European Journal of Biochemistry (Eur J Biochem)
The European Journal of Biochemistry is an international journal devoted to the rapid publication of full length papers describing original research in the areas of biochemistry, molecular and cell biology, and molecular biophysics.
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- WebsiteEuropean Journal of Biochemistry website
Other titlesEuropean journal of biochemistry, EJB
Material typePeriodical, Internet resource
Document typeJournal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource
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Publications in this journal
Article: Differential regulation of fatty acid amide hydrolase promoter in human immune cells and neuronal cells by leptin and progesterone.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have shown recently that in human T lymphocytes, leptin stimulates activity and expression of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), through STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and its CRE (cAMP response element)-like transcriptional target in the FAAH promoter [Maccarrone, M., Di Rienzo, M., Finazzi-Agro, A., & Rossi, A. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 13318-13324]. We have also shown that progesterone, alone or additively with leptin, up-regulates the FAAH gene in human T-cells, through the Ikaros transcription factor [Maccarrone, M., Bari, M., Di Rienzo, M., Finazzi-Agro, A., & Rossi, A. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 32726-32732]. Here, we extend these observations to immortalized human lymphoma U937 cells, where stimulation of FAAH by leptin (up to approximately 300% of the controls) involves binding to a leptin receptor (Kd = 2.0 +/- 0.1 nm, Bmax = 382 +/- 5 fmol.mg protein(-1), apparent molecular mass of approximately 110 kDa), and stimulation by progesterone involves an intracellular receptor of approximately 120 kDa. Unlike FAAH, the other proteins of the endocannabinoid system are not modulated by the two hormones. Interestingly, human neuroblastoma CHP100 cells also have a leptin receptor (approximately 110 kDa, Kd = 2.2 +/- 0.2 nm, Bmax = 339 +/- 8 fmol.mg protein(-1)), a progesterone receptor (approximately 120 kDa), STAT3 and Ikaros, yet their FAAH is not activated by leptin or progesterone. These data, corroborated by transient expression and electrophoretic mobility-shift assays, demonstrate an unprecedented cell-specific regulation of the FAAH gene, which has important implications for the control of tone and activity of AEA along the neuroimmune axis.European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2005; 271(23-24):4666-76.
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ABSTRACT: Interaction of cytokines with their cognate receptors leads to the activation of latent transcription factors, the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins. Numerous studies have identified the critical roles played by STAT proteins in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Consequently, the activity of STAT proteins is negatively regulated by a variety of different mechanisms, which include alternative splicing, covalent modifications, protein-protein interactions with negative regulatory proteins and proteolytic processing by proteases. Cleavage of STAT proteins by proteases results in the generation of C-terminally truncated proteins, called STATgamma, which lack the transactivation domain and behave as functional dominant-negative proteins. Currently, STATgamma isoforms have been identified for Stat3, Stat5a, Stat5b and Stat6 in different cellular contexts and biological processes. Evidence is mounting for the role of as yet unidentified serine proteases in the proteolytic processing of STAT proteins, although at least one cysteine protease, calpain is also known to cleave these STATs in platelets and mast cells. Recently, studies of acute myeloid leukaemia and cutaneous T cell lymphoma patients have revealed important roles for the aberrant expression of Stat3gamma and Stat5gamma proteins in the pathology of these diseases. Together, these findings indicate that proteolytic processing is an important mechanism in the regulation of STAT protein biological activity and provides a fertile area for future studies.European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2005; 271(23-24):4613-20.
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ABSTRACT: The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins have initially been described as cytoplasmic proteins that enter the nucleus only after cytokine treatment of cells. Contrary to this assumption, it was demonstrated that STATs are constantly shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm irrespective of cytokine stimulation. This happens both via carrier-dependent as well as carrier-independent transportation. Moreover, it was also recognized that cytokine stimulation triggers nuclear retention of dimeric STATs, rather than affecting the rate of nuclear import. In summary, it is increasingly being appreciated that STAT nucleocytoplasmic cycling determines the quality of cytokine signaling and also constitutes an important area for microbial intervention.European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2005; 271(23-24):4606-12.
