IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation (IEEE T ANTENN PROPAG)

Publisher: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society; Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Antennas and Propagation Group, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

Journal description

Theoretical and experimental advances in antennas, including design and development, and in the propagation if electromagnetic waves, including scattering, diffraction, and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertaining to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.

Current impact factor: 2.18

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 2.181
2013 Impact Factor 2.459
2012 Impact Factor 2.332
2011 Impact Factor 2.151
2010 Impact Factor 1.728
2009 Impact Factor 2.011
2008 Impact Factor 2.479
2007 Impact Factor 1.636
2006 Impact Factor 1.48
2005 Impact Factor 1.452
2004 Impact Factor 0.921
2003 Impact Factor 0.941
2002 Impact Factor 0.944
2001 Impact Factor 1.064
2000 Impact Factor 1.085
1999 Impact Factor 1.612
1998 Impact Factor 1.404
1997 Impact Factor 1.011
1996 Impact Factor 0.931
1995 Impact Factor 0.637
1994 Impact Factor 0.806
1993 Impact Factor 0.734
1992 Impact Factor 0.724

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.35
Cited half-life 8.30
Immediacy index 0.32
Eigenfactor 0.04
Article influence 0.89
Website IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation website
Other titles IEEE transactions on antennas and propagation, Transactions on antennas and propagation, Antennas and propagation
ISSN 0018-926X
OCLC 1752540
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

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  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Spherical phased array antennas (SPAAs) are of particular interest for transmission of payload data of low earth orbiting satellites to the ground stations. They can be designed to scan large part of the radiation sphere with constant directivity. This helps in designing highly agile spacecrafts. In this paper, practical design aspects of spherical arrays for achieving an optimum configuration to meet a specified goal are discussed. The new concept of sharing the hardware among the radiating elements and the effects of the failure of few of them are also studied in detail. Measured results of two arrays with completely different configurations but providing almost similar performance are discussed corroborating the design concept
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 12/2015; DOI:10.1109/TAP.2015.2479678,
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    ABSTRACT: A novel high efficient, wideband and single linear polarized slot-based transmitarray antenna is presented. The unit cell comprises three thin metallic layers with air gap in between, without use of any dielectric substrate. Each metallic layer has a square wide slot within which there are a number of parallel stubs. The wide slot has a highpass response with notch at zero frequency. Addition of the stubs creates an extra controllable notch within the wide slot highpass response. Due to the large spacing between the two notches, a passband with low slope phase shift response is created which leads to a wideband transmitarray. The linear polarization behavior of the antenna along with a suitable feed horn and with no dielectric loss present has resulted in higher antenna efficiency. The design of a three metallic layer unit cell is also carried out through a simple circuit-based analysis approach. The transmitarray is fabricated and results are compared with those of simulation. The proposed transmitarray has a measured -1 dB gain bandwidth of 15.5%, peak efficiency of 55% and a cross polarization level of better than -29 dB. The structure is simulated via HFSS software and ADS package is used for equivalent circuit simulation.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 11/2015; 63. DOI:10.1109/TAP.2015.2476344
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a new method of gain characterization for circularly polarized antenna arrays especially effective for mm-wave/THz frequencies. The method does not require phase-measurement or rotation of the antenna under test (AUT). It is thus ideal for waveguide-based frequency bands. In contrast to conventional methods, we use reflection-only measurements, utilizing readily available geometries, such as a PEC-plate and a PEC-dihedral corner reflector, to estimate the co- and cross-polarized gain of the AUT. Predicted error using this approach is less than 0.07 dB for the co-pol and 0.26 dB for the cross-pol for an AUT with 17 dBi gain at 100 GHz. Experimental results for a radial line slot array antenna, operating in F-band, show good agreement between the conventional method, and that proposed using phase-less method.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 10/2015; 63(10):4263 - 4270. DOI:10.1109/TAP.2015.2473685
