The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association (J Egypt Publ Health Assoc)

Publisher: Egyptian Public Health Association

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Other titles Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association
ISSN 0013-2446
OCLC 1029403
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Water bottling companies often assert that their products are of the highest quality and are conforming to the standards. The objective of the study was to assess the physicochemical quality of bottled waters consumed in Ethiopia and to compare the findings with the national and international water quality standards. Eleven domestic and two imported bottled water brands were randomly purchased in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia at three different occasions from July 2013 to May 2014. A total of 39 composite samples were examined for aggregate parameters, major anions, and common cations in accordance with the procedures described in the standard methods. We found that 7.7% of the samples were containing higher levels of alkalinity, hardness, total dissolved solids, pH, HCO3, Na, and Ca than the national standards and the WHO guidelines. However, the deviations from standards for all the above parameters were not statistically significant (one-sample t-test, P>0.05). Conversely, in some of the brands, some of the essential elements like Ca, K, Mg, and F were found at very low concentrations. The rest of the parameters, including CO3, SO4, PO4 (orthophosphates), Cl, F, NO3, NO2, K, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb were within the acceptable ranges in all the brands. Bottled water brands containing very high concentrations of dissolved substances may pose health risks for individuals living with heart and kidney related problems. On the other hand, brands having chemicals lower than the optimum level may also harm the health of consumers who choose those brands as a sole source of drinking water. Thus, we suggest those responsible authorities to ensure regular monitoring and testing for chemical compositions of bottled water.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 06/2015; 90(2):72-9. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000466525.12773.22
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    ABSTRACT: Work poses potential threats to the physical, emotional, economic, and academic health of teenagers. Like their adult coworkers, teenagers face exposure to a variety of health and safety hazards that can lead to injury and illness. Children's increased vulnerability puts them at a high risk of work-related health problems. The aim of this study was to compare growth parameters of working children in contrast to nonworking students, and to compare the frequency of anemia and parasitic infestations among the two groups. A comparative cross-sectional study among 75 working boys in small industrial workshops in Arab Gohaina village in Qaliuobia governorate and 75 students of the same residence was conducted. All children were interviewed and were subjected to physical examination. Their BMI and hemoglobin were measured, and stool samples were examined for parasites. Only 11 and 15% of the workers working children eat vegetables and fruits on daily basis compared with 25 and 49% of students respectively (P<0.001). Mean BMI of the working group was 21.62±2.56 compared with 23.29±3.09 among the students. Students showed more frequency of obesity and overweight than the working group (13.33 and 29.33% compared with 2.67 and 20%, respectively, P=0.009). The hemoglobin level of working children (10.27±0.53 g/dl) was less than that of students (11.31±0.75 g/dl, P<0.001). The frequency of having parasitic infestations among working children was significantly higher than the students (P<0.001). Labor was a factor that negatively affected the health of children. More working children in this village had anemia and parasitic infestations than nonworking ones. It is recommended to pay more attention to health problems among working children, with controlling child labor, especially in hazardous occupations and performing periodic medical examination to monitor their health and development.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 06/2015; 90(2):80-4. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000466754.40906.8b
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    ABSTRACT: Dyspnea and fatigue are the most mutual symptoms known to be present in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. COPD patients have extra trouble breathing out fully. They can apply relaxed breathing techniques any time taking a breath such as following coughing or physical activity. By training to preserve energy with daily chores, patients can perform many physical actions with less dyspnea. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of an educational intervention on knowledge, practices, and disease severity in patients with COPD. A purposive sample of 100 adult male patients was selected randomly from the Respiratory Clinic at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah. Patients were assessed using a clinical sheet, patients' dyspnea knowledge questionnaire, patients' practices observational checklists, the Modified Borg Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. More than 50% of patients had insufficient knowledge and 100% of them reported that they did not practice respiratory muscles exercises before the educational intervention. These improved after the intervention, showing a highly statistically significant difference. In addition, dyspnea and anxiety improved in COPD patients who had received supervised guidelines. Application of dyspnea-management guidelines has enhanced patients' knowledge of their disease, practice, as well as dyspnea and anxiety levels. Health instruction materials for COPD patients can be useful by means of providing simplified guidelines, explanatory videos, leaflets, and/or brochures to clarify, avoid, and manage dyspnea. An additional estimate of the outcome of instructions to avoid and improve dyspnea and distress reactions in a larger sample size is proposed.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 06/2015; 90(2):58-63. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000466428.62006.8c
