Drugs Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Springer Verlag

Journal description

Drugs is the definitive journal of drugs and therapeutics. It provides essential information required by all healthcare practitioners, teachers and researchers through independent and objective evaluations of drugs and their place in patient management. A comprehensive program of single agent drug reviews, drug class reviews and comparative reviews makes Drugs an essential Library title and an invaluable teaching tool. Drugs provides you with all the important and most current information on drug use to achieve optimal patient outcomes.

Current impact factor: 4.34

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 4.343
2013 Impact Factor 4.133
2012 Impact Factor 4.633
2011 Impact Factor 4.226
2010 Impact Factor 3.738
2009 Impact Factor 4.732
2008 Impact Factor 4.128
2007 Impact Factor 3.726
2006 Impact Factor 4.472
2005 Impact Factor 4.466
2004 Impact Factor 4.412
2003 Impact Factor 4.611
2002 Impact Factor 5.368
2001 Impact Factor 4.442
2000 Impact Factor 3.966
1999 Impact Factor 4.15
1998 Impact Factor 3.19
1997 Impact Factor 3.282
1996 Impact Factor 4.153
1995 Impact Factor 3.903
1994 Impact Factor 4.327
1993 Impact Factor 3.877
1992 Impact Factor 2.279

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 4.10
Cited half-life 9.20
Immediacy index 1.01
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 1.20
Website Drugs website
Other titles Drugs (Basel, Switzerland), Drugs
ISSN 0012-6667
OCLC 1566990
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's pre-print on pre-print servers such as arXiv.org
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on any open access repository after 12 months after publication
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version (see policy)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The diagnosis and management of hematologic malignancy during pregnancy is a significant challenge. This is due to both medical and ethical considerations regarding when and how to treat this special sub-group of patients. Recurring uncertainties remain around appropriate imaging techniques, timing and dosage of chemotherapy, and timing of delivery. In this article we examine and summarize current literature in this field to assist physicians in their understanding and management of this patient group. Special attention has been given to diagnostic and staging procedures, risks associated with chemotherapy at different stages of gestation, and chemotherapy-dose adaption during pregnancy. In addition, recommended guidelines for management of lymphoma, leukemia, and planning delivery are discussed. A multidisciplinary team approach is critical for patient care, as is shared decision making with the patient and family.
    Drugs 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0464-0
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    ABSTRACT: Flibanserin (Addyi™) is chemically described as a benzimidazole and is being developed by Sprout Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). The drug has a high affinity for serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT1A agonist/5-HT2A antagonist) and is believed to treat HSDD by increasing levels of dopamine and noradrenaline and lowering levels of serotonin in the brain. Flibanserin has been approved in the USA for the treatment of premenopausal women with acquired, generalized HSDD. Earlier phase III development of the agent for HSDD in the EU and Canada had been discontinued by Boehringer Ingelheim, following regulatory feedback. Boehringer Ingelheim had also evaluated flibanserin for the treatment of depression but, due to displaying very mild antidepressant activity, its development in this indication was discontinued. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of flibanserin leading to its first approval for HSDD.
    Drugs 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0474-y
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    ABSTRACT: Tolvaptan (Jinarc(®)) is a highly selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist indicated for use in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Tolvaptan is the first pharmaceutical agent to be approved in Europe for delaying the progression of ADPKD in adults with stage 1-3 chronic kidney disease at initiation of treatment. In the large phase III TEMPO 3:4 trial in adults with ADPKD, 3 years' treatment with oral tolvaptan significantly reduced growth in total kidney volume and slowed renal function decline relative to placebo. Tolvaptan was also associated with a significantly lower rate of events for the composite secondary endpoint of time to investigator-assessed clinical progression relative to placebo, an effect that was largely attributable to reductions in the risk of worsening renal function and the risk of worsening kidney pain. Many of the most common adverse events in the tolvaptan group were related to its aquaretic mechanism of action (e.g. polyuria, nocturia, polydipsia and thirst). Tolvaptan was also associated with idiosyncratic elevations of liver enzymes which were reversible on discontinuation of the drug. Although the use of tolvaptan requires careful consideration and balancing of benefits and risks, current evidence suggests that tolvaptan is a promising new treatment option for patients with ADPKD.