Article: Regulation of the expression and subcellular localization of the taurine transporter TauT in mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The cellular level of the organic osmolyte taurine is a balance between active uptake and passive leak via a volume sensitive pathway. Here, we demonstrate that NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts express a saturable, high affinity taurine transporter (TauT, Km = 18 microm), and that taurine uptake via TauT is a Na+- and Cl(-)-dependent process with an apparent 2.5 : 1 : 1 Na+/Cl-/taurine stoichiometry. Transport activity is reduced following acute administration of H2O2 or activators of protein kinases A or C. TauT transport activity, expression and nuclear localization are significantly increased upon serum starvation (24 h), exposure to tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha; 16 h), or hyperosmotic medium (24 h); conditions that are also associated with increased localization of TauT to the cytosolic network of microtubules. Conversely, transport activity, expression and nuclear localization of TauT are reduced in a reversible manner following long-term exposure (24 h) to high extracellular taurine concentration. In contrast to active taurine uptake, swelling-induced taurine release is significantly reduced following preincubation with TNFalpha (16 h) but unaffected by high extracellular taurine concentration (24 h). Thus, in NIH3T3 cells, (a) active taurine uptake reflects TauT expression; (b) TauT activity is modulated by multiple stimuli, both acutely, and at the level of TauT expression; (c) the subcellular localization of TauT is regulated; and (d) volume-sensitive taurine release is not mediated by TauT.European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2005; 271(23-24):4646-58.
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ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli fatty acid cyclopropane synthase (CFAS) was overproduced and purified as a His6-tagged protein. This recombinant enzyme is as active as the native enzyme with a Km of 90 microm for S-AdoMet and a specific activity of 5 x 10(-2) micromol.min(-1).mg(-1). The enzyme is devoid of organic or metal cofactors and is unable to catalyze the wash-out of the methyl protons of S-AdoMet to the solvent, data that do not support the ylide mechanism. Inactivation of the enzyme by 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), a pseudo first-order process with a rate constant of 1.2 m(-1).s(-1), is not protected by substrates. Graphical analysis of the inactivation by DTNB revealed that only one cysteine is responsible for the inactivation of the enzyme. The three strictly conserved Cys residues among cyclopropane synthases, C139, C176 and C354 of the E. coli enzyme, were mutated to serine. The relative catalytic efficiency of the mutants were 16% for C139S, 150% for C176S and 63% for C354S. The three mutants were inactivated by DTNB at a rate comparable to the rate of inactivation of the His6-tagged wild-type enzyme, indicating that the Cys responsible for the loss of activity is not one of the conserved residues. Therefore, none of the conserved Cys residues is essential for catalysis and cannot be involved in covalent catalysis or general base catalysis. The inactivation is probably the result of steric hindrance, a phenomenon irrelevant to catalysis. It is very likely that E. coli CFAS operates via a carbocation mechanism, but the base and nucleophile remain to be identified.European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2005; 271(23-24):4769-78.
Article: Enhanced peptide secretion by gene disruption of CYM1, a novel protease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used host in the production of therapeutic peptides and proteins. Here we report the identification of a novel endoprotease in S. cerevisiae. It is encoded by the CYM1 gene and is specific for the C-terminus of basic residues of heterologously expressed peptides. Gene disruption of CYM1 not only reduced the intracellular proteolysis, but also enhanced the secretion of heterologously expressed peptides such as growth hormone, pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and pro-cholecystokinin. Cym1p resembles metalloendoproteases of the pitrilysin family with the HXXEH(X)E(71-77) catalytic domain as seen in insulysin, nardilysin and human metalloprotease 1. It is a nuclear encoded protease that localizes to mitochondria without a hydrophobic N-terminal signal sequence or a C-terminal tail-anchor. The protease does not require post-translational processing prior to activation and it contains cytosolic activity that processes peptides designated for the secretory pathway prior to translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum.European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2005; 271(23-24):4788-97.
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ABSTRACT: Metformin (1,1-dimethylbiguanide) is an antihyperglycaemic drug used to normalize glucose concentrations in type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, antioxidant benefits have been reported in diabetic patients treated with metformin. This work was aimed at studying the scavenging capacity of this drug against reactive oxygen species (ROS) like *OH and (O2*-)-free radicals. ROS were produced by gamma radiolysis of water. The irradiated solutions of metformin were analyzed by UV/visible absorption spectrophotometry. It has been shown that hydroxyl free radicals react with metformin in a concentration-dependent way. The maximum scavenging activity was obtained for concentrations of metformin > or = 200 micromol.L(-1), under our experimental conditions. An estimated value of 10(7) L.mol(-1).s(-1) has been determined for the second order rate constant k(*OH + metformin). Superoxide free radicals and hydrogen peroxide do not initiate any oxidation on metformin in our in vitro experiments.European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2005; 271(23-24):4745-52.