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to describe the detection rate spectrum of clinical manifestations, and outcome of pneumococcal disease in children younger than 5 years admitted to the largest referral pediatric hospital in Egypt. This was a hospital-based study to detect laboratory-confirmed Streptococcus pneumoniae cases among children younger than 5 years. Data on demographic characteristics, clinical diagnosis, comorbidities, diagnostic tests, antibiotic resistance, and clinical outcome were collected during the study years from 2008 to 2011. During the 4-year study period, 22 018 cases younger than 5 years had cultures performed at Cairo University Pediatric Hospital microbiology laboratory. We estimated the annual detection rate of total Streptococcus pneumonia infection to be 54.5/100 000. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was half the incidence of non-IPD (18.2 and 36.4/100 000, respectively). Infants of 1 year or younger were statistically more vulnerable to Streptococcus pneumonia infection compared with children between 1 and 5 years of age (annual rate: 110.5/100 000 and 21.6/100 000, respectively). The overall pneumococcal annual case fatality was 33.3% and was higher in IPD (75%) than in non-IPD (12.5%) cases. There was an obviously increasing trend of the pneumococcal detection rate throughout the 4 years of the study (P<0.0001). Our results confirm the substantial and increasing pneumococcal infection, the emerging of multidrug resistant isolates, and the vulnerability of the younger age group and high-risk population, which calls for a national surveillance to inform policy and decision-making before national wide vaccine introduction.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 06/2015; 90(2):52-7. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000465234.31794.b1
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    ABSTRACT: Client satisfaction is an important parameter of quality assessment, as patient's preferences and demands influence health status and medical outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess mothers' satisfaction with the quality of healthcare during hospital delivery and its determinants. A cross-sectional design was used. Women who gave birth at Women Health Center of Assiut University Hospital during a 2-month period in 2012 (n=435) were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire to examine various dimensions of care. Nearly two-third of interviewed mothers (63%) were satisfied with the quality of delivery care they received at the hospital. They would deliver again in the hospital and would recommend the hospital to others. Younger women, primipara, and highly educated were more likely to be satisfied than their counterparts. Pregnancy intendedness was associated with the satisfaction (P=0.000). Mothers' satisfaction with the way health provider treated them varied among nurses, doctors, and workers (77.7, 69.2, and 56.1%, respectively). Only 11.7% of mothers reported that they were satisfied with the health advices from the health providers, whereas 92.0% were satisfied with the competence of care providers. High satisfaction with the physical environment of the hospital was reported (>90%). Although mothers' satisfaction with provider competence was high, satisfaction with the interpersonal aspects of the quality of care and health information given during delivery care was low. Training the physicians about the communication and interpersonal skills and emphasizing the value of providing mothers with health information are highly recommended.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 06/2015; 90(2):64-71. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000466380.29269.4b
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Although the disease burden of liver cirrhosis in Egypt is high and there are few resources for its management, there is limited research on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of Egyptian patients with liver cirrhosis. Aims: To describe the HRQOL of liver cirrhotic patients in Egypt and to analyse factors associated with this construct. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 401 patients from three hospitals in Cairo, Egypt, was carried out in June–August 2011. Patients were interviewed to complete a background data form, Short Form-36, the Liver Disease Symptom Index-2.0 and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: Patients had low HRQOL, with mental health perceived to be poorer than physical health. In regression analyses, severity of symptoms, disease stage, comorbidities and employment status were associated significantly with physical health, accounting for 19% of the variance. For mental health, 31.7% of the variation was explained by severity of symptoms, employment status and perceived spouse and family support. Conclusion and recommendations: These findings highlight the needs of patients with liver cirrhosis in Egypt. Engaging the patients’ family in care planning may decrease patients’ burden and improve their HRQOL. This study also provides a rationale to develop future research in symptom management to enhance HRQOL.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 03/2015; 90(1):14-19.
