Folia parasitologica (Folia Parasitol )

Publisher: Parasitologický ústav (Československá akademie věd); Biologický ústav (Československá akademie věd)


Folia Parasitologica is an international journal that covers all branches of animal parasitology, including morphology, taxonomy, biology, biochemistry, physiology, immunology and molecular biology of parasites, host-parasite relationships and parasite evolution. The language of publication is English. Suitable manuscripts are reviewed by at least two independent referees before acceptance. Folia Parasitologica is published quarterly by the Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.

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    Folia Parasitologica (Prague) website
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    Folia parasitologica (Online)
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Based on molecular markers (COII and ITS1-ITS2) and morphological data, we describe three new Neotropical species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 from Scleromystax barbatus (Quoy et Gaimard) and Scleromystax macropterus (Regan) from southern Brazil. The three new species can be distinguished from each other by sequences of both molecular markers and morphology of hooks and anchors. Gyrodactylus bueni sp. n. is characterised by having hook with shaft curved, heel straight, shelf straight, toe pointed, anchor with superficial root slender, elongate and male copulatory organ armed with two rows of spinelets. Gyrodactylus major sp. n. presents hook with shaft, point curved, proximal shaft straight, heel convex, shelf convex, toe concave, anchor with superficial root robust and male copulatory organ armed with two rows of spinelets. Gyrodactylus scleromystaci sp. n. presents hook with shaft, point recurved, heel convex, shelf convex, toe pointed, anchor with superficial root curved and male copulatory organ armed with two rows of spinelets. These species appear to be closely related to other species of Gyrodactylus known from other species of Callichthyidae. These new species, however, differ by the comparative morphology of the haptoral hard structures and molecular data. Comparative analysis of sequences from these species of Gyrodactylus suggests that the COII gene may represent an important marker for the taxonomy of species of Gyrodactylidae and, perhaps, for species of other lineages of Monogenoidea.
    Folia parasitologica 06/2014; 61(3):213-222.
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    ABSTRACT: The taxonomic classification of some parasitic isopods of the family Gnathiidae has been revised in the last years. However, their biological cycles have been described only partially or incompletely. Gnathia maxillaris (Montagu, 1804) is one of the most studied species, but certain aspects of its life cycle are still poorly known. A detailed study on the life cycle of G. maxillaris was carried out over several years by sampling larvae from an infestation of large volume aquaria at the Aquarium of Barcelona. At the same time, a system of in vitro cultivation of G. maxillaris was developed, which provided new data to complete the description of its life cycle. Periods of incubation, fertilization, planktonic stages, the attachment site on the fish host and biometric characteristics of larval forms were detailed. The new information may help better control health state of marine fish in aquaculture.
    Folia parasitologica 06/2014; 61(3):277-84.
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    ABSTRACT: Although the hindgut of some insects represents a rich source of intestinal trichomonads, their diversity is only poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence and abundance of intestinal trichomonads in true bugs (Heteroptera). We microscopically examined intestinal contents of more than 780 specimens belonging to 28 families of true bugs from localities in China, Ghana and Papua New Guinea for the presence of intestinal endosymbionts. More than 120 samples were examined also by means of PCR using trichomonad-specific primers. We determined sequences of SSU rDNA and ITS region of two isolates of the genus Simplicimonas Cepicka, Hampl et Kulda, 2010 and one isolate of Monocercomonas colubrorum (Hammerschmidt, 1844). Although our results showed that trichomonads are very rare inhabitants of the intestine of true bugs, two of three isolated flagellates belong to species specific for reptiles. The possibility of transmission of trichomonads between reptiles and true bugs is discussed.
    Folia parasitologica 06/2014; 61(3):189-94.
