The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association (J Egypt Publ Health Assoc)

Publisher: Egyptian Public Health Association

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Other titles Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association
ISSN 0013-2446
OCLC 1029403
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Recent population studies provide clues that the use of metformin may be associated with reduced incidence and improved prognosis of breast cancer. This drug is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, where it is often referred to as an 'insulin sensitizer' because it not only lowers blood glucose, but also reduces the hyperinsulinemia associated with insulin resistance. Metformin inhibits the growth of cancer cells in vitro and tumors in vivo. However, there are little clinical data to support this. The aim of the study was to determine whether metformin use was associated with better clinical outcomes in diabetic patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the records of 460 consecutive patients with pathologically proved stage I-III breast cancer. These patients received adjuvant chemotherapy during the period from January 2008 to December 2008. Patients were compared by groups that consisted of 25 diabetic patients taking metformin, 14 diabetic patients not taking metformin, and 400 nondiabetic patients. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, metformin use during adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved survival outcomes in diabetic patients' disease-free survival and overall survival. In multivariate Cox regression, metformin usage was a predictive factor that decreased the risk for breast cancer mortality. There is an association between metformin use and better survival outcome in diabetic breast cancer patients who received metformin during adjuvant chemotherapy. The choice of antidiabetic pharmacotherapy may influence prognosis of this group.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 12/2014; 89(3):148-53. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000456620.00173.c0
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    ABSTRACT: Anxiety and depression are common in the elderly and affect their quality of life. The rates of depression and anxiety are higher among those living in institutional settings and are usually undiagnosed. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety and mixed form (i.e. depression and anxiety) in the elderly living at geriatric homes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 240 elderly participants from four randomly selected geriatric homes in Cairo. A pretested interview questionnaire was used to collect data. A short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the Katz scale for Activity of Daily living, the three-item loneliness scale and the Personal Wellbeing Index Scale were used. The prevalence of depression, anxiety and mixed disorder among the studied group were 37.5, 14.2 and 30%, respectively. Old age and the presence of comorbidities were predictors for depression and/or anxiety. Female sex, a lower social class, insufficient income, partial independence and loneliness feeling are significant predictors for depression. Being married and loneliness feeling are significant predictors for anxiety, whereas the functional status is a significant predictor for mixed depression and anxiety. Depression and/or anxiety were found in more than 80% of the studied group. An older age, female sex, insufficient income, a lower social class, a partially independent functional status, the presence of comorbidities, more frequent loneliness feeling and being married or divorced were found to be significant predictors for these problems. This study reflects the need for the screening of the elderly in geriatric homes for depression and/or anxiety, especially among high-risk groups, and developing interventions to prevent and control such problems.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 12/2014; 89(3):127-35. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000455729.66131.49
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    ABSTRACT: Insomnia is a common problem in the elderly population. Poor sleep quality is associated with decreased memory and concentration, increased risk of falls, cognitive decline, and higher rate of mortality. Inadequate sleep hygiene such as irregular sleep schedules, use of stimulants, and daytime naps may predispose to insomnia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of insomnia among community dwelling elderly in Alexandria and to assess some of the risk factors and comorbid conditions related to insomnia. This is a cross-sectional study conducted among 380 elderly people taken from different clubs in Alexandria using a predesigned structured interview questionnaire. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and personal and sleeping habits were collected. The Insomnia Severity Index was used to assess insomnia and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale was used to measure depression, anxiety, and stress. One-third (33.4%) of the elderly suffered from insomnia. On logistic regression, the most independent factors that were significantly associated with insomnia were number of chronic diseases [odds ratio (OR)=7.25 for having ≥5 diseases], being female (OR=2.37), anxiety (OR=1.91), watching television in bed before sleeping (OR=1.90), depression (OR=1.74), nocturia (OR=1.13), and daily sunlight exposure (OR=0.57). Insomnia is a common problem among the elderly in Alexandria. Female sex, chronic diseases, mental health problems, and bad sleep hygiene practice increase the risk for insomnia. Improving knowledge among the elderly about the prevalence and risk factors of insomnia could help the development of effective public health prevention and intervention programs for better sleep quality.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 12/2014; 89(3):136-42. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000456621.42258.79
