Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology

Publisher: Nihon Shinkei Gakkai

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  • Website
    Rinsho Shinkeigaku / Clinical Neurology website
  • Other titles
    Rinshō shinkeigaku, Clinical neurology
  • ISSN
    0009-918X
  • OCLC
    4301256
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 32-year-old homosexual man was admitted because of acute headache, fever, and lymphoadenopathy. The neurological examination revealed nuchal rigidity and positive Kernig's sign. The cell count of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at the time of admission, however, was four per microliter and subsequently increased up to 31 per microliter in three days. The serum antibody for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was positive in ELISA and the cell number of CD4 positive population decreased to 280. The RT-PCR for HIV RNA was 7.6 x 10(5) copies per milliliter, which gradually decreased, leading to the diagnosis of meningitis due to HIV itself. The Western blotting for HIV antibodies were positive for p24, p40 and p55, whereas that for gp 41 was negative in serum and CSF, suggesting that the meningitis occurred during the seroconversion in this patient. We surmise that aseptic meningitis during HIV primary infection usually results in mild CSF pleocytosis and sometimes leads to even normocytosis shown as in this patient, probably because cellular immunity is temporally suppressed in acute HIV infection.
    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 09/2013; 49(2-3):100-3.
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    ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 65-year-old woman who presented with Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) associated with multiple cerebral infarcts. Four years ago, she was diagnosed as having CSS based on asthma, hypereosinophilia and peripheral neuropathy, and corticosteroid therapy achieved a remission. However, she showed exacerbation of asthma and hypereosinophilia during the tapering schedule of steroid, and she was hospitalized because of dizziness and mild left side weakness. Analysis of blood chemistry detected significant hypereosinophilia (13,730/μl), increased blood-coagulating activity, elevated NT-proBNP concentration and renal dysfunction. MRI of the brain revealed multiple small infarcts in cortex and the watershed area. The patient was diagnosed with exacerbation of CSS, and treatment with increased dose of corticosteroid induced a clear improvement in symptoms, with decrease of the eosinophilia and a clear improvement of the renal function. The hypercoagulable state and direct eosinophil toxicity may contribute to strokes in hypereosinophilic condition of CSS. This case was remarkable for illustrating multiple cerebral infarctions in CSS. CSS should always be considered in patients with hypereosinophilia and stroke.
    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 07/2013; 53(7):559-62.
  • Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 11/2011; 51(11):935.
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    ABSTRACT: We report a 55-year-old woman with limbic encephalitis associated with leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibody. She first developed a generalized seizure, following by consciousness loss. Although anticonvulant was initially effective, she began to present frequently with seizure and memory impairment. After eleven months from onset, she was admitted due to generalized seizure. Neurological examination after recovering from the treatment with anesthetic agent demonstrated disorientation and memory impairment. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was unremarkable. MR brain FLAIR imaging demonstrated high intensity lesions in the medial parts of the both temporal lobes, suggesting limbic encephalitis. There were no signs of malignant tumor detected on systemic examination. LGI1 antibody was positive in the cerebrospinal fluid and we finally diagnosed this patient as having limbic encephalitis associated with LGI1 antibody. She demonstrated a good response to steroid therapy and was discharged after one month.
    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 10/2011; 51(10):774-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Vocal cord movement disorders are increasingly recognized in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We describe a patient with limb-onset ALS who developed vocal cord paralysis. A 74-year-old Japanese male consulted our clinic with a 6-month history of weakness in both arms. His family history was unremarkable. There were fasciculations and mild atrophy of the tongue and both arms. In the legs, muscle strength was almost normal but widespread fasciculations were present. All tendon reflexes were hypoactive and pathological reflexes were absent. Thereafter, he developed weakness of the legs and showed increased eating time. Babinski sign was positive bilaterally at this stage. The forced vital capacity dropped from 90% at the initial evaluation to 62% of the predicted value 14 months later. Two years after disease onset, the patient developed aspiration pneumonia with hoarseness and had difficulty clearing his throat of phlegm. Laryngoscopy demonstrated severe vocal cord paresis on both sides, particularly in the abductor muscles possibly leading to obstruction. Tracheotomy was performed because of the risk that the patient could choke to death. A review of the literature suggests that severe impairment of vocal cord abduction could be a prelude to sudden death in ALS. Follow up by laryngoscopic examination is necessary.