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    ABSTRACT: Integrated structural-electromagnetic (EM) optimization design is of great importance in the area of antenna design. The quick and exact calculation of patterns for distorted reflectors is an important research topic. In this communication, based on the previous works, a novel pattern approximation method using piecewise linear fitting is presented. The exponential error term in the physical optics (PO) formulation is first approximated by a series of straight lines through the piecewise linear fitting by least-square algorithm. Then, the radiation integral on each structural element is expressed as the summation of the ideal term and perturbation term, which are both weighted by the combinations of coefficients of the corresponding straight lines. Finally, the far field is derived as a simple linear function of structural nodal displacements in a matrix form by assembling the radiation integrals on all the structural elements. Simulation results show that the proposed method (PM) could save the storage space because there is no second-order term of the nodal displacements, facilitate rapid calculation by recalling the prestored data, and has high calculation accuracy even for large size of surface-error profiles.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 10/2015; 63(10):1-1. DOI:10.1109/TAP.2015.2456932
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method for the transient analysis of magnetized graphene from the microwave to terahertz (THz) frequencies. By considering the atom thick graphene layer as an infinitely thin conductive sheet with finite surface conductivity, a frequency-dependent anisotropic resistive boundary condition (RBC) is obtained. Based on this RBC, the direct volumetric discretization of graphene layer is avoided. Instead of directly deriving the numerical flux for DGTD considering the presence of this anisotropic and dispersive RBC, an auxiliary surface polarization current governed by a first-order time-dependent partial differential equation (PDE) is introduced over the graphene with the purpose to obtain an isotropic and simultaneously nondispersive RBC. In this way, the new formulated numerical flux expression derived from the Rankine–Hugoniot jump relations is isotropic, and no time-domain convolution is involved in the finalized matrix equations. To verify the applicability and accuracy of the proposed algorithm, the Faraday rotation and the surface plasmon resonance of a plane wave through magnetically biased graphene are investigated. For open-region scattering problems, a hybrid DGTD and time-domain boundary integral (TDBI) method is applied to rigorously truncate the computational domain.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 10/2015; 63(10):1-1. DOI:10.1109/TAP.2015.2456977
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    ABSTRACT: In this communication, the design and implementation of a three-band substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) leaky-wave antenna (LWA) based on the composite right/left-handed (CRLH) structure is presented. CRLH unit cell of the proposed antenna is composed of two adjacent interdigital slots with two vias between them. Two CRLH bands along with a new right-handed (RH) band between them are achieved through this structure. The first CRLH band (7.1–10.75 GHz) is balanced and the second one (15.1–21.75 GHz) is unbalanced with 0.25-GHz stop band. Beam scan angle in the first CRLH band is from $- 78^circ $ to $+ 78^circ $, in the second one from $- 40^circ $ to $+ 20^circ $ and in the new RH band (12.6–13.4 GHz) from $+ 22^circ $ to $+ 54^circ $. Antenna radiation efficiency in the first CRLH band is about 90%. Simulated and measured results are compared and there is a good agreement between them.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 10/2015; 63(10):1-1. DOI:10.1109/TAP.2015.2456951
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    ABSTRACT: The scattering from a rectangular metal sheet is altered by patterning the surface with hard and soft anisotropic impedance surfaces. A plane wave incident normally to an edge of a metal rectangle will have maximum backward scattering in the direction of the source for both transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarizations. This scattering lobe is manipulated by patterning the metal sheet in two sections. A hard surface is applied to the incident region which reflects neither TM nor TE waves from the front edge. Similarly, a soft surface prevents reflections of both polarizations from the back edge. The surfaces are patterned with an angled boundary, so that surface waves and incident radiation are scattered at an angle instead of backward. Unit cells are designed and analyzed for both regions for operation centered at 15 GHz. A surface is fabricated and measured, and the scattering alteration effect is achieved over a large bandwidth for each polarization. Curved and zigzag geometries are also discussed.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 10/2015; 63(10):1-1. DOI:10.1109/TAP.2015.2458330
