute subscapularis tear is still rare. Herein, we describe a 61 year old male who fell from a 2 meter height (stair case) and presented with isolated coracoid process fracture with acute subscapularis tear without dislocation of (R) shoulder joint. The plain x-rays, CT scan and MR arthrography comprised the diagnosis. He was operated upon with reattachment of subscapularis to lesser tuberosity and conjoint tendons to pectoralis major. At 6 mo followup he had good range of motion and his MRI revealed complete healing.
    Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 11/2014; 48(6):625-7.