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    ABSTRACT: Many underlying factors influence the capacity of women to survive from complications emerging during pregnancy and childbirth, including women's health and nutritional status starting from childhood and during pregnancy. Also, women's access to and the use of appropriate health services according to their knowledge, attitude, and behavior during pregnancy. This study was designed to assess the knowledge, the attitude, and practices of pregnant women toward antenatal care in primary healthcare centers in Benghazi, Libya. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 300 pregnant women, who were chosen from three primary healthcare centers with the highest attendance rate of pregnant women in Benghazi, Libya, using a structured interview questionnaire. The highest percentage (85.3%) of pregnant women had a high knowledge score regarding antenatal care, and most of them (96.0%) showed a positive attitude; the highest percentage (76.4%) of pregnant women also had good practice scores.The level of overall knowledge had a significant direct correlation with the practices towards antenatal care (r=0.228, P≤0.001), whereas it had an insignificant correlation with the attitude (r=0.029, P=0.619). The majority of the participants of the study tended to have a high level of knowledge and practices. Also, most of them had a positive attitude towards antenatal care. These findings can be used to plan a customized health intervention program aiming to improve maternal health practices regarding antenatal care and eventually improve the health status of Libyan women.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 12/2014; 89(3):119-26. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000455673.91730.50
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    ABSTRACT: Colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) increases the risk for subsequent infections with an increased mortality and morbidity. Children were suggested to be a major asymptomatic reservoir for community-associated (CA) MRSA with an ability to quickly spread the MRSA within community. Therefore, the availability of epidemiological and antibiotic susceptibility data of CA-MRSA will be useful for the infection control and management policies. This study aimed to assess the nasal carriage, molecular characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of MRSA in primary school-aged children from Jordan. A total of 210 nasal swabs were collected from children aged 6-11 years. Isolated MRSA and its SCCmec typing, Spa type and PVL (Panton-Valentine Leukociden) toxin were identified following culture, biochemical and PCR. Antibiogram was determined by the disc diffusion method. The prevalence of CA-MRSA was 7.1%. Allergic rhinitis and recent antibiotic exposure were the only significant risk factors for MRSA nasal carriage among children. Resistance to erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline was 33.4, 20 and 13.4%, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to the remaining non-β-lactam antibiotics used in this study, in particular linezolid and mupirocin. All MRSA isolates were SCCmec type IV and PVL toxin negative and the majority were Spa type t223. This is the first study to assess the MRSA prevalence among children aged 6-11 years in Jordan. The prevalence in community children is within the range compared with other studies in other countries. The antibiogram, SCCmec and Spa types of the isolated MRSA are much similar to what was found previously in Jordan. However, all isolates were PVL toxin negative. The study recommends increasing the public awareness of MRSA and the proper antibiotics dispensing. Future studies to follow-up on the changing epidemiology of the CA-MRSA in Jordan are also recommended.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 12/2014; 89(3):114-8. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000454671.83406.e8
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    ABSTRACT: Chicken pox is a contagious disease caused by varicella zoster virus. Children are most susceptible to infection. In 1998, the WHO recommended that routine childhood varicella vaccination be considered in countries where the disease is a relatively important public health concern. There are few data on the trends of chicken pox. We aimed to evaluate the trend of chicken pox in Saudi Arabia (KSA) during the period 2007-2012. Data were collected by retrospective review of the existing anonymous surveillance records and book registries of chicken pox cases at the preventive medicine department of Armed Forces Hospital of the Southern Region of Saudi Arabia from 2007 to 2012. The collected data included the number, age, and sex of registered cases. A seasonal pattern was clearly demonstrated, with peak in March and April. There was also a decreasing trend from 2007 to 2012. Most cases occurred in the age group 4-15 years. The number of infected male patients was a little higher compared with female patients. These results indicate success in controlling the disease in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, which may be attributed to the implementation of public health interventions targeted at reducing infectious diseases (such as the introduction of varicella zoster vaccine in 2008). We recommend that a future study be conducted on the severity of chicken pox infection in adults (hospitalization, complications, and death) and a national survey among adults for the seroprevalence of markers of infection with varicella zoster.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 12/2014; 89(3):143-7. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000456619.36915.df