    Drugs 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0475-x
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    ABSTRACT: Saxagliptin (Onglyza(®)) is a highly potent, reversible, competitive dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor indicated for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. Numerous well-designed clinical studies and their extensions showed that saxagliptin as monotherapy or as dual or triple combination therapy with other antihyperglycaemics improved glycaemic control and was generally well tolerated in patients with type 2 diabetes during ≤2 years' therapy. Saxagliptin was generally weight-neutral and had a low risk of hypoglycaemia (unless coadministered with agents that may be associated with hypoglycaemia, such as sulfonylureas or insulin). In addition, at a median follow-up of 2.1 years in the large SAVOR-TIMI 53 study, with the exception of a 27 % greater risk of hospitalization for heart failure, the addition of saxagliptin to standard of care neither reduced nor increased the rate of ischemic cardiovascular events in at-risk patients. Although further long-term data will be beneficial, current evidence indicates that saxagliptin is a useful option for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes.
    Drugs 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0473-z
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    ABSTRACT: Afrezza(®) (insulin human) inhalation powder is a rapid-acting Technosphere(®) insulin (TI) administered via a breath-powered oral inhaler to patients with diabetes requiring prandial insulin. TI, a dry powdered formulation of recombinant human insulin adsorbed onto a proprietary carrier, is designed to deliver insulin to the deep lung, at the level of the alveoli, where it is absorbed into the systemic circulation. In a randomized, open-label, multinational, phase III trial (trial 171) in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) patients, prandial TI via the Gen2 inhaler provided noninferior glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) lowering compared with prandial subcutaneous insulin aspart. Although TI was associated with less HbA1c lowering, it provided significantly lower fasting plasma glucose levels and significantly less hypoglycaemia and bodyweight gain compared with insulin aspart. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational, phase III trial (trial 175) in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients, prandial TI via the Gen2 inhaler provided superior HbA1c lowering compared with inhaled placebo. Cough was the most commonly occurring non-hypoglycaemia adverse event across both studies. In a pooled analysis of tolerability data from phase II and III studies, the most commonly occurring non-hypoglycaemia adverse events in T1DM and T2DM patients were cough and throat pain/irritation. However, cough was generally mild, dry and decreased over time. In addition, treatment with TI was associated with positive patient-reported outcomes. Insulin human inhalation powder is an effective and generally well-tolerated agent for the prandial treatment of hyperglycaemia in T1DM and T2DM patients and may provide a solution to insulin initiation barriers such as injection phobia, concerns of bodyweight gain and concerns of hypoglycaemia.
    Drugs 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0472-0
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    ABSTRACT: Oral eliglustat (Cerdelga(®)) is approved in several countries for the long-term treatment of adults with Gaucher disease type 1 (GD1) who are cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 extensive metabolizers (EMs), intermediate metabolizer (IMs) or poor metabolizers (PMs) [these three CYP categories encompass >90 % of individuals]. Eliglustat is a potent, selective inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of certain glycosphingolipids, and thus, reduces the rate of biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids to counteract the catabolic defect (i.e. substrate reduction therapy). In the 9-month phase 3 ENGAGE trial, eliglustat significantly improved haematological endpoints and reduced organomegaly compared with placebo in treatment-naive adults with GD1, with the bone marrow burden score (a marker of Gaucher cell infiltration) and GD1 biomarkers also improving from baseline in eliglustat recipients. After 12 months in the phase 3 ENCORE trial, oral eliglustat was noninferior to intravenous imiglucerase [an enzyme replacement therapy (ERT)] in maintaining disease stability in adults who had stable disease after receiving ERT for ≥3 years. During long-term treatment with eliglustat (≤4 years) in the extension period of each of these pivotal trials and a phase 2 trial, patients experienced sustained improvements in visceral, haematological and skeletal endpoints, with no new safety concerns identified. Further clinical experience will help to more definitively establish the position of eliglustat treatment in adults with GD1. In the meantime, with its convenient oral regimen, eliglustat is an emerging alternative therapy to ERT for the long-term treatment of adults with GD1 who are CYP2D6 EMs, IMs or PMs.
