The Cornell veterinarian

Publisher: New York State Veterinary College; New York State College of Veterinary Medicine

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  • Other titles
    The Cornell veterinarian
  • ISSN
    0010-8901
  • OCLC
    1565146
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 3-year-old Appaloosa stallion with a 4 cm x 4 cm x 2.5 cm mass protruding from his nasal bone was evaluated. Radiographs revealed an osseous mass, with a radiopaque outer margin and several radiolucent areas within the body of the mass. The mass was surgically removed and evaluated histopathologically. The histopathological diagnosis was osteochondroma. This case represent the first reported occurrence of an osteochondroma arising from intramembraneous bone in the horse.
    The Cornell veterinarian 02/1994; 84(1):25-31.
  • The Cornell veterinarian 02/1994; 84(1):3-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Gastroendoscopic surveys have shown that horses in race training have a greater prevalence of gastric ulceration than sedentary horses. To determine if exercise affects gastric endocrine function the following experiment was performed. Four horses were fed total mixed ration of ground corn and chopped hay at 2% of their body weight, divided into 2 equal portions, daily. Horses were fasted overnight, and serum gastrin concentration was determined just before and 2 hours after feeding. The horses were then sprint trained on a high speed treadmill for 6 weeks. The response of serum gastrin to feeding was then repeated as before. Serum gastrin increased following feeding both before and after training, however the postfeeding gastrin value was higher [p = 0.035] after training (68.1 +/- 6.9 pg/ml [mean +/- 1 SEM]) than before (42.7 +/- 3.8 pg/ml). These data show that treadmill exercise has an effect upon the gastric hormonal response to a meal in the horse. The relationship of this finding to the development of gastric ulcer disease is unknown at present, but warrants further investigation.
    The Cornell veterinarian 02/1994; 84(1):41-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy intravenous plasma to transfer passive immunity to clinically healthy colostrum-deprived and clinically ill foals with failure of passive transfer was investigated. Efficacy of transfer was evaluated by the elevation of serum IgG per gram of IgG administered as a function of body weight. Colostrum deprived healthy foals had a significantly greater increase in serum IgG than did clinically ill foals with failure of passive transfer. Knowledge of the IgG content of plasma to be administered and the health status of a foal with failure of passive transfer should allow more accurate prediction of an individual foal's response to treatment.
    The Cornell veterinarian 02/1994; 84(1):7-14.
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    ABSTRACT: Medical records were reviewed for 11 horses with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and/or pharynx. The average age at presentation was 15.3 years. No breed or sex predilection was present. At presentation, 6 of 11 horses were dyspneic and 4 horses had inspiratory stridor. Endoscopy was performed in all cases and was more useful in demonstrating a mass in the laryngopharyngeal region than laryngeal or guttural pouch radiography. Surgical excision was attempted in 3 horses and in 1 horse alleviated clinical signs for 4 months. Ten horses were euthanatized and 1 horse died. Results of this study indicated that laryngopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas are difficult to surgically excise due to their location, size and invasiveness. Treatment is often not attempted because of the advanced state of the disease at the time of presentation.
    The Cornell veterinarian 02/1994; 84(1):15-24.
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    ABSTRACT: Solvents including ethanol, methylene chloride, acetone, hexane, and hot and cold water were used in separate procedures to extract needles and bark from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa L.) to determine which system was optimal for the extraction of abortifacient compound(s). The extracts and residues therefrom were fed by gavage to pregnant cows beginning at day 250 of gestation. After methylene chloride extraction, the pine needle residue fed by gavage failed to abort 4 cows. Subsequently, 4 cows fed the methylene chloride extractable material, adsorbed on ground hay, but free of methylene chloride, aborted (days 253-260 of gestation) and all 4 cows retained fetal membranes. Only 2 of 6 cows fed the pine needle residue after ethanol extraction aborted (days 260 and 261 of gestation) and both retained their fetal membranes, while the other 4 cows calved normally. Hot and cold water extracts did not cause abortion, whereas the extracted plant residue did. One cow fed the plant residue after acetone extraction calved normally as did 1 of 2 cows fed residue after hexane extraction. One cow fed hexane extract absorbed on ground hay also calved normally. These results demonstrate that abortifacient compound(s) present in pine needles are most efficiently extracted by methylene chloride.