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    ABSTRACT: This paper studies loop antennas over artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) surfaces with the objective of designing a dual-band RF energy harvesting antenna. The AMC surface is well known to achieve low-profile and higher gain wire antennas. From a practical point of view, impedance matching is of paramount importance to achieve highly efficient reception of weak ambient RF energy. First, the driving-point impedance of a loop antenna over an AMC surface was studied, where a conventional method using image theory to estimate the impedance was found to be not always useful for loop antennas. As the AMC surface is within the reactive near field, mutual coupling between the antenna and the AMC unit cells is significant, which the conventional method does not take into account. Then, we proposed a novel use of a polarization-dependent AMC surface for dual-band RF energy harvesting. An AMC surface with a rectangular unit cell was adopted for two orthogonal polarizations with different frequencies. Finally, the AMC surface and the loop antennas were successfully implemented as a dual-band energy harvesting panel together with RF-to-dc conversion circuits and a power management circuit.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 10/2015; 63(10):1-1. DOI:10.1109/TAP.2015.2459132
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    ABSTRACT: This communication describes a simple and effective beam-tilting technique for planar end-fire antennas using an artificial dielectric layer. The proposed approach is based on the phase differential resulting from a high refractive-index medium that is achieved using double G-shaped resonators (DGRs) in a ${5} times {4}$ array. The array is oriented normal to the direction of the main beam emanating from the antenna. To demonstrate the principle, the technique is applied to a bow-tie antenna, which is designed at the WiMAX frequency band (3.4–3.6 GHz). The antenna performance was verified practically, and the measured results confirm that the direction of antenna’s maximum beam can be refracted by 35° in the H-plane, which is larger than conventional techniques. In addition, a maximum gain enhancement of 5 dB is achieved when the beam is tilted. Reflection-coefficient of the proposed structure is maintained better than $- {10};text{dB}$ across its operational band.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 10/2015; 63(10):1-1. DOI:10.1109/TAP.2015.2456937
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    ABSTRACT: Reflector antennas with mesh surfaces have been extensively used in satellite antenna systems. The electrical contact at the metal–insulator–metal (MIM) junction points may cause the degradation of reflectivity performance, and the concept of MIM junctions is mainly used for the analysis of passive intermodulation (PIM) arising from metallic contact in the practical antennas. In this work, a three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of mesh surfaces is presented, which introduced impedance connections at the wire junctions of metallic contact area. The electrical contact model of impedance connections is equivalent to a circuit model, which is considered as lumped boundary condition extended to the modeling of mesh. The planar mesh reflection coefficients are constructed using a full-wave frequency domain method with Floquet mode expansion. To calculate the electrical performance of curved mesh antenna, a solid surface with an equivalent loss is adopted to replace the mesh surfaces. The reflection coefficients of the equivalent loss material are the same as for the mesh surfaces. The analysis of the planar mesh reflectors with three different connections (solid surface, perfect contact, and lumped connection) at junction points is performed as an example for the proposed model. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the model in accurate performance prediction of mesh reflector antennas. Finally, a mesh reflector antenna with 3-D mesh structures is analyzed to predict the electrical performance of the antenna.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 10/2015; 63(10):1-1. DOI:10.1109/TAP.2015.2459133
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new multitrace boundary integral equation (BIE) formulation for the solutions of the time-harmonic electromagnetic (EM) scattering from large and deep cavities. Comparing to previously integral equation formulations, the new formulation has two major benefits: 1) it leads to a well-conditioned system equation after multiplicative Schwarz preconditioning and 2) the localized impedance matrices arising from decomposed boundary value problems are immune from cavity resonance effects. We outline the key technical aspects of the new multitrace formulation, give the details of the numerical analysis and report numerical experiments verifying the analysis, and display the capabilities of the proposed methods.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 10/2015; 63(10):1-1. DOI:10.1109/TAP.2015.2458328