    Drugs 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0468-9
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    ABSTRACT: The introduction of therapeutic agents such as irinotecan, oxaliplatin, and more recently biologic agents such as vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors has significantly improved survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. These novel agents have also contributed to added toxicities. Therefore, several studies have evaluated the role of maintenance therapy with less intensive regimens in patients who experienced stable disease or treatment response following induction therapy as a strategy to reduce toxicity and improve quality of life. The success of such strategies, however, requires assurance that their survival would not be compromised. We therefore reviewed studies that have explored the various strategies of treatment de-escalation with an emphasis on survival and toxicity outcomes. Recent studies evaluated the role of maintenance therapy with chemotherapy only, chemotherapy plus bevcizumab, bevacizumab only, and EGFR inhibitors. Current evidence suggests that maintenance strategies offer significant benefit to patients by providing continuous clinical benefit while minimizing the risks associated with continuous therapy. Strategies to improve selection of patients for maintenance therapy versus identifying subgroups of patients that will benefit from a chemotherapy-free interval need to continue to be studied. Finally, as our understanding of the molecular and genetic drivers of colorectal cancer continues to expand, refining these strategies to include more target-specific agents should become more routine.
    Drugs 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0467-x
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    ABSTRACT: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a rare, genetic disorder characterized by an absence or impairment of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) function resulting in significantly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. The cholesterol exposure burden beginning in utero greatly increases the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and premature death. The genetic heterogeneity of HoFH results in a wide range of LDL-C levels among both untreated and treated patients. Diagnosis of HoFH should, therefore, be based on a comprehensive evaluation of clinical criteria and not exclusively LDL-C levels. As treatment goals, the European Atherosclerosis Society and International FH Foundation suggest target LDL-C levels of <100 mg/dL (<2.5 mmol/L) in adults or <70 mg/dL (<1.8 mmol/L) in adults with clinical coronary artery disease or diabetes. The National Lipid Association (NLA) recommends that LDL-C levels be reduced to <100 mg/dL (<2.5 mmol/L) or by at least ≥50 % from pretreatment levels. Conventional therapy combinations that lower atherogenic lipoproteins levels in the blood, such as statins, ezetimibe, bile acid sequestrants and niacin, as well as lipoprotein apheresis, are usually unable to reduce LDL-C levels to recommended targets. Two recently approved agents that reduce lipoprotein synthesis and secretion by the liver are lomitapide, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor, and mipomersen, an apolipoprotein B antisense oligonucleotide. The newly approved inhibitor of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), evolocumab, also shows promise for the management of FH. Because of the extremely high risk for ASCVD, HoFH patients should be identified early.
    Drugs 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0466-y
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    ABSTRACT: Perampanel (Fycompa(®)), an orally-active, selective, noncompetitive α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist, is a first-in-class antiepileptic drug (AED) offering the convenience of once-daily administration. In the EU and US, perampanel is approved in patients with epilepsy aged ≥12 years for the adjunctive treatment of primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) and partial-onset seizures (POS; with or without secondary generalization). In phase III trials of 17 or 19 weeks' duration, add-on perampanel ≤12 mg/day significantly improved seizure control in patients aged ≥12 years who were experiencing either primary GTCS or POS (with or without secondary generalization), despite ongoing treatment with stable dosages of one to three AEDs. Improvements in seizure control were maintained for up to 2 years in extensions of these core studies. Perampanel also provided sustained seizure control for up to ≈4 years in an extension of two phase II studies in patients aged ≥18 years with drug-resistant POS. Adjunctive perampanel therapy was generally well tolerated. Treatment-emergent adverse events were most commonly CNS-related (e.g. dizziness, somnolence, fatigue and irritability) and dose-related; however, most were of mild to moderate intensity. Clinical experience with perampanel is accumulating, although comparative studies and pharmacoeconomic data that could assist in positioning it relative to other AEDS that are approved and/or recommended as adjunctive therapy are lacking. Nonetheless, on the basis of its overall clinical profile and unique mechanism of action, perampanel is a useful additional adjunctive treatment option for patients with drug-resistant POS, with or without secondary generalization, and primary GTCS.