    The Cornell veterinarian 02/1994; 84(1):33-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Two young Jacob sheep which presented with severe ataxia and torticollis had abnormally formed atlanto-occipital joints. Postmortem examination revealed marked dissimilarity in size between the left and right occipital condyles, with reduction in size of the foramen magnum. The atlantoaxial joint and dens were normally formed, and were not abnormally positioned in radiographs taken of one lamb. Histological evaluation of the cervicomedullary junction demonstrated extensive loss of axons and myelin, gliosis, and mild hydromyelia in one lamb.
    The Cornell veterinarian 02/1994; 84(1):91-8.
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    ABSTRACT: A 4-month Arabian filly presented for abdominal pain of 30 hours duration was found to have tachycardia, tachypnea, congested mucous membranes and gross abdominal distension. Further examination disclosed gastric reflux and small intestinal distension. Dehydration, prerenal azotemia, electrolyte abnormalities and metabolic alkalemia were observed. There was a progressive nonresponse to analgesic medication and deterioration in the foal's physiologic condition consistent with a small intestinal strangulating obstruction. Surgical exploration was declined. Necropsy examination revealed incarceration of the mid-jejunum in the epiploic foramen with proximal jejunal distension. This case is remarkable as the first report of entrapment of the jejunum in the epiploic foramen of a young foal.
    The Cornell veterinarian 02/1994; 84(1):47-51.
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    ABSTRACT: The influences of facial airflow, exercise and wearing a facemask on gas exchange and upper airway (Pu), transpulmonary (PTP) and transdiaphragmatic (PTD) pressures were investigated in 6 horses performing an incremental exercise test on an inclined (10%) treadmill. The test consisted of a 2 min walk followed by two 2 min exercise bouts at intensities which produced 40% and 80% of maximal oxygen consumption. Horses performed the test 4 times, once for each of 4 protocols, which involved not wearing a facemask (A), wearing a mask with either no biased flow through it (B), with an expiratory bias of 6300 L/min through it (C), or with an inspiratory bias of the same magnitude (D). Although no statistically significant differences in arterial blood gases, Pu, PTP, or PTD could be attributed to the various protocols, trends that may have been physiologically important were detected. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia associated with exercise were most marked with protocol B and least severe with protocols A or D. PTP was lowest for all tests with protocol D. Of the 3 conditions that required the wearing of a mask, protocol D was associated with the lowest Pu. While impelling air into the respiratory tract, as presumedly occurs with horses exercising over ground, may enhance respiratory function during exercise, this preliminary study does not clearly demonstrate this. Because this is an important consideration when conducting studies involving horses on treadmills, further investigations at higher exercise intensities and with additional methodologies are needed to clarify the issue.
    The Cornell veterinarian 02/1994; 84(1):77-90.
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    ABSTRACT: Equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM) affected 6 of 10 pleasure horses in adjacent paddocks at a boarding facility. Four of the 6 affected horses died or were euthanized. Two of 3 horses presented for treatment survived with complete resolution of clinical signs. Treatment was primarily supportive. Dimethyl sulfoxide, dexamethasone, flunixin meglumine and thiamine were administered as anti-inflammatory agents and to decrease or prevent cerebral edema. Fusarium monileforme was cultured from ear corn fed the affected horses. Fumonisin B1, B2 and B3 were isolated.
    The Cornell veterinarian 02/1994; 84(1):53-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Neurologic disease associated with hypernatremia in 2 young Vietnamese potbellied pigs is discussed. Both pigs had recent dietary changes likely associated with excessive salt intake. Case 1 was changed from a commercial mini pig ration to a commercial cat food diet containing up to 1.5% salt 3-4 days before the onset of clinical signs. Case 2 was being maintained on a commercial mini pig ration, however the owner often fed the pig potato chips as treats since its purchase 3 weeks previously. There was no history of water deprivation in either pig. Clinical signs in case 1 included facial-motor seizures, sialorrhea, generalized seizures, tenesmus, disorientation, circling, head pressing, and blindness. Case 2 was disoriented, ataxic, underweight, and appeared blind. Both pigs fully recovered with medical therapy. The rationale for fluid and ancillary therapy are discussed in light of the pathophysiology of salt toxicosis in commercial swine.