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the identity of hookworms parasitising the Australian sea lion, Neophoca cinerea (Péron), from three colonies in South Australia, Australia. The Australian sea lion is at risk of extinction because its population is small and genetically fragmented. Using morphological and molecular techniques, we describe a single novel species, Uncinaria sanguinis sp. n. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae). The new species is most similar to hookworms also parasitic in otariid hosts, Uncinaria lucasi Stiles, 1901 and Uncinaria hamiltoni Baylis, 1933. Comparative morphometrics offered limited utility for distinguishing between species within this genus whilst morphological features and differences in nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences delineated U. sanguinis sp. n. from named congeners. Male specimens of U. sanguinis sp. n. differ from U. lucasi and U. hamiltoni by relatively shorter anterolateral and externodorsal rays, respectively, and from other congeners by the relative lengths and angulations of bursal rays, and in the shape of the spicules. Female specimens of U. sanguinis sp. n. are differentiated from Uncinaria spp. parasitic in terrestrial mammals by differences in vulval anatomy and the larger size of their eggs, although are morphologically indistinguishable from U. lucasi and U. hamiltoni. Molecular techniques clearly delimited U. sanguinis sp. n. as a distinct novel species. Obtaining baseline data on the parasites of wildlife hosts is important for the investigation of disease and the effective implementation and monitoring of conservation management.
    Folia parasitologica 06/2014; 61(3):255-65.
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    ABSTRACT: Between September and November 1991, 12 Owen Stanley skinks, Papuascincus stanleyanus (Booulenger) were collected from various localities on Papua New Guinea and examined for coccidians. Six (50%) were found to harbour four eimerians that we describe here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria burseyi sp. n. were elongate to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured (length x width, L x W) 36.0 x 24.0 microm, with a L/W ratio of 1.5. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria goldbergi sp. n. were ellipsoidal, with a bilayered wall, and measured 21.4 x 16.1 microm; L/W ratio was 1.3. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single or fragmented polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria boulengeri sp. n. were spheroidal to slightly subspheroidal, with a thin, single-layered wall that readily collapses, and measured 16.0 microm, L/W ratio was 1.0. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but usually one (sometimes two) polar granule(s) were present. Oocysts of Eimeria niuginiensis sp. n. were oblong to tapered with a bilayered wall, and measured 20.0 x 13.1 microm; L/W ratio was 1.5. A micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule were absent. To our knowledge, these represent the only coccidians ever described from P. stanleyanus.
    Folia parasitologica 06/2014; 61(3):195-200.
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    ABSTRACT: Based on the original description, the nematode genus Piscinema Gambhir et Ng, 2014 and its type species, P. barakensis [sic] Gambhir et Ng, 2014 (probably a misidentified physalopterid larvae), are removed from the Philometridae, where they were allocated; they are considered a genus inquirendum and incertae sedis and a species inquirenda, respectively. The poorly described nematode Rhabdochona carpiae Nimbalkar, Deolalikar et Kamtikar, 2013 (Rhabdochonidae) appears largely fabricated and is regarded a species dubia.
    Folia parasitologica 06/2014; 61(3):266.
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    ABSTRACT: The trichostrongylid nematode Travassostrongylus scheibelorum sp. n. from the Linnaeus' mouse opossum, Marmosa murina (Linnaeus) (type host), and the woolly mouse opossum, Marmosa demerarae (Thomas), from French Guiana is described. The nematodes have a synlophe with ridges frontally oriented from right to left, six dorsal and six ventral, at midbody; seven dorsal and seven ventral posterior to the vulva, and two cuticular thickenings within the lateral spaces; a long dorsal ray and a pointed cuticular flap covering the vulva. This is the 12th species of Travassostrongylus Orloff, 1933, which includes species featuring ridges around the synlophe and a didelphic condition. These traits contrast with those in other genera in the Viannaiidae Neveu-Lemaire, 1934, which feature ventral ridges on the synlophe of adults and a monodelphic condition. Members of the family are chiefly Neotropical and are diagnosed based on the presence of a bursa of the type 2-2-1, 2-1-2 or irregular, and cuticle without ridges on the dorsal side (at least during one stage of their development). Herein, we present a reconstruction of the ancestral states of the didelphic/monodelphic condition and the cuticular ridges that form the synlophe in opossum-dwelling trichostrongyles, namely Travassostrongylus and Viannaia Travassos, 1914. Our investigations suggest they are not reciprocal sister taxa and that the change from didelphy to monodelphy and the loss of dorsal ridges, occurred in the common ancestor of species of Viannaia. These results suggest a synlophe with three ventral ridges is not plesiomorphic in the opossum dwelling trichostrongylids.
    Folia parasitologica 06/2014; 61(3):242-54.