    Drugs 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0465-z
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, significantly increases the risk for stroke. Current guidelines recommend that the vitamin K antagonist warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), such as the approved direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and the approved direct factor Xa inhibitors apixaban, rivaroxaban, and edoxaban, should be used for thromboprophylaxis in patients with nonvalvular AF at risk for stroke or systemic embolic events (SEE). Warfarin, the mainstay of stroke prevention in AF, increases the risk of major bleeding. Furthermore, warfarin therapy comes with several limitations including frequent monitoring and the need for dose adjustments, unpredictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and the potential for significant drug-drug and food-drug interactions. The DOACs were developed to overcome these limitations while maintaining or surpassing warfarin's efficacy and safety profiles. All four DOACs have similar or better efficacy and safety compared with warfarin and are therefore valuable alternatives for the prevention of stroke and SEE in patients with nonvalvular AF. Understanding the subtle differences in the DOACs' pharmacology, phase 3 study designs, and trial outcomes will allow for a more tailored approach in selecting the right oral anticoagulant for each patient.
    Drugs 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0452-4
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    ABSTRACT: Ruxolitinib (Jakavi(®), Jakafi(®)) is an orally administered, first-in-class Janus Kinase (JAK) 1 and 2 inhibitor that was recently approved for the treatment of patients with polycythaemia vera (PV) who have responded inadequately to or are intolerant of hydroxyurea. By inhibiting JAK 1 and 2, ruxolitinib reduces hyperactive JAK-signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signalling that is implicated in the pathogenesis of PV. This article briefly reviews the pharmacology of the drug, focusing on its clinical use in patients with PV. In the phase III RESPONSE trial in PV patients who had an inadequate response to or unacceptable adverse effects from hydroxyurea, ruxolitinib was superior to best available therapy in reducing haematocrit without phlebotomy and reducing spleen size after 32 weeks of treatment. Ruxolitinib was also associated with reducing leukocyte and platelet counts and improving symptoms. Patient follow-up demonstrated that response to ruxolitinib was durable, including preliminary results after up to 80 weeks of treatment. The drug is generally well tolerated, although mild to moderate anaemia, thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia were common in the RESPONSE trial. These effects can usually be managed with dosage modification and did not lead to therapy discontinuation in the RESPONSE trial. Thus, for a subgroup of PV patients for whom few treatment options have existed previously, ruxolitinib provides a valid option.
    Drugs 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0470-2
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    ABSTRACT: The advent of anti-EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) therapy resulted in significant progress in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer patients. However, many patients do not respond to this therapy or develop acquired resistance within a few months after the start of treatment. Since 2008, anti-EGFR therapy is restricted to KRAS wild-type patients as it has been shown that KRAS exon 2-mutated patients do not respond to this therapy. Still, up to 60 % of KRAS exon 2 wild-type patients show primary resistance to this treatment. Recently, several studies investigating the predictive and prognostic role of RAS mutations other than in KRAS exon 2 demonstrated that patients with these mutations are not responding to therapy. However, the role of these mutations has long been questioned as The National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines in Oncology and the European Medicines Agency indications had already been changed in order to restrict anti-EGFR therapy to all RAS wild-type colorectal cancer patients, while the Food and Drug Administration guidelines remained unchanged. Recently, the Food and Drug Administration guidelines have also been changed, which implies the importance of RAS mutations beyond KRAS exon 2 in colorectal cancer. In this review, we discuss the most important studies regarding the predictive and prognostic role of RAS mutations other than in KRAS exon 2 in order to demonstrate the importance of these RAS mutations in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with anti-EGFR therapy.
