Drugs Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Springer Verlag

Journal description

Drugs is the definitive journal of drugs and therapeutics. It provides essential information required by all healthcare practitioners, teachers and researchers through independent and objective evaluations of drugs and their place in patient management. A comprehensive program of single agent drug reviews, drug class reviews and comparative reviews makes Drugs an essential Library title and an invaluable teaching tool. Drugs provides you with all the important and most current information on drug use to achieve optimal patient outcomes.

Current impact factor: 4.13

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 4.133
2012 Impact Factor 4.633
2011 Impact Factor 4.226
2010 Impact Factor 3.738
2009 Impact Factor 4.732
2008 Impact Factor 4.128
2007 Impact Factor 3.726
2006 Impact Factor 4.472
2005 Impact Factor 4.466
2004 Impact Factor 4.412
2003 Impact Factor 4.611
2002 Impact Factor 5.368
2001 Impact Factor 4.442
2000 Impact Factor 3.966
1999 Impact Factor 4.15
1998 Impact Factor 3.19
1997 Impact Factor 3.282
1996 Impact Factor 4.153
1995 Impact Factor 3.903
1994 Impact Factor 4.327
1993 Impact Factor 3.877
1992 Impact Factor 2.279

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 4.05
Cited half-life 8.50
Immediacy index 0.72
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 1.19
Website Drugs website
Other titles Drugs (Basel, Switzerland), Drugs
ISSN 0012-6667
OCLC 1566990
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's pre-print on pre-print servers such as arXiv.org
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on any open access repository after 12 months after publication
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version (see policy)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) guidelines and strategies suggest escalating treatment, mainly depending on the severity of airflow obstruction. However, some de-escalation of therapy in COPD would be appropriate, although we still do not know when we should switch, step-up or step-down treatments in our patients. Unfortunately, trials comparing different strategies of step-up and step-down treatment (e.g. treatment initiation with one single agent and then further step-up if symptoms are not controlled versus initial use of double or triple therapy, possibly with lower doses of the individual components, or the role of N-acetylcysteine in combination therapy for a step-down approach) are still lacking. In general, there is a large and often inappropriate use of the inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) combination. However, the withdrawal of the ICS in COPD patients at low risk of exacerbation can be safe, provided that patients are under regular treatment with long-acting bronchodilators. Maximising the treatment in patients with a degree of clinical instability by including an ICS in the therapeutic regimen is useful to control the disease, but may not be needed during periods of clinical stability. In patients with severe but stable COPD, the withdrawal of the ICS from triple therapy [LABA + long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) + ICS] is possible, but not when the patient has been hospitalised for an acute exacerbation of COPD. We must still establish how long we should wait before withdrawing the ICS. It is still unclear whether the same is true when only the LABA or the LAMA is withdrawn while continuing treatment with the other bronchodilator and the ICS. In any case, we strongly believe that it is always better to avoid a therapeutic step-up progression when it is not needed rather than being forced subsequently into a step-down approach in which the outcome is always unpredictable.
    Drugs 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0450-6
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    ABSTRACT: Hemophilia A and B are X-linked disorders caused by deficient or defective clotting factor VIII (FVIII) or IX factor (FIX) proteins, and characterized by spontaneous or traumatic bleeding into joints and muscles. Previous use of plasma and plasma-derived clotting factors that lacked appropriate viral inactivation steps in manufacturing led to significant morbidity associated with transfusion-transmitted HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The development of recombinant proteins revolutionized their treatment, and, with no new HIV or HCV infection via clotting proteins for nearly 30 years, greatly improved their lifespan, which now approaches that of the general population, and with the same risks for aging complications. Novel long-acting factor proteins are being licensed to extend FVIII and FIX half-life, thereby reducing infusion frequency and potentially bleed frequency and associated morbidity. Further, novel therapeutics which take advantage of new technologies, including siRNA, monoclonal antibody, and small peptide inhibition technologies, have the potential to simplify treatment and improve outcomes for those with inhibitors.