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    ABSTRACT: Wastewater discharged from electroplating industry contains different concentrations of heavy metals, which when released into the environment pose a health hazard to human beings. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of orange peel as an adsorbent in the recovery of Nickel (Ni) from electroplating wastewater. The effectiveness of orange peel as an adsorbent was assessed by determining the optimum conditions of adsorption (adsorbent dose, pH, and contact time), calculating the recovery percentage, and characterizing the orange peel sludge resulting from adsorption/desorption process as being hazardous or not. Under optimum conditions for adsorption, orange peel was found to be an effective adsorbent of Ni from electroplating wastewater. It achieved 59.28% removal of the metal from a solution containing 528 mg/l, at a dose of 60 g/l, at pH 7, and for 1-h contact time. The nickel uptake capacity of orange peel was calculated to be 5.2 mg/g. Using HCl for desorption of adsorbed Ni, a recovery of 44.46% of Ni discharged in the wastewater could be reached. Orange peel resulting from the adsorption/desorption process was characterized as being nonhazardous. Orange peel was found to be effective in the recovery of nearly half of the amount of Ni discharged in electroplating wastewater. Further studies are required to determine (a) the impact of the recovered NiCl2 solution on the quality of the plated product, (b) the effect of activation of orange peel on the adsorption process, and (c) the number of cycles during which orange peel can be reused as an effective adsorbent.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 12/2014; 89(3):154-8. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000457046.78389.33
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    ABSTRACT: Poor iron status affects billions of people worldwide. The prevalence of obesity continues to rise in both the developed and developing nations. An association between iron status and obesity has been described in children and adults. The aim of the study was to assess the iron profile and dietary pattern in primary school-aged obese Egyptian children.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 08/2014; 89(2):53-59. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000451827.84315.5c
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    ABSTRACT: For effective control and treatment of swine influenza, rapid and cost-effective diagnosis is important. Although the gold-standard method for the diagnosis of influenza virus is culture isolation, it is not routinely used in outpatient settings because of the cost and the time needed to complete the assay. This has led to the development of an array of rapid influenza diagnostic tests. The aim of this study was to compare between the performance of CerTest Swine Flu card and RT-PCR in the detection of H1N1 infection.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 08/2014; 89(2):96-9. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000452224.96616.42
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    ABSTRACT: The Safe Injection Global Network (SIGN) developed an intervention strategy for reducing overuse of injections and promoting the administration of safe injections. Tool C - Revised is designed to assess the safety of the most common procedures that puncture the skin within health services.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 08/2014; 89(2):66-73. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000445305.88786.9e
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    ABSTRACT: Persons with continuous complex care frequently require care in multiple settings. During transitions between settings, there is evidence that the quality of care is jeopardized for these patients.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 08/2014; 89(2):74-80. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000452045.65890.65
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. Many diseases are associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, such as infectious mononucleosis and many types of malignancies, and it is thought to be related to some diseases of autoimmune origin, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosis, and others. The present study aimed to assess EBV in patients with MS.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 08/2014; 89(2):90-95. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000452287.65133.fc
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    ABSTRACT: Over one billion Muslims fast worldwide during the month of Ramadan. Fasting during Ramadan is a radical change in lifestyle for the period of a lunar month, and it might affect the biochemical parameters among diabetic patients.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 08/2014; 89(2):47-52. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000451852.92252.9b
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    ABSTRACT: Many people use bottled water instead of tap water for many reasons such as taste, ease of carrying, and thinking that it is safer than tap water. Irrespective of the reason, bottled water consumption has been steadily growing in the world for the past 30 years. In Egypt, this is still increasing to reach 3.8 l/person/day, despite its high price compared with tap water.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 08/2014; 89(2):60-65. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000451919.21292.8a
