Genetic psychology monographs (Genet Psychol Monogr )

Publisher: Clark University (Worcester, Mass.)

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  • Other titles
    Genetic psychology monographs
  • ISSN
    0016-6677
  • OCLC
    1440765
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study gives additional data on fraternal twins reared from the beginning of the 2nd to the end of the 14th month under conditions of minimum social stimulation. The present report is concerned primarily with "the responses which a child would develop if he were removed as far as is possible from the influence of adults and other children." Such behavior is described as autogenous. The author concludes that "practically all of the common responses of the first year of life may be developed autogenously… . If the well-being of the infant is assured, his behavioral development will take its normal course… . In the development of autogenous responses of the first year, learning plays an important part… . Maturation in and of itself seldom produces new developmental items, but maturation of structures when accompanied by self-directed activity leads to new infant responses." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Genetic psychology monographs 09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: An Adolescent Social Behavior Scale (ASBS) was developed to measure the imaginary audience construct and aspects of adolescent self-consciousness in social situations. There were 60 Ss (30 male, 30 female) at each of three grade levels, 8, 10, and 12, and 26 adults (9 male, 15 female) in the sample. Results show that younger Ss gave significantly more imaginary audience behavior and externally self-conscious responses than older Ss, while only moderate age differences were apparent for internally motivated self-consciousness. High anxiety was generally associated with high self-consciousness of both types, but not with imaginary audience behavior. The need for clarity in operationalizing the concepts of imaginary audience behavior and self-consciousness is emphasized.
    Genetic psychology monographs 12/1984; 110(2D Half):289-305.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper first reviews the adaptive-style theory of schizophrenia that was published in 1973 along with the evidence gathered from normal male Ss. The theory emphasized the importance of perceived maternal behaviors in the development of maladaptive social and cognitive styles for the son. The problems of interpreting data gathered from normals in terms of their implications for schizophrenic development are considered in the present paper, as well as the rules of evidence adopted for post-1973 research with mental patients bearing upon the adaptive-style theory. Theory relevance and support has required that cognitive behaviors distinguishing normal males displaying the two adaptive styles also differentiate process and reactive schizophrenics in specified ways. In addition, these differences should represent sources of vulnerability to major psychotic symptoms. Five studies into delusions and auditory hallucinations are discussed in terms of how well they support adaptive-style theory.
    Genetic psychology monographs 12/1984; 110(2D Half):229-55.
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    ABSTRACT: Explored the relationship of religiousness to cultural complexity and a variety of childrearing practices in classical literature, in the social sciences, and through an empirical cross-cultural study (G. Murdock and D. R. White, 1969) involving a sample of 109 societies. Religiousness was defined in terms of ritual and belief. Cultural complexity was strongly related to each factor separately and significantly related to the combination of the two, with ritual having more of an influence in the relationship. Both measures of religiousness were significantly related to technique and traits of childrearing that placed pressure on the child to obey cultural norms, regardless of what the norms were. Again, ritual was the more salient variable. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Genetic psychology monographs 10/1984;
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    ABSTRACT: In two studies Ss (N = 114) aged 3-5 years of age were assessed as to their ability to reconstruct or recognize spatial displays depicting Euclidean geometric features. The Ss responded either with the standard display present or in its absence, a memory condition. Items differed as to whether the objects located in the plane required attention to either one axis, the horizontal or vertical, or to both. In Study I Ss constructed their matches with an open-ended assessment device, while in Study II, they selected the match from a field of four distractors. Results from both studies were convergent despite differences in assessment technique and specifics of data analysis, and indicated an effect for age and condition, and that children do less well when dealing with double-axis displays in the memory condition. In addition, it appears that males were less attentive to display orientation cues than were females. Results are discussed in terms of Piagetian theoretical formulations about children's spatial development, their sensitivity to Euclidean spatial features, and the lack of synchrony between perceptual abilities and memory.
    Genetic psychology monographs 09/1984; 110(1ST Half):21-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Two studies examined children's understanding that both noise level and interest level can affect learning. In Study 1, 48 children aged 4 to 7 judged the amount of learning in nine situations created by a factorial combination of three levels of each variable and in six situations in which there was information about only one variable. Interest level affected judgments at all ages. Noise level was used to some extent by ages 6-7 when it was presented alone, but was used when combined with interest level only if it had previously been presented alone. Using a similar design, Study 2 extended an earlier study of grade school children (Miller, 1982) by making noise levels more discriminable and interest levels less discriminable and by varying order of presentation. The 40 second graders used both noise and interest information regardless of order but, as in the other studies, interest was weighed much more heavily. Results were discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of how information is integrated to make causal inferences.