    Drugs 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0451-5
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    ABSTRACT: Status epilepticus (SE) represents the most severe form of epilepsy. It is one of the most common neurologic emergencies, with an incidence of up to 61 per 100,000 per year and an estimated mortality of 20 %. Clinically, tonic-clonic convulsive SE is divided into four subsequent stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. Pharmacotherapy of status epilepticus, especially of its later stages, represents an "evidence-free zone," due to a lack of high-quality, controlled trials to inform clinical decisions. This comprehensive narrative review focuses on the pharmacotherapy of SE, presented according to the four-staged approach outlined above, and providing pharmacological properties and efficacy/safety data for each antiepileptic drug according to the strength of scientific evidence from the available literature. Data sources included MEDLINE and back-tracking of references in pertinent studies. Intravenous lorazepam or intramuscular midazolam effectively control early SE in approximately 63-73 % of patients. Despite a suboptimal safety profile, intravenous phenytoin or phenobarbital are widely used treatments for established SE; alternatives include valproate, levetiracetam, and lacosamide. Anesthetics are widely used in refractory and super-refractory SE, despite the current lack of trials in this field. Data on alternative treatments in the later stages are limited. Valproate and levetiracetam represent safe and effective alternatives to phenobarbital and phenytoin for treatment of established SE persisting despite first-line treatment with benzodiazepines. To date there are no class I data to support recommendations for most antiepileptic drugs for established, refractory, and super-refractory SE. Limiting the methodologic heterogeneity across studies is required and high-class randomized, controlled trials to inform clinicians about the best treatment in established and refractory status are needed.
    Drugs 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0454-2
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    ABSTRACT: Brexpiprazole (Rexulti(®)) is an atypical antipsychotic that has been developed by Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd and H. Lundbeck A/S as an oral treatment for several psychiatric disorders. Brexpiprazole is a novel serotonin-dopamine activity modulator that acts as a partial agonist of serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) and dopamine D2 receptors, as well as a potent antagonist of 5-HT2A receptors and noradrenergic α1B and α2C receptors. In July 2015, brexpiprazole received its first approval in the USA for use as an adjunctive treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and the treatment of schizophrenia. In several countries, brexpiprazole is in development for MDDs, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder and agitation in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of brexpiprazole leading to its first global approval in MDD and schizophrenia.
    Drugs 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0462-2
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a complication of pelvic radiotherapy, mainly for prostate and uterine cancers. In the acute phase, patients feel urinary urgency and bladder pain. This phase is reversible after radiotherapy. In the chronic stage, an irritative syndrome is coupled with hematuria during the 2-10 years following radiotherapy. Cystoscopy shows white and frosted mucosa with telangiectasia. The incidence is estimated at 5 % or less. It is suggested that the radiation oncologist reviews the dosimetry plan to validate that the lesions coincide with significant radiation exposure confirming diagnosis of radiation-induced HC. The treatment for HC is first symptomatic, with bladder lavage, clot evacuation, coagulation via cystoscopy and blood transfusions if necessary. Subsequently, hyaluronic acid bladder instillation can be done with little toxicity. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy delivers pure oxygen to patients in a pressurized cabin, promoting angio-neogenesis and lowering hypoxia to the irradiated tissues. The clinical response rate is estimated to be around 80 %. Nevertheless, this approach is limited by the low availability, and length of treatment. While surgery remains an effective treatment for HC, it is the last option because of the high morbidity and mortality risks. Prospective studies need to be conducted to identify and evaluate new interventions, particularly for HC.