    Drugs 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0459-x
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    ABSTRACT: Targeting chromatin-mediated transcriptional control of gene expression is nowadays considered a promising new strategy, transcending conventional anticancer therapy. As a result, molecules acting as DNA demethylating agents or histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have entered the clinical arena in the last decade. Given the evidence suggesting that epigenetic regulation is significantly involved in lung cancer development and progression, the potential of epigenetically active compounds to modulate gene expression and reprogram cancer cells to a less aggressive phenotype is, at present, a promising strategy. Accordingly, a large number of compounds that interact with the epigenetic machinery of gene expression regulation are now being developed and tested as potential antitumor agents, either alone or in combination with standard therapy. The preclinical rationale and clinical data concerning the pharmacological modulation of chromatin organization in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is described in this review. Although preclinical data suggest that a pharmacological treatment targeting the epigenetic machinery has relevant activity over the neoplastic phenotype of NSCLC cells, clinical results are disappointing, leading only to short periods of disease stabilization in NSCLC patients. This evidence calls for a significant rethinking of strategies for an effective epigenetic therapy of NSCLC. The synergistic effect of concurrent epigenetic therapies, use at low doses, the priming of current treatments with previous epigenetic drugs, and the selection of clinical trial populations based on epigenetic biomarkers/signatures appear to be the cornerstones of a mature therapeutic strategy aiming to establish new regimens for reprogramming malignant cells and improving the clinical history of affected patients.
    Drugs 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0461-3
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    ABSTRACT: Roflumilast (Daliresp(®), Daxas(®)) is a selective phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor that decreases systemic and pulmonary inflammation and improves disease symptoms in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This article reviews the pharmacological properties of roflumilast and its clinical efficacy and tolerability in patients with COPD. Roflumilast is an effective treatment in patients with moderate to severe COPD; it improves lung function and is generally associated with a lower risk of exacerbation, particularly in patients with more severe disease and/or chronic bronchitis, cough and sputum. It is generally well tolerated; the most common adverse event was diarrhoea. While associated with an increased risk of psychiatric adverse events and weight loss, roflumilast is not associated with an increased risk of respiratory disease and infection, and may decrease the risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Roflumilast is a useful addition to the treatment options for patients with COPD.
    Drugs 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0463-1
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    ABSTRACT: Antiplatelet agents remain the cornerstone in the primary and secondary therapeutic intervention for cardiovascular disease. Some patients may be subjected to a year or more of dual antiplatelet therapy to reduce the risk of subsequent cardiovascular events. Patients on antiplatelet therapy have an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding; however, not all patients benefit from concomitant acid suppressive therapy. This review will provide an overview of the pharmacology of antiplatelet agents and outline patient risk profiles that ought to be considered when considering prophylactic therapy to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity. In addition, we discuss the current risk-reduction strategies intended to mitigate against the potential for related gastroduodenal injury.
    Drugs 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0455-1
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    ABSTRACT: Sonidegib (Odomzo™) is an orally bioavailable, small molecule, Smoothened (SMO) receptor antagonist that is being developed by Novartis for the treatment of cancer. SMO is a G protein-coupled receptor-like molecule that is essential for the actions of the Hedgehog family of secreted proteins, which play a critical role in the development and homeostasis of many organs and tissues. Oral sonidegib is approved in Switzerland for the treatment of adult patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in the US and EU for the treatment of adult patients with locally advanced BCC that has recurred following surgery or radiation therapy, or those who are not candidates for surgery or radiation therapy. Submissions to other global authorities are being contemplated or planned. Additionally, phase I/II investigation is being conducted in other malignancies, including multiple myeloma, medulloblastoma, myelofibrosis, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, chronic myeloid leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, oesophageal cancer and pancreatic cancer. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of sonidegib leading to the first approvals for advanced and locally advanced BCC.
