Hormone and Metabolic Research (HORM METAB RES )

Publisher: Georg Thieme Verlag


Covering the fields of endocrinology and metabolism from both a clinical and basic science perspective, this well regarded monthly journal publishes original articles, and short communications on cutting edge topics. Speedy publication time is given high priority, ensuring that endocrinologists worldwide get timely, fast-breaking information as it happens.

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    Hormone and metabolic research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et métabolisme
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Georg Thieme Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Short-term abstinence from food intake, planned or unplanned, is unavoidable in modern life, but negatively correlated with appetite control and obesity. This study investigated the role of estradiol in feeding and body weight (BW) reactions to short-span cessation of feeding. During acute 1-6-h re-feeding, 12-h food-deprived (FD), estradiol benzoate (EB)-implanted ovariectomized rats ate less food and gained less weight than FD animals implanted with oil (O). Full fed (FF)- and FD-EB consumed equal amounts of food over 24 h, but weight gain was greater in the latter; 24-h food intake and BW gain in FD-O exceeded FD-EB. Caudal fourth ventricular administration of the AMPK activator AICAR increased dorsal vagal complex AMPK activity in FD-EB and FD-O, but elicited dissimilar adjustments in hypothalamic metabolic neuropeptide transmitter expression, while respectively enhancing or reducing acute re-feeding in these animals and reversing FD-O weight gain. Drug-treated FD-EB and FD-O exhibited respective feeding and weight gain increases between 6-24 h. AICAR enhanced 24-h consumption in FD-EB vs. FF-EB, but cumulative intake and BW gain were greater in AICAR-treated FD-O vs. FD-EB. Results show that estradiol limits acute re-feeding after short-term feeding suspension, but augments acute re-feeding when energy depletion coincides with suspended feeding. This compound metabolic stress exerts steroid-dependent effects during later resumption of circadian-induced feeding, for example, increased consumption vs. weight gain in the presence vs. absence of estradiol. These studies provide novel evidence that estrogen mitigates acute and post-acute adverse effects of disrupted fuel acquisition on energy balance.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that in diabetes mellitus, insulin-induced relaxation of arteries is impaired and the level of ortho-tyrosine (o-Tyr), an oxidized amino acid is increased. Thus, we hypothesized that elevated vascular level of o-Tyr contributes to the impairment of insulin-induced vascular relaxation. Rats were fed with o-Tyr for 4 weeks. Insulin-induced vasomotor responses of isolated femoral artery were studied using wire myography. Vascular o-Tyr content was measured by HPLC, whereas immunoblot analyses were preformed to detect eNOS phosphorylation. Sustained oral supplementation of rats with o-Tyr increased the content of o-Tyr in the arterial wall and significantly reduced the relaxations to insulin. Sustained supplementation of cultured endothelial cells with o-Tyr increased the incorporation of o-Tyr and mitigated eNOS Ser (1 177) phosphorylation to insulin. Increasing arterial wall o-Tyr level attenuates insulin-induced relaxation - at least in part - by decreasing eNOS activation. Elevated level of o-Tyr could be an underlying mechanism for vasomotor dysfunction in diabetes mellitus.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, hypothalamic RFRP-3 (a mammalian ortholog of avian GnIH) signaling has been proposed as an important negative modulator of the reproductive axis. The current study examined whether repression of reproductive hormonal expression during short-term fasting conditions in higher-order primate is influenced by altered RFRP-3 signaling. Eight intact postpubertal male macaques (Macaca mulatta) were administered a single intravenous bolus of RF-9 (n=4), a potent and putative RFRP-3 receptor antagonist, or vehicle (n=4) following a 48-h fasting condition. Intermittent blood samples were collected every 30 min during the 4-h post-bolus period, and blood glucose, plasma cortisol, and testosterone concentrations were measured. Relative to fed conditions, fasting reduced glucose and testosterone levels (p<0.005) and increased cortisol levels (p<0.05). Relative to baseline, mean testosterone levels were elevated 150 min after RF-9 (p<0.05) but not vehicle administration. In addition, elevated mean plasma testosterone levels following RF-9 administration were equivalent to levels observed in normal fed monkeys. These results suggest an important role for RFRP-3 signaling in conveying metabolic state information to the reproductive axis in higher primates.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: AHNAK is a 700 KD phosphoprotein primarily involved in calcium signaling in various cell types and regulating cytoskeletal organization and cell membrane architecture. AHNAK expression has also been associated with obesity. To investigate the role of AHNAK in regulating metabolic homeostasis, we studied whole body AHNAK knockout mice (KO) on either regular chow or high-fat diet (HFD). KO mice had a leaner phenotype and were resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO), as reflected by a reduction in adipose tissue mass in conjunction with higher lean mass compared to wild-type controls (WT). However, KO mice exhibited higher fasting glucose levels, impaired glucose tolerance, and diminished serum insulin levels on either diet. Concomitantly, KO mice on HFD displayed defects in insulin signaling, as evident from reduced Akt phosphorylation and decreased cellular glucose transporter (Glut4) levels. Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance were also associated with changes in expression of genes regulating fat, glucose, and energy metabolism in adipose tissue and liver. Taken together, these data demonstrate that (a) AHNAK is involved in glucose homeostasis and weight balance (b) under normal feeding KO mice are insulin sensitive yet insulin deficient; and (c) AHNAK deletion protects against HFD-induced obesity, but not against HFD-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in vivo.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The endocrine activity of the thyroid gland is accomplished by its follicular and parafollicular cells. In these cells, numerous G proteins-dependent pathways are active and potentially could be regulated by a 33-kDa cytoplasmic protein phosducin, which interacts with the Gβ subunit and may compete with Gα or Gβγ dimer effectors. Significant expression of phosducin has been shown in the retina, pineal gland, and some neurons. Here, we studied postoperative thyroid tissue samples collected from patients with nodular goiter and 2 thyroid-derived cell lines for the presence of phosducin. Using reverse transcription PCR with product sequencing and highly sensitive immunodetection we identified phosducin mRNA and protein in the thyroid gland and parafollicular C TT cells, but not in the follicular Nthy-ori 3-1 cell line. We also observed that siRNA-mediated silencing of phosducin gene expression decreased Ca(2+)-stimulated secretion of calcitonin and serotonin by TT cells.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Carvedilol is a novel β-adrenoreceptor blocker, with antioxidant properties inhibiting lipid peroxidation and preventing the depletion of endogenous antioxidants. Moreover, carvedilol was reported to enhance the expression of Bcl-2 gene, which has antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects. There are few researches testing the protective effect of carvedilol on the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and nephropathy. In this study, we induced diabetes mellitus in male Wistar albino rats. We investigated carvedilol, as well as vitamin E, administrated in healthy and diabetic rats for 6 weeks to compare their effects on biochemical parameters and the expression of Bcl-2 protein in both myocardial and renal tissues by immunohistochemistry. The study showed that the diabetic rats not only had renal dysfunction and more myocardial damage, but also showed lower expression of Bcl-2 protein. Carvedilol and vitamin E treatments were associated with better renal function and less myocardial damage, lower blood glucose, and lipid peroxidation, higher antioxidant capacity, better serum lipids, and higher expression of Bcl-2 protein in diabetic rats. These results indicate that carvedilol and vitamin E treatments partly protect against myocardial and renal damage probably via their antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties in diabetic rats.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Ceruloplasmin is a member of the multicopper oxidase family that plays a major role in the transport of iron in the body. Aceruloplasminaemia (ACP) is a rare disease and is clinically identified by iron overload in liver, pancreas, brain, and other organs, and by microcytic anaemia. So far, the iron chelator deferasirox was given for therapy only up to 6 months due to side effects. Here, we describe a novel mutation leading to ACP and report for the first time a long-term therapy, that is, 2 years with deferasirox. ACP was diagnosed in 3 siblings using clinical and biochemical characteristics, HFE and ceruloplasmin mutational analysis, liver biopsy, brain-, liver-, and heart-MRI. For iron depletion, a starting dose of deferasirox 7.5 mg/kg/day was increased to 15 mg/kg/day and maintained at 4-7.5 mg/kg/day with a patient follow-up for 2 years. A novel homozygous mutation of the ceruloplasmin gene on chromosome 3 (3q23-q25, exon 12, G708S) was found. Iron was selectively and successfully removed by long-term therapy with deferasirox, as confirmed by follow-up liver biopsies, normalisation of serum ferritin concentrations, and improved glucose metabolism. Unexpectedly, iron depletion ameliorated anaemia. Low-dose deferasirox is an effective and safe long-term treatment option for patients with ACP.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived abundant plasma protein, also called Acrp30 (adipocyte complement-related protein), adipoQ, ApM1 (AdiPose Most abundant Gene transcript 1), or GBP28 (gelatin-binding protein-28). Insulin resistance is a primary contributing factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin binds to adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, and exerts antidiabetic effects via activation of AMPK and PPAR-α pathways, respectively. In the same sense chronic exercise has been showed to induce numerous metabolic factors that can improve insulin resistance. It has been reported that physical exercise training increases adiponectin receptors, which may mediate the improvement of insulin resistance in response to exercise, which is the focus of the present review.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 08/2014; 46(9):603-8.