    Drugs 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0443-5
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    ABSTRACT: The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevenar 13(®), Prevnar 13(®)) [PCV13] consists of 13 serotype-specific polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), each covalently conjugated to a non-toxic immunogenic carrier protein. PCV13 has a well established immunogenicity and tolerability profile in adults, particularly those ≥50 years of age. Results of CAPiTA, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in >84,000 older adults aged ≥65 years, showed that PCV13 was effective in preventing vaccine-type pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), vaccine-type pneumococcal nonbacteraemic (noninvasive) CAP and vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). These findings, along with changes in pneumococcal serotype distribution and epidemiology of pneumococcal disease, prompted the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) to recommend PCV13 in series with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPVS23) for all adults aged ≥65 years. PCV13 also has a role in preventing pneumococcal disease (pneumonia and IPD) in younger adults with immunocompromising conditions and potentially in those with other underlying medical conditions that increase the risk of pneumococcal disease.
    Drugs 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0449-z
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease that affects 387 million people worldwide. Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a common complication of DM, is the main cause of blindness in the active population. Diabetic macular edema (DME) may occur at any stage of DR, and is characterized by vascular hyperpermeability accompanied by hard exudates within the macula. Medical and surgical therapies have dramatically reduced the progression of DR, and timely intervention can reduce the risk of severe vision loss by more than 90 %. In 2012, intravitreal ranibizumab became the first antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agent approved for DME and, since then, many reports of the use of ranibizumab for DME have been promising. Randomized, prospective, multicenter clinical trials-most notably, RESOLVE, READ-2, RISE/RIDE, RESTORE, DRCR.net protocol I, and RETAIN-reported improvements in best-corrected visual acuity and decreased central retinal thickness as measured with optical coherence tomography in patients with DME. Similar treatment benefits have also been noted in clinical trials evaluating intravitreal aflibercept and bevacizumab (DAVINCI, VISTA/VIVID, and BOLT) and more recently DRCR.net protocol T. Intravitreal steroids (dexamethasone intravitreal implant and fluocinolone acetonide), particularly in refractory cases, also play a significant role in the management of DME (MEAD/CHAMPLAIN and FAMOUS/FAME studies). In summary, over the last 5 years, blocking VEGF and inflammation has been shown to improve visual outcomes in patients with macular edema due to DM, revolutionizing the treatment of center-involved DME and establishing a new standard of care.
    Drugs 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0447-1
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin degludec/liraglutide (Xultophy(®)), a fixed-ratio combination of an ultra-long-acting insulin analogue and a glucagon-like protein-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is available in the EU for the management of inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes. Once-daily subcutaneous insulin degludec/liraglutide as add-on therapy to oral antidiabetics was effective and generally well tolerated in adults with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes in several well designed 26-week phase III trials. In insulin-naive patients, add-on insulin degludec/liraglutide provided significantly greater improvements in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels than add-on insulin degludec, liraglutide or placebo, or unchanged GLP-1 receptor agonists (i.e. liraglutide or exenatide). In the extension of one of these trials, the efficacy of add-on insulin degludec/liraglutide was maintained for a total of 52 weeks. In insulin-experienced patients, add-on insulin degludec/liraglutide was significantly more effective with regard to improvements in HbA1c levels than add-on insulin degludec (at equivalent doses) or ongoing insulin glargine therapy. Add-on insulin degludec/liraglutide was associated with a lower incidence of confirmed hypoglycaemia than add-on insulin degludec in insulin-naive patients or ongoing insulin glargine in insulin-experienced patients, and a lower initial rate of nausea than add-on liraglutide. Thus, once-daily subcutaneous insulin degludec/liraglutide is a useful add-on therapy option for adult patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes.
    Drugs 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0448-0
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    ABSTRACT: Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) and undetectable HIV RNA in the plasma, latent replication-competent HIV persists indefinitely in long-lived cells. Cessation of ART results in rebound of HIV from these persistent reservoirs. While this was thought to be an insurmountable obstacle to viral eradication, recent cases suggest otherwise. To date one patient has been "cured" of HIV and several others have been able to interrupt ART without viral rebound for prolonged periods. These events have sparked renewed interest in developing strategies that will allow eradication of HIV in infected individuals. We review the current knowledge of HIV latency and the viral reservoir, describe the potential utility of emerging cancer therapeutics in HIV cure research with an emphasis on pathways implicated in reservoir persistence, and outline opportunities and challenges in the context of the current clinical trial and regulatory environment.