    Genetic psychology monographs 09/1984; 110(1ST Half):71-90.
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    ABSTRACT: Surveys research on the predictability of adult adaptation and health based on childhood development with regard to the common belief that early life experiences determine the development of an individual for life. Previous research, however, suggests that this belief is generally a myth. The present review focuses on longitudinal studies in 3 areas: cognitive development and academic achievement, emotional and psychosexual development, and social behavior. Research does not support the continuity assumption (e.g., emotionally disturbed children are not necessarily prone to become mentally ill adults). Two major exceptions are noted: schizophrenia and sociopathic disorders, which are predictable from a compound of genetic factors, environmental factors, and childhood behavior. The nihilistic implication of reducing mental-health services for children is rejected, and constructive recommendations are presented for practitioners and researchers. (227 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Genetic psychology monographs 07/1984;
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    ABSTRACT: Investigated the role of parental orientations, family lifestyle, and children's TV viewing as predictors of 3 measures of imaginative behavior in 31 male and 32 female 8-yr-olds. Estimates of Ss' imaginatives were obtained by human movement responses to inkblots, an imagination interview, and block play fantasy. Multiple regression analyses for Ss, who were followed from age 4 yrs, showed that heavy recent and preschool TV viewing, emphasis on realistic action programs, along with regularity of family routine and parental values of resourcefulness, were moderately predictive of later human movement responses. Results for imaginative interview and block play fantasy were less clearcut, but also implicated parental values, family lifestyle, and TV variables. (37 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Genetic psychology monographs 07/1984;
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    ABSTRACT: The application of operant, biofeedback, and cognitive-behavioral approaches to the management of chronic pain is reviewed. A conceptual and methodological overview of treatment studies is provided from the perspective of recent psychological and multidimensional viewpoints concerning the chronic pain experience. Difficulties in interpreting the clinical efficacy of pain management procedures are highlighted and the need for further controlled outcome studies is recommended, particularly in demonstrating the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral procedures. Lastly, implications for further research investigating the relationships between individual coping styles and chronic pain are discussed.
    Genetic psychology monographs 06/1984; 109(2D Half):251-78.
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    ABSTRACT: To test empirically the oft-repeated clinical hypothesis of a relationship between the self-derogation component of low self-esteem and severity of psychopathology across the entire range of pathology, including nondepressive disorders, the present study examined this relationship in two samples of Ss. The first were 152 patients and expatients from two community mental health catchment areas followed up two years after their first functional-disorder psychiatric admission. The second group were 97 outpatients from the same catchment areas beginning therapy at a community mental health clinic. Within each sample self-derogation was related significantly to severity of diagnosis, overall health-sickness, numerous indices of symptomatology severity, and a measure of difficulty in social/employment functioning. These findings point to the need to recognize and treat self-derogation in psychopathological states other than depression. In addition, they raise the important question of direction of causality between self-derogation and observed psychopathology.
    Genetic psychology monographs 06/1984; 109(2D Half):223-50.
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    ABSTRACT: It is argued that healthy personality is potentially as identifiable a pattern as is any diagnostic category and is not equivalent simply to "normality." In moving toward a theory of psychological health one needs to examine structure and dynamics with respect to the functions of instigation, regulation, meaning, and style. Psychoanalytic theory is taken as a point-of-departure. Viewed as a theory of neurosis, psychoanalysis does not provide an adequate treatment of ego-constructive functions, components of the superego (aside from conscience in a negative sense), or human motivation. Humanistic theory helps by focussing on health, although it falls short with regard to motivation. The essential properties of healthy humanness emerge as integration among the structures of personality and progression in the dynamics of personality functioning. Four major pathways in development are outlined to highlight how health differs from other patterns.
    Genetic psychology monographs 06/1984; 109(2D Half):279-329.