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    ABSTRACT: An individual's lifestyle influences health, and health-promoting behaviors and a healthy lifestyle are crucial means to maintain health. Nurses play a significant role as models in health-promoting activities. The aim of this study was to describe the current health-promoting lifestyle of nurses in private hospitals and investigate possible associations between health behaviors and demographic characteristics. This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 420 nurses were assessed using the Health-Promotion Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) scale as a self-administered questionnaire. The mean age of about 78% women and 22% men was 33.12±8.52 years. Most of them (98%) were non-Saudi, and 50% had a diploma; 38% had 5-10 years of experience, 50% were married, 49% had children, and 64% had a monthly income of less than 3000 Saudi Riyal. 'Spiritual growth' showed the highest mean score and 'physical activity' showed the lowest mean score. Significant differences in nurses' health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and significant correlations were found between the HPLP-II and demographic variables. Nurses' display of health responsibility, nutrition, interpersonal relations, and stress management behaviors was moderate. Although their physical activity was low, their spiritual growth was high. For older, married, and those nurses whose monthly income was more than 3000 Saudi Riyal, the nutrition score was higher. Age, marital, and economic status were associated significantly with nutritional health behavior. Development and training programs should be performed to raise awareness of the importance of health education and health promotion, and the necessary facilities should be provided at the work place to encourage healthy behavior.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 03/2015; 90(1):29-34. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000461325.97703.8a
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    ABSTRACT: Socioeconomic position is a community-used concept in health research. The social level is related to numerous exposures, resources, and susceptibilities that may affect health. To update and validate a tool for scaling the socioeconomic level of families for health research. A multistage stratified cluster sampling technique was used to select 900 families (one index person per family) from urban and rural areas in the Alexandria governorate using the proportional allocation method. Ten variables reflecting parental education, parental occupation, family characteristics, financial status as well as home sanitation were reduced to a single socioeconomic status (SES) index using two methods: the Sigma scoring method and factor analysis. Reliability and validity were assessed for the developed scale. Factor scores were classified into three categories (low, medium, high) using cluster analysis, and then different cut-off points for the Sigma scoring method were used and compared with the cluster solution using the κ statistic. Results showed that the developed scale was both reliable (Cronbach's α coefficient α=0.79) and valid [8 out of the 10 items had high loading (>0.5) for SES]. The best cut-off points for SES classification using the proposed scoring system that yielded the highest agreement with the cluster solution (κ=0.77) were less than 40%, 40 to <70%, and at 70% or more, with an overall correct classification of 84.7%. The new scale proved to be valid and reliable. This scale is recommended for use for scaling the socioeconomic level of families for health research.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 03/2015; 90(1):1-7. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000461924.05829.93
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Although the disease burden of liver cirrhosis in Egypt is high and there are few resources for its management, there is limited research on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of Egyptian patients with liver cirrhosis. Aims: To describe the HRQOL of liver cirrhotic patients in Egypt and to analyse factors associated with this construct. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 401 patients from three hospitals in Cairo, Egypt, was carried out in June–August 2011. Patients were interviewed to complete a background data form, Short Form-36, the Liver Disease Symptom Index-2.0 and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: Patients had low HRQOL, with mental health perceived to be poorer than physical health. In regression analyses, severity of symptoms, disease stage, comorbidities and employment status were associated significantly with physical health, accounting for 19% of the variance. For mental health, 31.7% of the variation was explained by severity of symptoms, employment status and perceived spouse and family support. Conclusion and recommendations: These findings highlight the needs of patients with liver cirrhosis in Egypt. Engaging the patients’ family in care planning may decrease patients’ burden and improve their HRQOL. This study also provides a rationale to develop future research in symptom management to enhance HRQOL.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 03/2015; 90(1):14-19. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000461923.98204.f5