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    ABSTRACT: For the majority of patients with type 1 diabetes intensive insulin therapy is effective and safe for maintaining glycemia and minimizing diabetes-associated complications. However, a rare number of patients show highly labile metabolic control and experience repeated and unpredictable hypoglycemic episodes. Such condition is often caused by defective counterregulatory mechanisms and autonomous neuropathy. Patients are at high risk for severe acute and chronic complications, and quality of life is considerably impaired. For this small subset of patients, restoration of endogenous insulin secretion can substantially improve metabolic control and quality of life. In our experience, this is irrespective of insulin independency. Here, we report on our 5 years' experience with implementing islet transplantation as a potential treatment option for type 1 diabetes. All patients were treated by long-term insulin pump therapy prior to enrolment. The main indication was severely unstable diabetes and repeated hypoglycemia. From 2008 to 2013, 10 patients have been transplanted with single islet infusion; mean follow-up time was 35 months. All patients show persistent graft function, stable glycemic control with a reduction in HbA1c in the absence of hypoglycemia. All patients are kept on minimal exogenous insulin. In conclusion, islet transplantation can be an excellent therapy for selected patients. Key prerequisite for success is a strict indication. The primary goal for islet transplantation should be stabile glycemia and prevention of hypoglycemia rather than insulin independence. In fact, maintaining minimal exogenous insulin may protect the islet graft from metabolic stress and even prolong islet graft function.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Preceding studies have indicated that aberrant expression levels rather than genetic changes of GADD45γ, MEG3, and p8 gene might play a role in the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas. We analysed their expression in various normal human tissues and in different pituitary tumour types, and investigated GADD45γ mutations in a subset of adenomas. Absolute quantification by real-time RT-PCR was performed in 24 normal tissues as well as in 34 nonfunctioning, 24 somatotroph, 12 corticotroph adenomas, 4 prolactinomas, 1 FSHoma, and in 6 normal pituitaries. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship between clinical data and gene expression. A subset was screened for GADD45γ mutations by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and sequencing. All normal human tissues expressed GADD45γ, MEG3, and p8 mRNA. For GADD45γ, significantly lower expression levels were found in nonfunctioning adenomas compared with normal pituitary and somatotroph adenomas. P8 and MEG3 mRNA levels were significantly lower in nonfunctioning and corticotroph adenomas compared with normal pituitary. Expression of GADD45γ was significantly higher in pituitary adenomas of female patients. No mutation was found in the GADD45γ gene. GADD45γ, MEG3, and p8 appear to have physiological functions in a variety of human tissues. GADD45γ, MEG3, and P8 may be involved in the pathogenesis of nonfunctioning and corticotroph pituitary tumours. Female gender seems to predispose to slightly higher GADD45γ expression in pituitary adenomas. Mutations of the GADD45γ are unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 08/2014; 46(9):644-50.