    The Cornell veterinarian 02/1994; 84(1):67-76.
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    ABSTRACT: In 4 mares suffering from dystocia, general anesthesia was induced with xylazine (1.1 mg/kg, IV) and ketamine (2.2 mg/kg, IV) and maintained with continuous intravenous infusion of ketamine (2 mg/ml), xylazine (0.5 mg/ml) and guaifenesin (50 mg/ml) in 1 L of 5% dextrose. The duration of the procedure of these mares were 40, 45, 180, and 35 minutes, respectively. For procedures required more than 1 hour (Mare 3), the dose of ketamine and xylazine in the mixture was reduced to 1 mg/ml and 0.25 mg/ml, respectively. Average infusion rate of the mixture used to maintain anesthesia for each mare was 2.5, 2.67, 2.28, and 2.21 ml/kg/hr. Recovery to standing occurred at 55, 75, and 180 minutes after termination of infusion for mares 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Xylazine reversal agent, tolazoline (2.2 mg/kg), was given to mare 1 to hasten the recovery; the mare stood within 30 minutes after tolazoline administration. Continuous infusion of guaifenesin-ketamine-xylazine can be an alternative anesthetic technique for prolonged obstetrical procedures under field conditions when suitable anesthetic equipment is not available. If recovery to standing is extended over 30 to 40 minutes, yohimbine or tolazoline can be administered to hasten recovery.
    The Cornell veterinarian 02/1994; 84(1):61-6.
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    ABSTRACT: A young goat was presented with a left spastic hemiparesis and general proprioceptive ataxia with postural reaction deficits, a right head tilt and positional nystagmus. Seizure-like activity was elicited by rapid changes in the position of the animal's head. The neurological signs and quality of the seizure activity suggested a lesion involving the medulla and possibly the cerebellum. A focal lesion at the level of the left cerebellar peduncles could explain the left hemiparesis and right paradoxical vestibular signs. A large encapsulated abscess was found at the confluence of the left cerebellar peduncles. The morphology and staining characteristics of the organisms within the abscess were consistent with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.
    The Cornell veterinarian 11/1993; 83(4):275-82.
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    ABSTRACT: The present investigation describes a novel method of demonstrating strain diversity among Pasteurella haemolytica biovar A, serovar 2 (PhA2) nasal turbinate isolates from a flock of 32 experimental goats during a naturally occurring outbreak of pasteurellosis. After a 21 day conditioning period in a feedyard, 51 PhA2 isolates from 27 culture-positive goats were identified including 1 on day 22, 14 on day 25, 21 on day 39, and 15 on day 66. Each PhA2 isolate was evaluated for its enzyme activity against 19 substrates with a commercial semiquantitative enzyme system and for its antimicrobial susceptibility with 12 drugs, resulting in 7 different enzyme profiles and 8 different antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. A total of 14 combined enzyme and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were produced. The same PhA2 strain was isolated from only 4 of the 12 goats with 2 PhA2 isolations, while the same PhA2 strain was isolated from only 1 of the 6 goats with 3 PhA2 isolations. The data from this investigation demonstrated that the PhA2 upper respiratory tract flora from goats is highly heterologous.
    The Cornell veterinarian 11/1993; 83(4):303-9.
  • The Cornell veterinarian 11/1993; 83(4):261-3.