    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 10/2011; 51(10):765-9.
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    ABSTRACT: A 79-year-old woman was admitted to a nearby hospital for seven days due to low-grade fever, loss of appetite and general fatigue. She was diagnosed with normal condition and discharged. She was admitted to our hospital one week later with disturbed consciousness. Laboratory findings upon admission revealed anemia, elevated alanine amino transferase, elevated total birirubin and thrombocytopenia. Abdominal CT demonstrated multiple low intensity lesions in the liver. Enhanced brain CT revealed multiple lesions with increased signal intensity lesions in the white matter and cortex. The value of soluble IL-2 receptor antibody was 16,000U/ml. Intravascular lymphoma was suspected because of brain CT finding and IL-2 receptor antibody titer. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy was started considering her age and general condition, but she was died thirteen days after admission. Postmorten examination revealed widespread intravascular aggregation of malignant lymphoma cells in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, bladder, ovary and stomach indicating a diagnosis of an Asian variant of intravascular large B cell lymphoma (AIVL). Neurological abnormalities are not usually associated with AIVL, but this patient had rare AIVL presenting with initial progressive nonspecific neurological symptoms.
    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 10/2011; 51(10):751-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanical ventilation (MV) and cardiac protective therapy have improved the prognosis and quality of life of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). To understand how these therapies have changed prognosis, we performed a cause-of-death analysis in DMD patients. Mean age at death before initiation of MV (January 1977-July 1984) was 18.9±4.1 years. After the introduction of MV, from August 1984 to December 1993 (1(st) term), it was 20.0±4.5 years, from January 1994 to December 2003 (2(nd) term), it was 25.2±4.6 years, and from January 2004 to December 2010 (3(rd) term), it was 31.1±5.4 years. Almost half of all deaths before MV were due to respiratory failure (RF). Because MV was performed by a tracheostomy in the initial stage, some patients were reluctant to use it, and as a result, RF accounted for 43% of deaths in the 1(st) term. Over time, patients started to accept non-invasive ventilation and home mechanical ventilation, which became available in the 1990s. Consequently, no DMD patients have died from RF since 2000. Respiratory physiotherapy and risk management became important tools, because many patients undergo decades of respiratory managements at home. Cardiac treatments for patients with DMD consisted mainly of diuretics and digitalis in the 1(st) term, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) in the 2(nd) term, and a combination of ACEIs and beta blockers in the 3(rd) term. Compared to the 2(nd) term, the ratios of severe cardiac dysfunction (fractional shortening <10%, left ventricle diastolic dimension >75mm, plasma brain natriuretic peptide >1,000pg/ml) were reduced in the 3(rd) term. In the 3(rd) term, 14% of patients died from renal failure nevertheless their cardiac indices remained mildly abnormal or normal. We should pay enough attention for cardio-renal association.
    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 10/2011; 51(10):743-50.
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    ABSTRACT: A previously healthy 34-year-old man sustained multiple skull fractures in a traffic accident. Radiological findings and visual field examination did not detect any abnormality. Shortly after the accident, he noticed blurred vision in both eyes. Six months after the accident, he gradually developed disturbance of visual acuity in the right eye. His best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.8 OD and 1.2 OS and brain MRI did not show any abnormality, while Humphrey visual field analysis demonstrated right homonymous hemianopsia. Two months after the initial presentation, his BCVA showed 0.1 OD and 0.08 OS. Visual field examination suggested that both right homonymous hemianopsia and left blind spot had become enlarged. Mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated G11,778A mutation and a diagnosis of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) was made. A few reports have documented mild acute insult to the head or blunt optic trauma as triggers of optic neuropathy in subjects with LHON. Although, the precise mechanism of LHON following trauma remains unknown, it appears that an acute insult may be sufficient to precipitate neuropathy in the optic nerve already compromised by mitochondrial dysfunction. Asymptomatic carriers should be advised to avoid possible precipitating factors such as head trauma.