Article: The structure and biological characteristics of the Spirochaeta aurantia outer membrane glycolipid LGLB.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In an attempt to isolate lipopolysaccharide from Spirochaeta aurantia, Darveau-Hancock extraction of the cell mass was performed. While no lipopolysaccharide was found, two carbohydrate-containing compounds were detected. They were resolved by size-exclusion chromatography into high molecular mass (LGLA) and low molecular mass (LGLB) fractions. Here we present the results of the analysis of the glycolipid LGLB. Deacylation of LGLB with hydrazine and separation of the products by using anion-exchange chromatography gave two major products. Their structure was determined by using chemical methods, NMR and mass spectrometry. All monosaccharides had the D-configuration, and aspartic acid had the L-configuration. Intact LGLB contained two fatty groups at O-2 and O-3 of the glycerol residue. Nonhydroxylated C14 to C18 fatty acids were identified, which were predominantly unsaturated or branched. LGLB was able to gel Limulus amebocyte lysate, albeit at a lower level than that observed for Escherichia coli O113 lipopolysaccharide. However, even large amounts of LGLB were unable to stimulate any Toll-like receptor (TLR) examined, including TLR4 and TLR2, previously shown to be sensitive to lipopolysaccharide and glycolipids from diverse bacterial origins, including other spirochetes.European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2005; 271(23-24):4685-95.
Article: Cloning, over-expression, purification and characterization of Plasmodium falciparum enolase.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have cloned, over-expressed and purified enolase from Plasmodium falciparum strain NF54 in Escherichia coli in active form, as an N-terminal His6-tagged protein. The sequence of the cloned enolase from the NF54 strain is identical to that of strain 3D7 used in full genome sequencing. The recombinant enolase (r-Pfen) could be obtained in large quantities (approximately 50 mg per litre of culture) in a highly purified form (> 95%). The purified protein gave a single band at approximately 50 kDa on SDS/PAGE. MALDI-TOF analysis gave a mean +/- SD mass of 51396 +/- 16 Da, which is in good agreement with the mass calculated from the sequence. The molecular mass of r-Pfen determined in gel-filtration experiments was approximately 100 kDa, indicating that P. falciparum enolase is a homodimer. Kinetic measurements using 2-phosphoglycerate as substrate gave a specific activity of approximately 30 U.mg(-1) and K(m2PGA) = 0.041 +/- 0.004 mm. The Michaelis constant for the reverse reaction (K(mPEP)) is 0.25 +/- 0.03 mm. pH-dependent activity measurements gave a maximum at pH 7.4-7.6 irrespective of the direction of catalysis. The activity of this enzyme is inhibited by Na+, whereas K+ has a slight activating effect. The cofactor Mg2+ has an apparent activation constant of 0.18 +/-0.02 mm. However, at higher concentrations, it has an inhibitory effect. Polyclonal antibody raised against pure recombinant P. falciparum enolase in rabbit showed high specificity towards recombinant protein and is also able to recognize enolase from the murine malarial parasite, Plasmodium yoelii, which shares 90% identity with the P. falciparum protein.European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2005; 271(23-24):4845-54.
Article: Solution structure of the active-centre mutant I14A of the histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein from Staphylococcus carnosus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: High-pressure NMR experiments performed on the histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein (HPr) from Staphylococcus carnosus have shown that residue Ile14, which is located in the active-centre loop, exhibits a peculiarly small pressure response. In contrast, the rest of the loop shows strong pressure effects as is expected for typical protein interaction sites. To elucidate the structural role of this residue, the mutant protein HPr(I14A), in which Ile14 is replaced by Ala, was produced and studied by solution NMR spectroscopy. On the basis of 1406 structural restraints including 20 directly detected hydrogen bonds, 49 1H(N)-15N, and 25 1H(N)-1Halpha residual dipolar couplings, a well resolved three-dimensional structure could be determined. The overall fold of the protein is not influenced by the mutation but characteristic conformational changes are introduced into the active-centre loop. They lead to a displacement of the ring system of His15 and a distortion of the N-terminus of the first helix, which supports the histidine ring. In addition, the C-terminal helix is bent because the side chain of Leu86 located at the end of this helix partly fills the hydrophobic cavity created by the mutation. Xenon, which is known to occupy hydrophobic cavities, causes a partial reversal of the mutation-induced structural effects. The observed structural changes explain the reduced phosphocarrier activity of the mutant and agree well with the earlier suggestion that Ile14 represents an anchoring point stabilizing the active-centre loop in its correct conformation.European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2005; 271(23-24):4815-24.