    Drugs 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0426-6
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    ABSTRACT: Apremilast (Otezla(®)) is an oral phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor indicated for the twice-daily treatment of adults with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Its use in these patient populations has been assessed in two phase III clinical trial programmes (ESTEEM and PALACE). At 16 weeks in the two ESTEEM trials, apremilast reduced the severity and extent of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis, including nail, scalp and palmoplantar manifestations, versus placebo in adults, with these benefits generally being sustained over 52 weeks of treatment. Similarly, in three PALACE trials (PALACE 1-3), apremilast improved the signs and symptoms of PsA relative to placebo at 16 weeks in adults with active disease despite treatment with conventional synthetic and/or biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. These PsA benefits were generally sustained for up to 104 weeks of treatment; skin involvement, enthesitis and dactylitis also improved with the drug. Apremilast was generally well tolerated, with the most common adverse events being diarrhoea and nausea in the first year of treatment (usually occurring in the first 2 weeks after the first dose and resolving within 4 weeks) and nasopharyngitis and upper respiratory tract infection with continued treatment. Although further longer-term and comparative efficacy and tolerability data would be beneficial, the current clinical data indicate that apremilast is an effective and well tolerated option for the management of psoriasis and PsA in adults.
    Drugs 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0439-1
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    ABSTRACT: Aflibercept is a recombinant fusion protein that acts as a soluble decoy receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key regulator of angiogenesis. It binds to all isoforms of VEGF-A as well as VEGF-B and placental growth factor, and, thus, prevents them from binding to and activating their cognate receptors. In the USA and EU, intravenously administered aflibercept in combination with an infusion of leucovorin, fluorouracil and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) is approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that is resistant to or has progressed after treatment with an oxaliplatin-containing regimen. The efficacy of aflibercept in this indication was assessed in a multinational, pivotal phase 3 trial (VELOUR), in which the approved regimen of aflibercept 4 mg/kg every 2 weeks plus FOLFIRI significantly prolonged median overall survival by 1.44 months compared with FOLFIRI alone (primary endpoint). The addition of aflibercept also significantly prolonged progression-free survival and significantly increased the objective response rate compared with FOLFIRI alone. Addition of aflibercept to FOLFIRI was associated with anti-VEGF-related adverse events and an increased incidence of FOLFIRI-related adverse events, but the tolerability of the combination was generally acceptable in this pre-treated population. The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events with aflibercept plus FOLFIRI included neutropenia, diarrhoea and hypertension. In conclusion, aflibercept plus FOLFIRI is a useful treatment option for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer previously treated with an oxaliplatin-containing regimen, with or without bevacizumab.
    Drugs 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0444-4
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    ABSTRACT: An improved understanding of cancer genetics and immune regulatory pathways, including those associated with evasion of immune surveillance by tumours, has culminated in the development of several targeted therapies. One such strategy that acts to negate evasion of immune surveillance by tumours is inhibition of the programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) checkpoint pathway. Intravenous nivolumab (Opdivo(®)), a PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor, is approved or in pre-registration in various countries for use in adult patients with advanced melanoma, with the recommended monotherapy dosage being a 60-min infusion of 3 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. In well-designed multinational trials, as monotherapy or in combination with ipilimumab (a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 checkpoint inhibitor), nivolumab significantly improved clinical outcomes and had a manageable tolerability profile in adult patients with advanced melanoma with or without BRAF mutations. Nivolumab monotherapy was associated with a higher objective response rate (ORR) than chemotherapy in treatment-experienced patients and a higher ORR and prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival than dacarbazine in treatment-naive patients. In combination with ipilimumab, nivolumab was associated with an improved ORR and prolonged PFS compared with ipilimumab monotherapy in treatment-naive patients. In addition, nivolumab monotherapy significantly prolonged PFS and improved ORRs compared with ipilimumab monotherapy. The optimal combination regimen for immune checkpoint inhibitors remains to be fully elucidated, with various combination regimens and different sequences of individual immunotherapies currently being investigated in ongoing clinical trials. Given the significant improvements in outcomes associated with nivolumab in clinical trials, nivolumab monotherapy or combination therapy is a valuable first-line or subsequent treatment option for adult patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma, irrespective of BRAF mutation status.