    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 10/2011; 51(10):781-3.
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    ABSTRACT: A Japanese female patient presented with dysarthria and gait disturbance with ataxia at the age of 63. She was initially diagnosed with spinocerebellar degeneration because a head CT showed atrophy of the cerebellum and brainstem, and dilatation of the fourth ventricle. Symptoms including abnormal behavior, dementia, vertical gaze palsy, dysphagia, retrocollis, axial rigidity, grasp reflex and positive Babinski's sign were gradually observed. Tegmental atrophy of the brainstem and dilatation of the third ventricle were apparent on images. The diagnosis was modified to progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 6 years after the onset of symptoms. Gastrostomy and tracheotomy were performed 7 and 8 years after onset, respectively, and the patient died one year later. At autopsy the brain weighed 1,030g and showed atrophy of the frontal lobe and cerebellum. The brainstem was also atrophic, particularly in the tegmentum and pontine base. Neurofibrillary tangles, mainly globose-type, were widespread in the subcortical structure, particularly in the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, nucleus of the oculomotor nerve, substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, pontine nucleus, and the inferior olivary nucleus. Numerous glial fibrillary tangles and argyrophilic threads were also observed particularly in the frontal lobe, basal ganglia, brainstem and cerebellar white matter. The cerebellar dentate nucleus showed neuron loss with grumose degeneration and the Purkinje neuron layer showed neuron loss and Bergmann's gliosis with torpedoes. Tau positive inclusions in the Purkinje neurons, Bergmann glias and dentate nucleus neurons were observed. Pathological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of PSP but the olivopontocerebellar involvement and the quantity of Gallyas-positive/tau-positive structures were generally more severe than in typical PSP cases. According to these clinicopathologic findings and a review of the literature, we speculate on the existence of a PSP subtype with severe olivopontocerebellar involvement that tends to be clinically misdiagnosed as spinocerebellar degeneration.
    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 10/2011; 51(10):756-60.
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    ABSTRACT: A 40 year-old man with migraine presented cerebral ischemic attacks several times in one year. He had no risk factors for cerebrovascular disease including hypertension, but had strong family history suggesting autosomal dominant inheritance. A brain MRI on T(2) weighted and FLAIR images revealed patchy and confluent hyper intensity areas in the subcortical white matters and bilateral external capsules, while no anterior temporal pole lesions characteristic of CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) were detected. His skin biopsy demonstrated granular osmiophilic materials (GOM) on the basement membrane of the vascular smooth muscle cells in dermis as shown by an electron microscope. The following mutational analysis of the Notch3 gene disclosed a missense mutation of p.Arg133Cys in exon 3. Molecular diagnosis of CADASIL may be time consuming because Notch3 is a huge gene and mutations may occur at multiple sites. GOM on skin biopsy is diagnostic especially in cases where anterior temporal pole involvement on MRI is negative.
    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 10/2011; 51(10):770-3.
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    ABSTRACT: We report a 62-year-old man who have taken major tranquilizer for schizophrenia for the past 24 years. He had sudden generalized tonic-clonic seizure and consciousness loss on April 2010. He was administered diazepam, phenytoin, phenobarbital intravenously and drip-infused with midazolam continuously, but the seizure persisted. For a possible comorbidity of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, we administered dantrolene sodium intravenously and bromocriptine through a nasal gastric tube. The refractory status epilepticus disappeared immediately after the administration. Status epilepticus remitted 2 days later but again disappeared with repeated injection of dantrolene. These results suggested that intravenous administration of dantrolene may have alleviated the refractory symptoms of status epilepticus.
    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 10/2011; 51(10):777-80.