Article: Aptamers to Escherichia coli core RNA polymerase that sense its interaction with rifampicin, sigma-subunit and GreB.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the central enzyme of gene expression that is responsible for the synthesis of all types of cellular RNAs. The process of transcription is accompanied by complex structural rearrangements of RNAP. Despite the recent progress in structural studies of RNAP, detailed mechanisms of conformational changes of RNAP that occur at different stages of transcription remain unknown. The goal of this work was to obtain novel ligands to RNAP which would target different epitopes of the enzyme and serve as specific probes to study the mechanism of transcription and conformational flexibility of RNAP. Using in vitro selection methods, we obtained 13 classes of ssDNA aptamers against Escherichia coli core RNAP. The minimal nucleic acid scaffold (an oligonucleotide construct imitating DNA and RNA in elongation complex), rifampicin and the sigma70-subunit inhibited binding of the aptamers to RNAP core but did not affect the dissociation rate of preformed RNAP-aptamer complexes. We argue that these ligands sterically block access of the aptamers to their binding sites within the main RNAP channel. In contrast, transcript cleavage factor GreB increased the rate of dissociation of preformed RNAP-aptamer complexes. This suggested that GreB that binds RNAP outside the main channel actively disrupts RNAP-aptamer complexes by inducing conformational changes in the channel. We propose that the aptamers obtained in this work will be useful for studying the interactions of RNAP with various ligands and regulatory factors and for investigating the conformational flexibility of the enzyme.European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2005; 271(23-24):4921-31.
Article: Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase from the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. Mechanism of the reaction and assignment of disulfide bonds.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The extremely heat-stable 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus was cloned, expressed to high levels in Escherichia coli, and purified to homogeneity by heat precipitation and affinity chromatography. The recombinant enzyme was subjected to a kinetic analysis including initial velocity and product inhibition studies. The reaction follows an ordered Bi-Bi mechanism and phosphate binding precedes nucleoside binding in the phosphorolytic direction. 5'-Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase from Pyrococcus furiosus is a hexameric protein with five cysteine residues per subunit. Analysis of the fragments obtained after digestion of the protein alkylated without previous reduction identified two intrasubunit disulfide bridges. The enzyme is very resistant to chemical denaturation and the transition midpoint for guanidinium chloride-induced unfolding was determined to be 3.0 M after 22 h incubation. This value decreases to 2.0 M in the presence of 30 mM dithiothreitol, furnishing evidence that disulfide bonds are needed for protein stability. The guanidinium chloride-induced unfolding is completely reversible as demonstrated by the analysis of the refolding process by activity assays, fluorescence measurements and SDS/PAGE. The finding of multiple disulfide bridges in 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase from Pyrococcus furiosus argues strongly that disulfide bond formation may be a significant molecular strategy for stabilizing intracellular hyperthermophilic proteins.European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2005; 271(23-24):4834-44.
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ABSTRACT: The role of vertebrate histone proteins or histone derived peptides as innate immune effectors has only recently been appreciated. In this study, high levels of core histone proteins H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 were found in hemocytes from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The proteins were identified by in-gel digestion, mass spectrometry analysis, and homology searching. The L. vannamei histone proteins were found to be highly homologous to histones of other species. Based on this homology, histone H2A was cloned and its N-terminus was found to resemble the known antimicrobial histone peptides buforin I, parasin, and hipposin. Consequently, a 38 amino acid synthetic peptide identical to the N-terminus of shrimp H2A was synthesized and assayed, along with endogenous histones H2A, H2B, and H4, for growth inhibition against Micrococcus luteus. Histone H2A, purified to homogeneity, completely inhibited growth of the Gram-positive bacterium at 4.5 microm while a mixture of histones H2B and H4 was active at 3 microm. In addition, a fraction containing a fragment of histone H1 was also found to be active. The synthetic peptide similar to buforin was active at submicromolar concentrations. These data indicate, for the first time, that shrimp hemocyte histone proteins possess antimicrobial activity and represent a defense mechanism previously unreported in an invertebrate. Histones may be a component of innate immunity more widely conserved, and of earlier origin, than previously thought.European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2005; 271(23-24):4825-33.