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    ABSTRACT: Results from recent reports suggest that the mortality and the morbidity from coronary heart disease (CHD) is leveling, especially in younger adults. Studies conducted in both Saudi Arabia and Egypt, aiming at the estimation of the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among the young population, demonstrated a high prevalence of risk factors. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among medical students aged 18-25 years in two Middle East countries (Egypt and Saudi Arabia). This was a cross-sectional comparative study involving a sample of 360 medical students of both sexes randomly selected from students enrolled into two medical colleges in Saudi Arabia and Egypt. The prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease was relatively high among both Saudi and Egyptian medical students, particularly a sedentary life style, obesity, and abdominal obesity. Smoking was practiced by 29.7% of both populations. A significantly higher prevalence of obesity and a reported family history of premature CHD were observed among the Saudi students and a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension was found among male Egyptian students as compared with male Saudi students. A relatively high proportion of both populations (23.9% of Saudi students and 16.7% of the Egyptian students) was at an increased risk of developing fatal cardiovascular disease within 10 years. Apart from the higher prevalence of obesity and reported family history of premature CHD among the Saudi students and the significantly higher prevalence of hypertension among the Egyptian students, there was no statistically significant difference between the risk profiles of both populations. Participatory behavior change programs in medical schools for the adoption of healthy lifestyles, particularly involvement in regular physical activity and smoking cessation are highly recommended.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 03/2015; 90(1):35-9. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000460969.93981.c2
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    ABSTRACT: Immunogenetic factors are known to play a role in the pathogenesis of alopecia areata (AA). This study aimed at investigating the association between AA with the polymorphisms of interleukin-4 (IL-4) promoter and receptor (IL-4R) genes. This work is a case-control study that was conducted on 76 AA patients from Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. Patients were compared with 93 normal healthy controls from the same locality. Genomic DNA was extracted and processed using real-time PCR amplification for characterization of IL-4 -590 T>C and IL-4R Q551R A>G gene polymorphisms. Cases of AA showed a higher frequency of the IL-4 -590 CC homozygous genotype compared with controls (63.2 vs. 53.8%, P>0.05) with a lower frequency of the TT genotype (5.3 vs. 10.8%); yet, both were statistically nonsignificant (P>0.05). Regarding the IL-4R Q551R A>G polymorphism, cases and controls showed nearly equal frequencies of all variants, that is, with no significant difference. Although the frequency of the IL-4 C and the IL-4R A alleles was higher among cases than among controls (78.9 vs. 71.5% and 78.8 vs. 72.6%, respectively), this was also statistically nonsignificant (P>0.05). Comparing case subgroups in terms of their age of onset, sex, disease severity, consanguinity, and family history showed no statistically significant difference regarding the studied genetic variant. IL-4 -590 and IL-4R Q551R gene polymorphisms are not associated with the susceptibility and the clinical pattern of AA in Saudi patients. We recommend further research studies involving the estimation of cytokines both in the serum and in the local skin lesions or in cultured skin cells to figure out whether Th1 or Th2 pathways play a specific role in the pathogenesis of AA.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 03/2015; 90(1):20-3. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000461326.05328.d3
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in Saudi women. It is spreading three times faster in the Kingdom than in other countries. One-third of breast cancers are preventable through healthy life styles. This study aimed to assess the impact of a training program on breast cancer and breast self-examination (BSE) among female students at Taif University. This study was carried out using a pre-post test design on a sample of female university students from seven colleges in Taif University (Faculty of Science, Faculty of Economics and Management, Faculty of Art, Faculty of Education, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, and the Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences) in the academic year 2012-2013. None of the participants had ever practiced BSE before training, and only 16% of them believed that BSE is necessary, whereas 8.7% were willing to teach others BSE. There was limited knowledge of breast cancer. After the training program, a significant improvement was observed in all knowledge items, and 83.6% of the students practiced BSE compared with 0% practice before training. This study showed the effectiveness of the intervention program in improving students' knowledge of breast cancer and their practice of BSE. Thus, campaigns focusing on females in this age group should be carried out in the Saudi society.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 03/2015; 90(1):8-13. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000460082.28774.71