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    ABSTRACT: A very small coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed rectangular slot antenna with dual band-notched characteristics for super ultrawideband (UWB) applications is proposed. This antenna consists of a rectangular slot, a beveled rectangular patch, two S-shaped slits cut in the ground plane and an elliptical ring slot (ERS) etched in the patch. The corners of a simple rectangular patch are beveled to improve the impedance bandwidth, especially at the middle frequencies of the band. In addition, a pair of semicircle slots is etched in the ground plane to enhance the bandwidth to more than 23 GHz. A pair of S-shaped slits connected to the rectangular slot, and an ERS cut in the beveled rectangular patch, is employed to create band-notched performances in WiMAX and WLAN spectrum, respectively. The proposed antenna has a very small size of $15 times 15 text{mm}^{2}$, and therefore, it is one of the smallest UWB slot antennas that have been reported until now, and provide a very wide impedance bandwidth from 2.6 to more than 23 GHz for $text{VSWR} < {2}$ with dual band-notched properties.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 10/2015; 63(10):1-1. DOI:10.1109/TAP.2015.2456905
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    ABSTRACT: Reflective diffraction gratings consist of a periodic three-dimensional structure that produces appropriate constructive and destructive interference in order to redirect an incoming wave as a function of frequency. Depending upon the angle of incidence, the thickness required for this structure can range from a fraction of a wavelength to several wavelengths. While such a thickness does not present a problem for optical applications, it can make the diffraction grating very bulky for radio applications, notably in the lower frequency bands. This communication presents a new thin diffraction grating, employing resonant structures, whose thickness is only 1/34th of a wavelength. Simulations and measurements are presented for a thin diffraction grating, designed to operate in the VHF band in unfavorable outdoor conditions.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 10/2015; 63(10):1-1. DOI:10.1109/TAP.2015.2462090
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    ABSTRACT: A broadband and polarization-insensitive high-impedance surface (HIS) metamaterial absorber (MA) based on octagonal ring-shaped resistive patches is presented. The absorber is investigated theoretically, experimentally, and by simulation. The simulated results indicate that this structure obtains 10.28 GHz wide absorption from 3.65 to 13.93 GHz with absorptivity larger than 90% at the normal incidence. Experimental results are in accordance with those of the simulation results. The electromagnetic (EM) field distributions and the plots of surface power loss density have been illustrated to analyze the absorption mechanism of the structure. Further simulations of the absorptivity of the proposed absorber with different surface resistances and substrate thicknesses indicate that there exist optimal values for the design. The polarization-insensitive feature and the properties under oblique incidence are also investigated. Finally, the interference theory is introduced to analyze and interpret the broadband absorption mechanism at both normal and oblique incidences. The calculated absorption rates of the proposed absorber coincide well with the simulated results. Therefore, the simulated and experimental results verify the validity of the theoretically analytical method for this type of broadband absorber.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 10/2015; 63(10):1-1. DOI:10.1109/TAP.2015.2459138
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    ABSTRACT: The imaging properties of the Maxwell medium filling a spherical finite-radius domain have been analyzed. An analytical expression has been obtained for the field of the radial electric dipole inside the sphere. It is shown that the finite Maxwell medium of arbitrarily large size cannot overcome classical Abbe’s diffraction limit in optical systems. Perfect imaging in the infinite Maxwell medium is the consequence of its electrodynamic closure, i.e., the absence of waves outgoing to infinity.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 10/2015; 63(10):1-1. DOI:10.1109/TAP.2015.2465832
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    ABSTRACT: Satellite-based telecommunication systems operating in Ka-band require high gain ground terminal antennas. A promising architecture based on dual frequency printed Fresnel reflectors is presented in this paper. The complete development of this antenna including its design methodology, manufacturing, and testing is described. In order to scan its beam, the proposed antenna system can either be combined with electric motors or be transformed into a reconfigurable reflectarray system by replacing the passive reflecting cells by reconfigurable ones. A possible way of implementing such electronically reconfigurable reflecting cells is also presented.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 10/2015; 63(10):1-1. DOI:10.1109/TAP.2015.2456976