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    ABSTRACT: Oocyst morphology and endogenous developmental stages are described for Choleoeimeria salaselensis sp. n. from the gall bladder of 10 horned vipers, Cerastes gasperettii Leviton and Anderson, in Saudi Arabia. Sporulated oocysts are ellipsoidal, 23 x 15 (22-25 x 14-17) microm, length/width ratio (L/W) 1.5 (1.4-1.6), each with 4 sporocysts (Eimeria-like), but lack a micropyle, polar granules and oocysts residuum. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 8 x 5 (7-9 x 5-) microm, L/W 1.5 (1.4-1.6), and Stieda, substieda and parasubstieda bodies are all absent, but a longitudinal suture, which divided the sporocysts into 2 plates, is present. Endogenous development is confined to epithelial cells in the bile duct and gall bladder; mature meronts were 11 x 7 microm, each with 10-16 merozoites, microgamonts were -12 microm wide, and macrogamonts were -16 microm wide with a prominent nucleus and wall-forming bodies. Given these two diagnostic features, sporocysts with a suture and composed of two plates and endogenous development limited to the biliary epithelium, we believe this coccidium is best classified as a member of Choleoeimeria Paperna et Landsberg, 1989. There are 5 known Eimeria species from vipers that have sporocysts somewhat similar in size to those of our new form, but all of them have much larger oocysts and larger sporocysts, some of which differ significantly in shape; there are not yet any Choleoeimeria species known from the Viperidae.
    Folia parasitologica 06/2014; 61(3):201-5.
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    ABSTRACT: A new species of parasitic copepod Anchistrotos tangi sp. n., (Cyclopoida: Taeniacanthidae), is described based on adult female specimens collected from the gills of hilsa shad, Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton, 1822) (Actinopterygii, Clupeidae) captured off Iraq waters. The new species differs from its congeners by having the following combination of characters in the adult female: 1) the rostral area sclerotized; 2) the presence of row of spinules on the proximal and distal margins of the anal somite; 3) the maxilliped claw with 2 long whip-like setae just crossing the distal edge of claw with serrated terminal margin; 4) the leg 5 ornamented with patched spinules distally. This is the ninth nominal species of Anchistrotos Brian, 1906 to be described
    Folia parasitologica 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Two new species of two genera of the order Diphyllidea van Beneden in Carus, 1863, Halysioncum Caira, Marques, Jensen, Kuchta et Ivanov, 2013 and Echinobothrium van Beneden, 1849 sensu stricto are described from Aetomylaeus cf. nichoffi (Bloch et Schneider) off the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf. Halysioncum kishiense sp. n. differs from all other congeners in the number of apical hooks with the exception of H. hoffmanorum (Tyler, 2001) and H. pigmentatum (Ostrowski de Núñez, 1971). Halysioncum kishiense sp. n. can be easily differentiated from H. hoffmanorum and H. pigmentatum by the number of hooklets and testis numbers. Echinobothrium parsadrayaiense sp. n. is differentiated from all its congeners except for E. acanthinophyllum Rees, 1961 by its hook formula. The number of spines per column on the cephalic peduncle, the number of testes and possession of a thick-walled rather than thin-walled vagina distinguish E. parsadrayaiense sp. n. from E. acanthinophyllum. To date, with these two new species, five species of Diphyllidea have been reported from the Persian Gulf.
    Folia parasitologica 04/2014; 61(2):133-40.
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    ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908 is an obligate intracellular parasite with the ability to infect mammals and birds. The only definitive hosts for T. gondii are felids, as the parasites form immature oocysts that are shed in the faeces. Here we introduce cat cells as a model for the study of experimental toxoplasmosis. We selected epithelial cells derived from cat kidneys (CRFK) as a target to determine the intracellular fate ofbradyzoites of the T. gondii ME49 strain. In parallel, we compared this infection using epithelial cells from the rat intestine (IEC-6), considering the enteroepithelial development that occurs in the cat. Different ratios of parasites to host cells were assayed over the course of a 14-day-infection. The intracellular development of T. gondii was dependent on the source of the epithelial cells and also on the parasite/host cell ratio. Cystogenesis was well established in the CRFK cell line at a ratio of 1:10 after 10-14 days of infection. This cellular model system opens a new field of investigation into the molecular aspects of the interactions between T. gondii and feline epithelial cells. The CRFK cell line appears to be a potential cellular model for large scale cyst production in vitro, which would allow a reduction in the number of animals used and/or replacement of animals by in vitro cultures.