    Drugs 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0442-6
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    ABSTRACT: Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum (CCH) (Xiaflex(®), Xiapex(®)) intralesional injection is a mixture of class I (AUX-I) and class II (AUX-II) clostridial collagenases. It is indicated for the treatment of adult men with Peyronie's disease with a palpable plaque and curvature deformity of ≥30° at the start of therapy. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of CCH in this indication and briefly summarizes its pharmacology. CCH treatment significantly improved penile curvature deformity and reduced patient-reported bother associated with Peyronie's disease in the 52-week, double-blind, phase III IMPRESS I and II studies. Treatment benefit with CCH was also seen in 36-week, open-label studies, providing further support for its efficacy. CCH was generally well tolerated in patients with Peyronie's disease, with most treatment-related adverse events being of mild or moderate severity. Serious treatment-related adverse events (penile haematoma or corporal ruptures) were reported in <1 % of CCH recipients in clinical studies. Although further studies assessing the long-term effects of CCH intralesional injection are needed, current evidence indicates that this is a minimally invasive, effective and generally well tolerated treatment option for patients with Peyronie's disease.
    Drugs 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0441-7
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    ABSTRACT: Cangrelor (Kengrexal(®), Kengreal™) is an intravenously administered P2Y12 receptor inhibitor. It is direct-acting and reversible, with a very rapid onset and offset of action. The randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III CHAMPION PHOENIX trial compared the efficacy of intravenous cangrelor with that of oral clopidogrel in patients requiring percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for stable angina pectoris, a non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome or ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI). The primary composite efficacy endpoint of death from any cause, MI, ischaemia-drive revascularization or stent thrombosis in the 48 h following randomization occurred in significantly fewer cangrelor than clopidogrel recipients. The rate of severe or life-threatening non-coronary artery bypass graft-related, GUSTO-defined bleeding at 48 h did not significantly differ between cangrelor and clopidogrel recipients. In conclusion, intravenous cangrelor is an important new option for use in patients undergoing PCI who have not been treated with oral P2Y12 inhibitors.
    Drugs 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0445-3
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing world-wide in parallel to the increase of the obesity epidemic. Insulin resistance (IR) and the accumulation of triglyceride-derived toxic lipid metabolites play a key role in its pathogenesis. Multiple biomarkers are being evaluated for the non-invasive diagnosis of NASH. However, a percutaneous liver biopsy is still the gold standard method; the minimal diagnostic criteria include the presence of >5 % macrovesicular steatosis, inflammation, and liver cell ballooning. Several pharmaceutical agents have been evaluated for the treatment of NASH; however, no single therapy has been approved so far. Due to the increasing prevalence and the health burden, there is a high need to develop therapeutic strategies for patients with NASH targeting both those with early-stage disease as well as those with advanced liver fibrosis. There are unique challenges in the design of studies for these target populations. Collaborative efforts of health authorities, medical disease experts, and the pharmaceutical industry are ongoing to align options for a registrational pathway. Several companies pursuing different mechanisms of action are nearing the end of phase II with their candidates. This manuscript reviews those compounds with a variety of mode of actions that have been evaluated and/or are currently being tested with the goal of achieving a NAFLD/NASH indication.