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    ABSTRACT: A novel miniaturized impedance matched antenna with omnidirectional horizontally polarized radiation pattern is presented. The antenna structure resembles a circular loop formed by a circular array of shunt miniaturized n-fold resonant dipole antennas, which will be referred to as miniature composite wire-loop antenna (MCWLA). The proposed antenna does not require an external matching network and can easily be matched to balanced ports with any desired impedance. MCWLAs can be made to be a very small fraction of the wavelength and yet to provide a relatively high radiation efficiency. The antenna input impedance can be adjusted by the number of array n-folded dipole elements, the number of folds and the diameter of the composite loop. The input impedance can be lowered by increasing the number of elements and/or by decreasing the loop diameter. Conversely, the input impedance, for a fixed number of elements and diameter, can be increased by increasing the fold number. The antenna efficiency increases with increasing the loop diameter. To demonstrate the proposed concept, a MCWLA is designed with diameter ${lambda}/8$ and is designed and fabricated using the standard PCB approach on a thin substrate ($lambda /500$). To achieve omnidirectional radiation pattern in H-plane, a minimum of three elements fed in-phase around the inscribing loop are used. It is shown that impedance match to a $50hbox{-}Omega$ line can be achieved using fourfold miniaturized dipole elements. The simulation shows strong uniform current distribution on the A transformer balun that is used to connect the balanced port of the antenna to a small coaxial line at the center of the loop. The measured gain, including the loss through the balun, is to be 0 dBi and the gain variat- on in the H-plane is shown to be less than 0.5 dB for the prototype MCWLA.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 10/2015; 63(10):1-1. DOI:10.1109/TAP.2015.2456971
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the phase error analysis of a single-layer discrete dielectric lens that uses nonresonant unit cell and can be fabricated using low-cost PCB technology. An extensive detailed study of the nonresonant unit cell is performed to understand the phase error loss mechanism and to find the best periodicity (unit cell size or interelement spacing) that produces almost the same phase response not only at different frequencies but also for both normal and oblique incidence which leads to lower oblique phase error (OPE) loss across the lens aperture and higher aperture efficiency. Unit cells of $0.47{{lambda }_{{94};{text{GHz}}}} leq {rm periodicity} leq 0.68{{lambda }_{{94};{text{GHz}}}}$ are studied and the optimum periodicity is addressed. Based on this study, three lenses of identical aperture area ($100 times 100 times 6.35;text{m}{{text m}^3}$) but different unit cell sizes ($0.5{lambda _{94,text{GHz}}}$, ${0}{.53}{{rm lambda }_{{94};{text{GHz}}}}$, and ${0}{.62}{{lambda }_{{94};{text{GHz}}}}$) are designed, fabricated, and tested. It is found that the maximum OPE is reduced from about 65° to less than 25°, aperture efficiency is improved by about 13.4% at 94 GHz, and the total number of unit cells is reduced by about 42.6% when periodicity changed from ${0}{.47}{{lambda }_{{94};{text{GHz}}}}$ to ${0}{.62}{{lambda }_{{94};{text{GHz}}}}$, respectively. Furthermore, lens of ${0}.{62}{{lambda }_{{94};{text{GHz}}}}$ periodicity will have the highest aperture efficiency of 48.7%, ${text{gain}} = {37}.{ 8;text{dB}}$ at 94 GHz, beamwidth $approx 1.2^circ $, ${text F}/{text B};{text{ratio}} approx ;37.5,text{dB}$, measured $vert{{text S}_{11}}vert < - 10,text{dB}$, ${text{cross-pol}}; < - 27,text{dB}$ and offers $text{SLL}_{{text H}} < - 24.3,text{dB}$, and $text{SLL}_{{text E}} < ; - 18.5,text{dB}$.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 10/2015; 63(10). DOI:10.1109/TAP.2015.2456978
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    ABSTRACT: A novel directional microstrip quasi Yagi array antenna is proposed to achieve a wide bandwidth with a low profile and a compact structure. The array is composed of a driven circular sector and annular sector directors. Arrays with both a single director and a dual director have been studied. Measured results show that the proposed antenna provides a stable high gain in a wide bandwidth with a low profile of 1.5 mm ($0.03lambda_{0}$ at 5.8 GHz). For an array using a single annular sector director, an impedance bandwidth of 13.6% (5.10–5.85 GHz) is achieved with a peak gain of 8.2 dBi. With two annular sector directors, the bandwidth is improved to 17.6% (5.05–6.02 GHz), and the peak gain is 10 dBi.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 10/2015; 63(10):1-1. DOI:10.1109/TAP.2015.2456875