Article: Mercury(II) binding to metallothioneins. Variables governing the formation and structural features of the mammalian Hg-MT species.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: With the aim of extending our knowledge on the reaction pathways of Zn-metallothionein (MT) and apo-MT species in the presence of Hg(II), we monitored the titration of Zn7-MT, Zn4-alphaMT and Zn3-betaMT proteins, at pH 7 and 3, with either HgCl2 or Hg(ClO4)2 by CD and UV-vis spectroscopy. Detailed analysis of the optical data revealed that standard variables, such as the pH of the solution, the binding ability of the counter-ion (chloride or perchlorate), and the time elapsed between subsequent additions of Hg(II) to the protein, play a determinant role in the stoichiometry, stereochemistry and degree of folding of the Hg-MT species. Despite the fact that the effect of these variables is unquestionable, it is difficult to generalize. Overall, it can be concluded that the reaction conditions [pH, time elapsed between subsequent additions of Hg(II) to the protein] affect the structural properties more substantially than the stoichiometry of the Hg-MT species, and that the role of the counter-ion becomes particularly apparent on the structure of overloaded Hg-MT.European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2005; 271(23-24):4872-80.
Article: Phaiodotoxin, a novel structural class of insect-toxin isolated from the venom of the Mexican scorpion Anuroctonus phaiodactylus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A peptide called phaiodotoxin was isolated from the venom of the scorpion Anuroctonus phaiodactylus. It is lethal to crickets, but non toxic to mice at the doses assayed. It has 72 amino acid residues, with a molecular mass of 7971 atomic mass units. Its covalent structure was determined by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry; it contains four disulfide-bridges, of which one of the pairs is formed between cysteine-7 and cysteine-8 (positions Cys63-Cys71). The other three pairs are formed between Cys13-Cys38, Cys23-Cys50 and Cys27-Cys52. Comparative sequence analysis shows that phaiodotoxin belongs to the long-chain subfamily of scorpion peptides. Several genes coding for this peptide and similar ones were cloned by PCR, using cDNA prepared from the RNA of venomous glands of this scorpion. Electrophysiological assays conducted with this toxin in several mammalian cell lines (TE671, COS7, rat GH3 and cerebellum granular cells), showed no effect on Na+ currents. However, it shifts the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation of insect Na+ channels (para/tipE) to more negative and positive potentials, respectively. Therefore, the 'window' current is increased by 225%, which is thought to be the cause of its toxicity toward insects. Phaiodotoxin is the first toxic peptide ever purified from a scorpion of the family Iuridae.European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2005; 271(23-24):4753-61.
Article: NARG2 encodes a novel nuclear protein with (S/T)PXX motifs that is expressed during development.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We previously identified a partial expressed sequence tag clone corresponding to NARG2 in a screen for genes that are expressed in developing neurons and misexpressed in transgenic mice that lack functional N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. Here we report the first characterization of the mouse and human NARG2 genes, cDNAs and the proteins that they encode. Mouse and human NARG2 consist of 988 and 982 amino acids, respectively, and share 74% identity. NARG2 does not display significant homology to other known genes, and lower organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster and Fugu rubripes appear to lack NARG2 orthologs. In vitro translation of the mouse cDNA yields a 150 kDa protein. NARG2 localizes to the nucleus in transfected cells, and deletion of a canonical basic nuclear localization signal suggests that this and other sequences in the protein cooperate for nuclear targeting. NARG2 consists of 16 exons in both mice and humans, 11 of which are identical in length, and alternative splicing is evident in both species. Exon 10 is the largest, and exhibits a much higher rate of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution than the others. In addition, NARG2 contains (S/T)PXX motifs (11 in mouse NARG2, six in human NARG2). Northern blot analysis and RNase protection demonstrated that NARG2 is expressed at relatively high levels in dividing and immature cells, and that it is down-regulated upon terminal differentiation. The results indicate that NARG2 encodes a novel (S/T)PXX motif-containing nuclear protein, and suggest that NARG2 may play an important role in the early development of a number of different cell types.European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2005; 271(23-24):4629-37.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.
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