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    ABSTRACT: The research in psychopathology has revealed little interest in distinguishing between types of chronic mental patients. Chronics have usually been treated as a homogeneous group, and other possible subtypes have remained undefined because of the "melting-pot" effects of extensive hospitalization. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the chronic patient, as well as in a differentiation of the largest group of such patients, the chronic schizophrenic. Ss were 129 inpatients at a state mental hospital in Maine. The present report begins the specification of a diagnostic system for chronic patients with the use of tasks that reflect developmental functions. Factor analysis of a set of developmental tasks, ranging from early reflex tests to later cognitive operations, resulted in a test battery which clearly defines specific developmental functions. Of most importance, the clusters of patients derived from these factors exhibited differential profiles indicating strengths and weaknesses on the developmental functions. The assumption of a developmental task sequence was not supported by the results, but the diagnosis of the chronic patient in terms of developmental functions appears promising.
    Genetic psychology monographs 06/1984; 109(2D Half):199-221.
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    ABSTRACT: Research on the effect of the benzodiazepines, Valium, and Librium on human psychomotor and cognitive functions is reviewed. Benzodiazepines which are the most important antianxiety medications also have anticonvulsant, hypnotic-sedative, and muscle-relaxant properties. Research on the benzodiazepine hypnotic "hangover" effects on cognitive and motor behavior is cited. The benzodiazepines Valium and Librium probably interact with neurotransmitters, especially GABA and very likely have specific receptors in the brain and central nervous system. Absorption and elimination rate vary with dosage, method of administration, and age. Valium and Librium have no gravely harmful side effects, little addictive potential; danger from overdosage is minimal. Although controlled studies of the impact of psychoactive drugs on psychomotor and cognitive performance are relatively recent, Valium and Librium apparently have little, if any, adverse effect on well established higher mental functions and may affect the speed with which simple repetitive motor actions are performed. None of their effects are irreversible. Benzodiazepines (BZ) have been remarkable drugs. They have virtually replaced all other forms of antianxiety medications (48, 95, 109, 225). All the BZ drugs additionally have anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotic, and muscle-relaxant properties (4, 77, 88, 112, 252). Two of the BZ drugs, Valium (diazepam) and Librium (chlordiazepoxide) have been the best sellers of the BZ drug family and the most frequently prescribed drugs in the world (7, 15, 17, 77, 110, 137, 215, 257). The impact of Valium and Librium on human psychomotor and cognitive functions is the focus of this review of research. Since millions of people are using these drugs, how do Valium and Librium affect alertness and responsiveness, for example, in driving a car to work, or operating a machine in a factory (240)? Tranquilizing drugs like Valium and Librium were hailed when they replaced sedatives like barbiturates because they did not cloud the mind. Is decision-making or mental alertness affected in those who use Valium or Librium (69)? In studying the impact of drugs on the central nervous system (CNS) and brain, animal subjects frequently are employed. However, the human condition of anxiety for which Valium and Librium are usually prescribed is hard to evaluate and human subjects vary greatly, so that this review of research has been limited for the most part to studies with human subjects (8, 26, 50, 107, 108, 262, 263, 264).
    Genetic psychology monographs 06/1984; 109(2D Half):167-97.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined the impressions of personality formed from written descriptions of behavior by over 200 hospitalized male schizophrenics, tested individually when they seemed in contact with reality. One description was of extrovert (E) behavior by a youth named Jim; another was of his introvert (I) behavior in similar settings. Combined communications gave one description immediately after the other. After 150 patients read one of the communications, they were generally willing and able to respond to a 36-item questionnaire about Jim. This also occurred when 96 patients were asked to answer it before any communication, on the basis of their expectations about Jim; 56 subsequently received a communication, followed by readministration of the questionnaire. Patients' responses, before or after the communications, revealed few pathological signs and, like those of normal Ss, could usually be classified as E or I. Patients had less differential effects, and far fewer I responses than normal Ss. Patients and normals showed preconceptions of Jim as extrovertive. Results were discussed in light of the projective hypothesis and other theories.
    Genetic psychology monographs 03/1984; 109(1ST Half):95-119.
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    ABSTRACT: The rate of habituation and rehabituation and the magnitude of dishabituation were investigated in four-month-old infants (24 boys, 24 girls) as a function of stimulus preference. Infants were habituated to either a preferred or nonpreferred stimulus and rehabituated with the opposite stimulus. Infants initially viewing a preferred stimulus required more trials to habituate and fewer trials to rehabituate than those in the nonpreferred group. In addition, the magnitude of dishabituation was greater for infants in the latter group. The data were discussed in terms of the importance of stimulus preference in studies of infant habituation.