    Drugs 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0437-3
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    ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib are standard-of-care for first-line treatment of EGFR-mutant advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These drugs have a proven benefit in terms of higher response rate, delaying progression and improvement of quality of life over palliative platinum-based chemotherapy. The most common adverse events (AEs) are gastrointestinal (GI) (diarrhoea and stomatitis/mucositis) and cutaneous (rash, dry skin and paronychia). These are usually mild, but if they become moderate or severe, they can have a negative impact on the patient's quality of life (QOL) and lead to dose modifications or drug discontinuation. Appropriate management of AEs, including prophylactic measures, supportive medications, treatment delays and dose reductions, is essential. A consensus meeting of a UK-based multidisciplinary panel composed of medical and clinical oncologists with a special interest in lung cancer, dermatologists, gastroenterologists, lung cancer nurse specialists and oncology pharmacists was held to develop guidelines on prevention and management of cutaneous (rash, dry skin and paronychia) and GI (diarrhoea, stomatitis and mucositis) AEs associated with the administration of EGFR-TKIs. These guidelines detail supportive measures, treatment delays and dose reductions for EGFR-TKIs. Although the focus of the guidelines is to support healthcare professionals in UK clinical practice, it is anticipated that the management strategies proposed will also be applicable in non-UK settings.
    Drugs 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0434-6
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    ABSTRACT: Endocrine therapy is a key component of adjuvant treatment for premenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive tumors. It is commonly well tolerated, although side effects are a main concern in the selection of treatment options. Tamoxifen is still considered an adequate endocrine therapy in a large group of premenopausal patients (e.g. lower-risk patient, presence of co-morbidities, patient preference). Results of the SOFT and TEXT trials addressing new adjuvant endocrine treatment options in premenopausal patients were recently presented. Overall, in the SOFT study the premenopausal population did not benefit from the addition of ovarian function suppression (OFS). Nevertheless, for women at sufficient risk of recurrence to receive adjuvant chemotherapy and who maintained premenopausal estradiol, the addition of OFS to tamoxifen reduced the risk of recurrence. The magnitude of the effect was larger in younger patients. Moreover, in the SOFT and TEXT trials, adjuvant treatment with exemestane plus OFS, as compared with tamoxifen plus OFS, significantly improved disease-free survival, breast cancer-free interval and distant disease-free survival. However, premenopausal patients include heterogeneous subsets of women and tumors where costs and benefits of adjuvant endocrine therapy should be properly weighted. Issues specific for premenopausal patients, related to desire for pregnancy, family planning, safety, quality of life and subjective side effects, should be a priority in the therapeutic algorithm. Therefore, selecting the best-tolerated agent can enhance adherence to therapies and reduce the impact on quality of life and health status for these younger patients.
    Drugs 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0433-7
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    ABSTRACT: Nebivolol is a highly selective β1-adrenergic receptor antagonist with a pharmacologic profile that differs from those of other drugs in its class. In addition to cardioselectivity mediated via β1 receptor blockade, nebivolol induces nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation by stimulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase via β3 agonism. This vasodilatory mechanism is distinct from those of other vasodilatory β-blockers (carvedilol, labetalol), which are mediated via α-adrenergic receptor blockade. Nebivolol is approved for the treatment of hypertension in the US, and for hypertension and heart failure in Europe. While β-blockers are not recommended within the current US guidelines as first-line therapy for treatment of essential hypertension, nebivolol has shown comparable efficacy to currently recommended therapies in lowering peripheral blood pressure in adults with hypertension with a very low rate of side effects. Nebivolol also has beneficial effects on central blood pressure compared with other β-blockers. Clinical data also suggest that nebivolol may be useful in patients who have experienced erectile dysfunction while on other β-blockers. Here we review the pharmacological profile of nebivolol, the clinical evidence supporting its use in hypertension as monotherapy, add-on, and combination therapy, and the data demonstrating its positive effects on heart failure and endothelial dysfunction.
    Drugs 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0435-5