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    ABSTRACT: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the leading food crops of the world, the staple food of over half the world's population. The bran, which is an important byproduct obtained during rice milling, constitutes about 1/10 of the weight of the rice grain. Rice bran is the outer brown layer including the rice germ that is removed during the milling process of brown grain. This milling byproduct is reported to be high in natural vitamins and minerals, particularly vitamin E. The present study was conducted to determine the chemical composition of bran and bran oil of 13 different rice varieties commonly produced in Egypt, to study the utilization of rice bran in bread production, and to assess the quality and acceptance of the rice bran edible oil produced. Rice bran was produced from 13 Egyptian varieties of recently harvested rice as well as from paddy rice stored for 1 year. The extracted bran was immediately stabilized then subjected to chemical analysis (such as moisture content, protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, and ash) as well as trace and heavy metals determination (P, K, Na, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mg). Bread was produced by adding Giza172 rice bran at three different concentrations to wheat flour then subjected to chemical analysis, caloric content, and organoleptic examination. Bran oil was extracted from the different varieties of rice bran (recently harvested and stored) then subjected to chemical and organoleptic examinations as well as vitamin E and oryzanol determination. The percentage of rice bran of newly harvested Egyptian rice was 11.68% and was 10.97% in stored rice. The analysis showed mean values of 5.91 and 5.53% for moisture, 14.60 and 14.40% for crude protein, 14.83 and 15.20% for fat, 44.77 and 45.40% for carbohydrates, 6.55 and 7.06% for crude fiber, and 8.87 and 8.50% for ash for newly harvested and stored rice bran, respectively. Bread containing 15% rice bran showed the highest score percentages for organoleptic quality compared with the control (100% wheat flour). Rice bran oil showed higher scores of taste, smell, appearance, and texture than corn oil and sunflower oil. Rice bran contains high nutritional components as well as phytochemicals such as vitamin E (i.e. tocopherols and tocotrienols) and the γ-oryzanol fraction that have positive effects on human health. Storage of paddy rice before milling resulted in significant effect on all studied rice bran characters and rice bran oil characters under the present investigation except crude protein and carbohydrates characters. Substitution of wheat flour with rice bran by 15% in bread production to fortify the bread with vitamin E and to reduce the amount of imported flour is recommended.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 04/2014; 89(1):29-34. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000443988.38424.9d
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    ABSTRACT: Healthcare-associated infection is a prominent problem among patients in pediatric intensive care units (PICU) as it could result in significant morbidity, prolonged hospitalization, and increase in medical care costs. The role of nurses is extremely important in preventing hazards and sequela of healthcare-associated infections. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a health education program regarding infection-control measures on nurses' knowledge and attitude in PICUs at Cairo University hospitals. This was a pre-post test interventional study in which a convenient sample of 125 nurses was taken from the nursing staff in different PICUs at Cairo University hospitals. The study took place in three phases. In the first phase, the nursing staff's knowledge, attitude and practice concerning infection-control measures were tested using a self-administered pretested questionnaire and an observation checklist. The second phase included health education sessions in the form of powerpoint and video presentations; and in the third phase the nurses' knowledge and attitude on infection-control measures were reassessed. A significantly higher level of knowledge was revealed in the postintervention phase as compared with the preintervention phase with regards to the types of nosocomial infections (94.4 vs. 76.8%, P<0.001), the at-risk groups for acquiring infection (95.2 vs. 86.4%, P=0.035) and the measures applied to control nosocomial infections (89.6 vs. 68%, P<0.001). Nurses in the postintervention phase had significantly more knowledge about the types of hand washing (99.2 vs. 91.2%, P=0.006). A significantly higher percent of nurses in the postintervention phase knew the importance of avoiding recapping syringes (72.8 vs. 34.4%, P<0.001) and believed that infection-control measures could protect them completely from acquiring infection (79.2 vs. 65.6%, P=0.033). Statistically significant higher total knowledge and attitude scores were revealed in the postintervention phase as compared with the preintervention one (P<0.001). The percentage practice score of observed units was the highest among nurses in the neonatal intensive care unit at the Japanese Hospital (88%), whereas it was the lowest in the emergency pediatric unit (65%). There is scope for improvement in knowledge and attitude after educational program was offered to the nursing staff. Educational training programs should be multidisciplinary interventions in the era of quality control to help healthcare workers realize the importance of basic infection-control measures in reducing pediatric morbidity and mortality and improving the quality of care.
    The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 04/2014; 89(1):22-8. DOI:10.1097/01.EPX.0000444562.71691.06