    Drugs 09/2015; 75(13):1559-66. DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0458-y
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    ABSTRACT: Overactive bladder (OAB) is a clinical syndrome describing the symptom complex of urgency, with or without urgency incontinence, and is usually associated with frequency and nocturia. It is a common, under-diagnosed and therefore under-treated condition that can have a detrimental effect on physical functioning and psychological well-being. Initial treatment of OAB includes lifestyle advice, behavioural modifications, bladder retraining and pelvic floor muscle training, usually in combination with antimuscarinic agents. The β3-adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron is the first of a new class of drugs that are now competing with the more established antimuscarinics for the treatment of OAB. Our review focuses on the mode of action, efficacy and tolerability of mirabegron. The place of β3-adrenoceptor agonists in the treatment algorithm of OAB is discussed, considering the adverse events associated with antimuscarinics. Drug therapy tailored to different population groups appears a promising future prospect. Development of other β3-adrenoceptor agonists is expected, and combination therapy regimens might revolutionise the treatment of OAB.
    Drugs 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0456-0
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    ABSTRACT: The development of chemotherapy using conventional anticancer drugs has been hindered due to several drawbacks related to their poor water solubility and poor pharmacokinetics, leading to severe adverse side effects and multidrug resistance in patients. Nanocarriers were developed to palliate these problems by improving drug delivery, opening the era of nanomedicine in oncology. Liposomes have been by far the most used nanovectors for drug delivery, with liposomal doxorubicin receiving US FDA approval as early as 1995. Antibody drug conjugates and promising drug delivery systems based on a natural polymer, such as albumin, or a synthetic polymer, are currently undergoing advanced clinical trials or have received approval for clinical applications. However, despite attractive results being obtained in preclinical studies, many well-designed nanodrugs fell short of expectations when tested in patients, evidencing the gap between nanoparticle design and their clinical translation. The aim of this review is to evaluate the extent of nanotherapeutics used in oncology by providing an insight into the most successful concepts. The reasons that prevent nanodrugs from expanding to clinic are discussed, and the efforts that must be taken to take full advantage of the great potential of nanomedicine are highlighted.
    Drugs 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0453-3
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    ABSTRACT: Empagliflozin/linagliptin (Glyxambi(®)) is a once-daily sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor fixed-dose combination product that is approved in the USA as an adjunct to diet and exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) when treatment with both empagliflozin and linagliptin is appropriate. This article reviews the clinical efficacy and tolerability of oral empagliflozin/linagliptin in patients with T2D and summarizes the pharmacological properties of the agents. Results of two randomized controlled trials of 52 weeks' duration in adults with T2D demonstrated that empagliflozin/linagliptin improved glycaemic control significantly more than linagliptin when administered as initial therapy (whereas results vs. empagliflozin were mixed in this setting) and significantly more than linagliptin or empagliflozin when administered as an add-on therapy to metformin. In addition to glycaemic control, empagliflozin/linagliptin provided significant weight loss compared with linagliptin in both trials. Empagliflozin/linagliptin was generally well tolerated in patients with T2D, with a low risk of hypoglycaemia and no reports of exacerbations of, or hospitalizations for, heart failure during the trials. As the first SGLT2 inhibitor/DPP-4 inhibitor fixed-dose combination available, empagliflozin/linagliptin is a useful new option for patients with T2D.
    Drugs 09/2015; 75(13):1547-1557. DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0457-z
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    ABSTRACT: Evolocumab (Repatha™) is a fully human monoclonal antibody developed by Amgen that has been approved as a treatment for hypercholesterolaemia in the EU, and is awaiting approval in the USA and Japan. It specifically binds proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9)-a negative regulator of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptors-thereby improving the ability of the liver to bind LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), leading to reduced LDL-C blood levels. The drug reduces LDL-C levels in patients with hypercholesterolaemia when used as monotherapy or in conjunction with a statin. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of evolocumab leading to this approval for the treatment of adults with primary hypercholesterolaemia (heterozygous familial and non-familial) or mixed dyslipidaemia as an adjunct to diet with or without a statin and/or other lipid lowering therapies, and in adults and adolescents aged ≥12 years with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia in combination with other lipid lowering therapies.
    Drugs 09/2015; 75(13):1567-73. DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0460-4