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular mechanisms underlying resistance of pituitary tumors to somatostatin (SS) and dopamine (DA) analogues treatment are not completely understood. Resistance has been associated with defective expression of functional somatostatin and dopamine receptors SSTR2, SSTR5, and DRD2, respectively. Recently, a role of cytoskeleton protein filamin A (FLNA) in DRD2 and SSTR receptors expression and signaling in PRL- and GH-secreting tumors, respectively, has been demonstrated, first revealing a link between FLNA expression and responsiveness of pituitary tumors to pharmacological therapy. No molecular events underlying the reduction of FLNA levels in resistant tumors have been so far identified. FLNA can be phosphorylated by PKA on Ser2152, with increased FLNA resistance to cleavage by calpain and conformational changes affecting FLNA regions involved in SSTR2 and DRD2 binding and signal transduction. In this respect, the effect of cAMP/PKA pathway in the regulation of FLNA stability and/or function by modulating its phosphorylation status could assume particular importance in pituitary, where cAMP cascade plays a crucial role in pituitary cell functions and tumorigenesis. This review will discuss the role of FLNA in the regulation of the main GPCRs target of pharmacological treatment of pituitary tumors, that is, SSTR2 and DRD2, focusing on the effects of cAMP/PKA-mediated FLNA phosphorylation on FLNA biological functions.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Illegitimate G-protein coupled receptors are known to control cortisol secretion in adrenal adenomas and bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasias (BMAHs) causing Cushing's syndrome. In the present study, we have evaluated the role of glucagon in the regulation of cortisol secretion in 13 patients with BMAH or adrenocortical adenoma causing subclinical or overt Cushing's syndrome. Injection of glucagon provoked an increase in plasma cortisol in 2 patients. After surgery, immunohistochemical studies showed the presence of glucagon receptor-like immunoreactivity in clusters of spongiocytic cells in adrenal tissues from patients who were sensitive in vivo to glucagon. We also observed an in vitro cortisol response to vasoactive intestinal peptide from an adenoma, which was insensitive to glucagon and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide. Altogether, our data show that ectopic glucagon receptors are expressed in some adrenal cortisol-producing benign lesions. Our results also indicate that circulating glucagon may influence cortisol release under fasting conditions.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), located on the surface of virtually every cell in our organism, mediate the effects of many hormones and neurotransmitters. Although GPCRs have been extensively studied for more than 4 decades using pharmacological and biochemical methods, the recent introduction of optical methods such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and single-molecule microscopy is fostering novel and important discoveries in the field. Here, we review the use of such optical methods, focusing on some recent examples of their application to important and still unresolved questions concerning the spatial organisation and dynamics of GPCR signalling.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study analyses new information on gene mutations in paragangliomas and puts them into a clinical context. A suspicion of malignancy is critical to determine the workup and surgical approach in adrenal (A-PGL) and extra-adrenal (E-PGL) paragangliomas (PGLs). Malignancy rates vary with location, family history, and gene tests results. Currently there is no algorithm incorporating the above information for clinical use. A sum of 1 821 articles were retrieved from PubMed using the search terms "paraganglioma genetics". Thirty-seven articles were selected of which 9 were analyzed. It was found that 599/2 487 (24%) patients affected with paragangliomas had a germline mutation. Of these 30.2% were mutations in SDHB, 25% VHL, 19.4% RET, 18.4% SDHD, 5.0% NF1, and 2.0% SDHC genes. A family history was positive in 18.1-64.3% of patients. Adrenal PGLs accounted for 55.1% in mutation (+) and 81.0% in mutation (-) patients (RR 1.2, p<0.0001). Bilateral A-PGLs accounted for 56.4% in mutation (+) and 3.2% in mutation (-) patients (RR 8.7, p<0.0001). E-PGL were found in 33.6% of mut+ and 17.3% of mut- (RR 1.7, p<0.0001). In mutation (+) patients PGLs malignancy varied with location, adrenal (6.4%) thoraco-abdominal E-PGL (38%), H & N E-PGL (10%). Malignancy rates were 8.2% in mutation (-) and lower in mutation (+) PGLs except for SDHB 36.5% and SDHC 8.3%. Exclusion of a mutation lowered the probability of malignancy significantly in E-PGL (RR 0.03 (95% CI 0.1-0.6); p<0.001). Mutation analysis provides valuable preoperative information to assess the risk of malignancy in A-PG and E-PGLs and should be considered in the work up of all E-PGL lesions.