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    ABSTRACT: An 18-month-old male Belgian horse was anesthetized and placed in dorsal recumbency for cryptorchidectomy. Xylazine was used for sedation and guaifenesin with thiamylal for induction of anesthesia. A surgical plane of anesthesia was maintained with halothane. During anesthesia, second-degree atrio-ventricular blocks, hypoventilation and a 1-minute duration rise of mean arterial pressure (80 to 130 mm Hg) occurred. Total anesthesia time was 1 hour. On recovery from anesthesia, the horse exhibited flaccid paralysis of the hind limbs and was only able to elevate himself to a dog sitting position. The horse was humanely euthanized 22 hours postoperatively due to a lack of improvement in clinical signs. Hemorrhagic poliomyelomalacic lesions of the spinal cord were observed on histopathological examination of the spinal cord.
    The Cornell veterinarian 11/1993; 83(4):267-73.
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    ABSTRACT: This clinical report describes a case of renal failure in a Holstein calf. It is suggested that the renal failure was hemodynamically-mediated. The combination of a chronic enteritis and failure to ingest adequate fluids produced the hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and metabolic acidosis. The elevated BUN, creatinine, FENa, and isosthenuria confirmed the diagnosis of renal failure. Continued testing of the heifer demonstrated persistence of the renal failure even though the heifer appeared normal on clinical examination. Monitoring the growth rate of the heifer calf demonstrated a severe reduction when compared to age-matched herdmates.
    The Cornell veterinarian 11/1993; 83(4):325-31.
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    ABSTRACT: The safety profile of a new controlled-titer feline panleukopenia-rhinotracheitis-calicivirus-Chlamydia psittaci vaccine was compared to that of a currently-marketed vaccine. Of particular interest were delayed reactions (previously unreported in the literature in felines) occurring 7 to 21 days after vaccination, and the effect of concurrent vaccinations and cat age on the delayed reaction rate. Nineteen hundred twenty-four doses of the new vaccine and 364 doses of the comparison vaccine were administered in 42 participating veterinary practices. The postvaccination evaluation period was 21 days. Reactions (anaphylaxis, short- and long-term lethargy, inappetence, pain, upper respiratory inflammation, delayed fever, anorexia, and miscellaneous events) were reported in 3.33% of cats receiving the controlled-titer vaccine and in 3.02% of cats receiving the comparison vaccine. The difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.45). Reaction rate of the controlled-titer vaccine and that of the vaccine currently accepted by veterinarians appear to be equivalent.
    The Cornell veterinarian 11/1993; 83(4):311-23.
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    ABSTRACT: This clinical report describes an 8-year-old Thoroughbred mare that was presented for evaluation of a chronic, unilateral nasal discharge. Findings on physical examination, radiology, and video-endoscopy supported a clinical diagnosis of ethmoidal hematoma. After surgical ablation of the mass a defect was detected in the cribriform plate. At necropsy a 1.5 cm aperture was identified in the left cribriform plate allowing direct communication between the fundus of the nasal cavity and the cranium. Histology of the mass identified tissue consistent with an adenocarcinoma. History of profuse epistaxis warrants further investigation to differentiate malignant lesions from the more common benign lesions. During surgical ablation of large, space-occupying masses of the caudodorsal nasal cavity the cribriform plate should be examined for defects or secondary erosive lesions.
    The Cornell veterinarian 11/1993; 83(4):283-9.
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the possibility of repeated reactivation of canine herpesvirus (CHV), 2 serial treatments with the corticosteroid drug prednisolone (PD) were given at different periods following oral-nasal infection of pups and adult dogs. CHV was not recovered from infected, untreated dogs or from uninfected, treated controls. Viral reactivation of CHV, without clinical signs, was induced twice in 2/3 adults and in 2/3 pups treated at intervals that ranged from 1 to 3 months following the initial infections. Highest viral titers were obtained from nasal swab samples, with lower titers found in the oral pharynx, penis or vagina. In some, but not all dogs, the infectivity titers of the nasal secretion samples were higher after the initial prednisolone treatments than after the second treatments. The duration of viral shedding after the second series of steroid treatments also was shorter than the shedding period following the initial reactivations. The results presented here suggest that latent CHV occurs in both pups and adults dogs following infection and that active infections, with viral shedding, may occur repeatedly for prolonged, but undetermined, periods.
    The Cornell veterinarian 11/1993; 83(4):291-302.