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    ABSTRACT: Chicken pox is a contagious disease caused by varicella zoster virus. Children are most susceptible to infection. In 1998, the WHO recommended that routine childhood varicella vaccination be considered in countries where the disease is a relatively important public health concern. There are few data on the trends of chicken pox. We aimed to evaluate the trend of chicken pox in Saudi Arabia (KSA) during the period 2007-2012. Data were collected by retrospective review of the existing anonymous surveillance records and book registries of chicken pox cases at the preventive medicine department of Armed Forces Hospital of the Southern Region of Saudi Arabia from 2007 to 2012. The collected data included the number, age, and sex of registered cases. A seasonal pattern was clearly demonstrated, with peak in March and April. There was also a decreasing trend from 2007 to 2012. Most cases occurred in the age group 4-15 years. The number of infected male patients was a little higher compared with female patients. These results indicate success in controlling the disease in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, which may be attributed to the implementation of public health interventions targeted at reducing infectious diseases (such as the introduction of varicella zoster vaccine in 2008). We recommend that a future study be conducted on the severity of chicken pox infection in adults (hospitalization, complications, and death) and a national survey among adults for the seroprevalence of markers of infection with varicella zoster.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 12/2014; 89(3):143-7. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000456619.36915.df
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    ABSTRACT: Wastewater discharged from electroplating industry contains different concentrations of heavy metals, which when released into the environment pose a health hazard to human beings. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of orange peel as an adsorbent in the recovery of Nickel (Ni) from electroplating wastewater. The effectiveness of orange peel as an adsorbent was assessed by determining the optimum conditions of adsorption (adsorbent dose, pH, and contact time), calculating the recovery percentage, and characterizing the orange peel sludge resulting from adsorption/desorption process as being hazardous or not. Under optimum conditions for adsorption, orange peel was found to be an effective adsorbent of Ni from electroplating wastewater. It achieved 59.28% removal of the metal from a solution containing 528 mg/l, at a dose of 60 g/l, at pH 7, and for 1-h contact time. The nickel uptake capacity of orange peel was calculated to be 5.2 mg/g. Using HCl for desorption of adsorbed Ni, a recovery of 44.46% of Ni discharged in the wastewater could be reached. Orange peel resulting from the adsorption/desorption process was characterized as being nonhazardous. Orange peel was found to be effective in the recovery of nearly half of the amount of Ni discharged in electroplating wastewater. Further studies are required to determine (a) the impact of the recovered NiCl2 solution on the quality of the plated product, (b) the effect of activation of orange peel on the adsorption process, and (c) the number of cycles during which orange peel can be reused as an effective adsorbent.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 12/2014; 89(3):154-8. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000457046.78389.33
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    ABSTRACT: Anxiety and depression are common in the elderly and affect their quality of life. The rates of depression and anxiety are higher among those living in institutional settings and are usually undiagnosed. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety and mixed form (i.e. depression and anxiety) in the elderly living at geriatric homes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 240 elderly participants from four randomly selected geriatric homes in Cairo. A pretested interview questionnaire was used to collect data. A short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the Katz scale for Activity of Daily living, the three-item loneliness scale and the Personal Wellbeing Index Scale were used. The prevalence of depression, anxiety and mixed disorder among the studied group were 37.5, 14.2 and 30%, respectively. Old age and the presence of comorbidities were predictors for depression and/or anxiety. Female sex, a lower social class, insufficient income, partial independence and loneliness feeling are significant predictors for depression. Being married and loneliness feeling are significant predictors for anxiety, whereas the functional status is a significant predictor for mixed depression and anxiety. Depression and/or anxiety were found in more than 80% of the studied group. An older age, female sex, insufficient income, a lower social class, a partially independent functional status, the presence of comorbidities, more frequent loneliness feeling and being married or divorced were found to be significant predictors for these problems. This study reflects the need for the screening of the elderly in geriatric homes for depression and/or anxiety, especially among high-risk groups, and developing interventions to prevent and control such problems.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 12/2014; 89(3):127-35. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000455729.66131.49