    Folia parasitologica 04/2014; 61(2):113-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Two new species of feather mites are described from nightjars (Caprimulgiformes: Caprimulgidae) of Brazil: Hartingiella neotropica sp. n. (Xolalgidae) described from Hydropsalis parvula (Gould) and Paragabucinia brasiliensis sp. n. (Gabuciniidae) from H. albicollis (Gmelin). The former differs from the type species by having, in males, the anterior projections on epimerites III towards setae 3b and the adanal shield bearing setae ps3 present; in both sexes, a pair of small sclerites situated posterior to setae se have flat suprategumental processes. Paragabucinia brasiliensis sp. n. differs from P. petitoti (Gaud et Mouchet, 1959) by the smaller size of the incisions in the internal margins of opisthosomal lobes of males. These mites are the first representatives of corresponding genera described from the Neotropical region. The genus Hartingiella Gaud, 1980 was previously known solely from its type species. Keys to males and females of the genus Paragabucinia Gaud et Atyeo, 1975 are presented. In addition, all previous records of feather mites associated with birds of the order Caprimulgiformes of the world are summarised.
    Folia parasitologica 04/2014; 61(2):173-81.
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    ABSTRACT: Soricinia tripartita Zarnowski, 1955 is redescribed on the basis of specimens from the type host Sorex araneus Linnaeus from Lithuania, Latvia and Russia (Republic of Karelia and Republic of Komi - a new geographical record) as well as from Sorex satunini Ognev and Sorex volnuchini Ognev from Russia (Nalchik Area in the Caucasus Mountains). The strobilar morphology of S. tripartita is compared with that of other hymenolepidid cestodes of shrews with an unarmed scolex and serial development of proglottides in the strobila, i.e. species of Mathevolepis Spassky, 1948, Ditestolepis Soltys, 1952, Spasskylepis Schaldybin, 1964, Ecrinolepis Spassky et Karpenko, 1983 and Diorchilepis Lykova, Gulyaev, Melnikova et Karpenko, 2006. It was noted that S. tripartita does not correspond to any of the known genera. The following unique characters are found for S. tripartita: heteronomous serial strobilation with one or two sterile proglottides at the end of each series in the strobila and the whole copulatory part of the vagina covered with numerous, fine spines. Therefore, the new genus Gulyaevilepis is erected, with Gulyaevilepis tripartita (Zarnowski, 1955) comb. n. as its type and only species. Since the type material of Soricinia tripartita is not known to exist, a neotype from the same host species and from a locality close to the type locality is designated.
    Folia parasitologica 04/2014; 61(2):141-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Four new species of monoxenous kinetoplastid parasites are described from Brachycera flies, namely Wallaceina raviniae Votýpka et Lukes, 2014 and Crithidia otongatchiensis Votýpka et Lukes, 2014 from Ecuador, Leptomonas moramango Votypka et Lukes, 2014 from Madagascar, and Crithidia pragensis Votýpka, Klepetková et Lukes, 2014 from the Czech Republic. The new species are described here based on sequence analysis of their spliced leader (SL) RNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) and small subunit (SSU) rRNA genes, as well as their morphology and ultrastructure. High-pressure freezing and Bernhard's EDTA regressive staining, used for the first time for monoxenous (one host) trypanosomatids, revealed the presence of viral particles with cytosolic localization in one and unique mitochondrial localization in another species. In accordance with previous observations, our results emphasize a discrepancy between morphology and molecular taxonomy of the family Trypanosomatidae. All four newly described species are represented by typical morphotypes (mainly choano- and promastigotes) and are virtually indistinguishable from other monoxenous trypanosomatids by morphology. Nevertheless, they all differ in their phylogenetic affinities. Whereas three of them grouped within the recently defined subfamily Leishmaniinae, which includes numerous representatives of the genera Leishmania Ross, 1903, Crithidia Léger, 1902 and Leptomonas Kent, 1880, the fourth species clusters together with the 'collosoma' clade (named after 'Leptomonas' collosoma Wallace, Clark, Dyer et Collins, 1960). Here we demonstrate that the 'collosoma' group represents the elusive genus Wallaceina Podlipaev, Frolov et Kolesnikov, 1999. We redefine this genus in molecular terms based on similarities of the respective molecular markers and propose to use this taxon name for the group of species of the 'collosoma' clade.
    Folia parasitologica 04/2014; 61(2):97-112.

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