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF, also known as angiopoietin-like protein 6) has been introduced as a novel hepatocyte-derived factor, which antagonizes obesity and insulin resistance in mice. However, human studies show conflicting results and are limited to a small cohort of patients. In the current study, we therefore sought to investigate AGF serum levels in a large metabolically well-characterized cohort. AGF serum concentrations were determined by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 697 patients of a cohort from Eastern Germany (Sorbs). Correlations of AGF serum levels with clinical and biochemical measures of glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as markers of renal function, were investigated. In nondiabetic subjects (n=627), AGF was positively correlated with markers of insulin resistance and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in univariate analyses (p<0.05). After adjustment for age, gender, and body mass index, none of these factors remained independently associated with AGF, neither in nondiabetic subjects nor in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (n=70). However, we confirmed existing data of significantly higher AGF concentrations in patients with T2DM as compared to controls in this large cohort. Circulating AGF is elevated in subjects with T2DM and related to the type of antidiabetic treatment, but is not independently associated with anthropometric parameters, indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion, or a number of other adipokines.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 07/2014; 46(10).
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    ABSTRACT: Under normal conditions, progesterone inhi-bits the estrogen-induced proliferation of endometrial epithelium. Our previous studies have shown that cyclin G1 was progesterone-dependent in mouse endometrial epithelium at peri-implantation, and exogenous cyclin G1 suppressed the proliferation of endometrial cancer cells. The objectives of this study are to determine whether cyclin G1, as a negative regulator of the cell cycle, is involved in the antiproliferative action of progesterone on endometrial epithelial cells, and to explore the possible molecular mechanism of cyclin G1 inhibition. The siRNA-mediated elimination of cyclin G1 attenuated the antiproliferative action of progesterone on endometrial epithelial cells. Immunoprecipitation showed that progesterone-induced cyclin G1 could interact with PP2A to mediate its phosphatase activity. The block of PP2A activity also attenuated the antiproliferative action of progesterone on endometrial epithelial cells and increased the phosphorylated Rb. In conclusion, progesterone-induced cyclin G1 mediates the inhibitory effect of progesterone on endometrial epithelial cell proliferation possibly through the recruitment of PP2A to dephosphorylate Rb.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 07/2014; 46(11).
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to assess the effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan on insulin resistance and serum hs-CRP in overweight and obese women with PCOS. This randomized controlled clinical trial was done on 48 women diagnosed with PCOS. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either the control (n=24) or the DASH eating pattern (n=24) for 8 weeks. The DASH diet consisted of 52% carbohydrates, 18% proteins, and 30% total fats. It was designed to be rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products and low in saturated fats, cholesterol, refined grains, and sweets. Sodium content of the DASH diet was designed to be less than 2 400 mg/day. The control diet was also designed to contain 52% carbohydrates, 18% protein, and 30% total fat. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 8 weeks intervention to measure -insulin resistance and serum hs-CRP levels. -Adherence to the DASH eating pattern, compared to the -control diet, resulted in a significant reduction of serum insulin levels (-1.88 vs. 2.89 μIU/ml, p=0.03), HOMA-IR score (-0.45 vs. 0.80; p=0.01), and serum hs-CRP levels (-763.29 vs. 665.95 ng/ml, p=0.009). Additionally, a significant reduction in waist (-5.2 vs. -2.1 cm; p=0.003) and hip circumference (-5.9 vs. -1 cm; p<0.0001) was also seen in the DASH group compared with the control group. In conclusion, consumption of the DASH eating pattern for 8 weeks in overweight and obese women with PCOS resulted in the improvement of insulin resistance, serum hs-CRP levels, and abdominal fat accumulation.Clinical trial registration number: www.irct.ir: IRCT201304235623N6.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 06/2014;