    Genetic psychology monographs 03/1984; 109(1ST Half):3-18.
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    ABSTRACT: For members of minority cultural groups, high levels of conflict between adolescents and parents may arise because of conflicting cultural norms. In the present study, information on parent–adolescent conflict was obtained from 630 Anglo-, Greek-, and Italian-Australian 9th and 11th graders and their parents. Greek- and Italian-Australian adolescents reported significantly more conflict with both mother and father than Anglo-Australians, a finding reflected in parents' reports. There was no relationship between levels of conflict and dual identification (e.g., identification with both the dominant and minority ethnic groups). Results are discussed in terms of differing childrearing practices rather than culture conflict per se. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Genetic psychology monographs 01/1984;
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to examine the paternal determinants of male adolescent marijuana use in the context of the mother-son and parental relationships. In addition, parental factors affecting experimental vs regular use of marijuana were examined. Two hundred forty-six male college students and their fathers were administered written questionnaires. Results indicated that the father's personality attributes and socialization techniques are associated with the son's use of marijuana despite control on the mother-son relationship. Fathers of marijuana users score higher on measures of psychopathology and unconventionality, and are less likely to have established close relationships with their sons. In addition, marijuana users more than nonusers have unaffectionate mothers and parents with less harmonious marital relations. Also of importance were interactions within the family system. The significance of these second-order effects highlights the importance of examining the father-son relation in the context of mother-son and parental interactions.
    Genetic psychology monographs 12/1983; 108(2d Half):197-213.
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnancy resolution decisions of unmarried adolescents were studied with the use of an expected utility decision model that included psychological, background, and economic variables. Discriminant function analysis of the decision to have an abortion or to deliver the child indicated that psychological, background, and economic variables each made significant contributions to the successful classification of teenagers (approximately 87.5% of the women were classified correctly). A four-item Abortion Approval Index, the women's perception of the prospective fathers' abortion opinion, personal knowledge of other unmarried teenagers who delivered, self-reported grade average, and receipt of state financial aid in the form of AFDC or Medicaid payments were the most powerful discriminators. For adolescents who chose to deliver, a second discriminant function indicated that only one economic factor--receipt of state financial aid--successfully discriminated those who married from those who became single mothers (approximately 72% of the women were classified correctly). Results are discussed in terms of possible decision strategies and sequences used by adolescents and the value of using a decision framework that incorporates psychological, background, and economic factors.
    Genetic psychology monographs 09/1983; 108(1st Half):69-95.
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    ABSTRACT: Piaget and Inhelder, and Lowenfeld proposed theories on the development of spatial representation based on certain features present in children's drawings. The purpose of the present study was to provide an objective evaluation of these theories. Three raters examined drawings from children (N = 107) ages five to 13 for 38 of Lowenfeld's and Piaget's structural features included in the categories of Composition, Dimension, and Meaning. A confusion matrix and an index of rater reliability were used to assess the reliability of each feature. A structured key-word and chi-square analysis of the 23 reliably rated features produced a three-period model of spatial development similar to the theories presented by Piaget and Lowenfeld. Implications for future research were discussed, and children's drawings were suggested as diagnostic screening tools for the evaluation of children's overall development.
    Genetic psychology monographs 09/1983; 108(1st Half):137-65.
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    ABSTRACT: According to the modular model, skill development proceeds through the development of stable units of action called subroutines. The development of these programmed units frees the child to attend to those parts of the action not yet mastered. Once consolidated they can be applied to many different contexts. Thus, complex skill sequences can be produced. The theory generates several predictions, most fundamental being an association between increasing proficiency and increasing consistency. Experiment 1 was a longitudinal study in which six 12-month-old children were observed over a period of eight months. Various manipulative tasks were used, notably the placement of rods in corresponding holes. Experiment 2 was a cross-sectional study of performance consistency in rod placement (N = 30). Results showed that consistency decreases as proficiency increases. It is concluded therefore that the programmed components of complex actions are not characterized by the invariance predicted by modular theory.
    Genetic psychology monographs 06/1983; 107(2D Half):145-87.

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