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    ABSTRACT: Polyneuropathy associated with antibodies directed against myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a chronic symmetric sensorimotor demyelinating neuropathy caused by monoclonal IgM against MAG (anti-MAG neuropathy). Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg) has been partially successful in patients with anti-MAG neuropathy. A placebo-controlled trial of rituximab in patients with anti-MAG neuropathy has been reported. We report rapid improvement in a patient with anti-MAG neuropathy using rituximab. A 58-year-old man presented with abnormal sensation, weakness of the limbs, and unsteadiness. He was previously diagnosed with chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy and was treated with steroid pulse therapy and IVIg. However, these treatments were not effective. On examination at our hospital, he showed areflexia in all limbs, mild weakness in distal portions of upper and lower extremities, sensory ataxia, and hypesthesia/hypalgesia except for his face. He showed high serum IgM levels (323mg/dl). He did not show M protein on immunoelectrophoresis; however, anti-MAG and anti-sulfoglucuronyl paragloboside (SGPG) antibodies were detected by immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. He was diagnosed with anti MAG neuropathy and was administered four cycles of intravenous rituximab at a dose of 375mg/m(2)/week. After the first cycle of rituximab administration, he showed improvement in two-point discrimination of middle fingers (10/13 before therapy to 7/7mm after administration). Two-point discrimination and vibration markedly improved after four cycles of rituximab administration. Romberg sign became negative after 7 months. Anti-SGPG antibody titers reduced from 0.554 before rituximab administration to 0.307 (OD) at 1,600 dilution, 4 months after administration. We concluded that rituximab was effective for the treatment of anti-MAG neuropathy. We suggested that rapid and long-term improvement in our patient might be caused not only by preventing the formation of new antibody-secreting cells and antibody-titer reduction but also affecting the balance of proinflammatory cytokines and regulatory cytokines production.
    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 10/2011; 51(10):761-4.
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    ABSTRACT: We report two patients with encephalitis associated with antibodies against NR1-NR2 heteromers of the NMDA receptor that showed dramatic improvement after immunomodulating therapies. A 38-year old woman (case 1) suddenly developed seizures and short term memory loss. Brain MRI appeared almost normal except for a small number of high intensity spots of white matter on T(2) weighted images. Cerebrospinal fluid examination (CFS) disclosed lymphocytic pleocytosis (61/µl) and Qualitative analysis of NR1-NR2 antibodies in both CFS and serum were positive. Although an initial treatment with high-dose methylprednisolone was not beneficial for clinical improvement, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy led to complete recovery from her neurological problems. Repeated general surveys showed no evidence of tumors including ovarian teratoma. A 71-year old man (case 2) suddenly developed seizures and short-term memory loss three days after receiving an influenza vaccination. Brain MRI appeared normal. CSF analysis revealed no pleocytosis and a slight elevation of protein value accompanying oligoclonal IgG band. Qualitative analysis of NR1-NR2 antibodies in both CFS and serum were positive. Intravenous high-dose methylprednisolone caused dramatic improvement and his neurological problems immediately disappeared. Repeated general surveys showed no evidence of tumors, as in case 1. These two cases showed relatively benign clinical courses with no evidence of tumors and were quite different from the well-known encephalitis associated with antibodies against NR1-NR2 heteromers of the NMDA receptor. Our clinical experience in these two cases suggests that the disease spectrum of anti-NMDA-receptor associated encephalitis might be broader than was once considered.
    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 09/2011; 51(9):683-7.
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    ABSTRACT: A 36-year-old woman with neuromyelitis optica had been treated with steroids for the prevention of relapse. However, her treatment was not effective and she showed adverse effects such as diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, compression fractures, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Therefore, we started her on mitoxantrone treatment. After five courses of mitoxantrone injection, she developed a herpes zoster infection in her thigh followed by aseptic meningitis. PCR for varicella zoster virus (VZV)-DNA was positive in the cerebrospinal fluid. The mechanisms that caused VZV reactivation by mitoxantrone are not known. Opportunistic herpes virus reactivation may occur easily with increasing use of immunosuppressive drugs for both neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis. These drugs must be used under careful supervision.
    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 09/2011; 51(9):703-5.
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    ABSTRACT: A 66-year old hypertensive man having a prostate cancer was admitted to our hospital with sudden onset right hemiparesis. On admission, he showed left hemiplegia, hypesthesia, right limb ataxia, and dysarthria. The NIHSS score was 16. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed an acute infarct in the middle pons and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed basilar artery (BA) occlusion. Carotid Doppler ultrasonography showed distal occlusion pattern of the bilateral vertebral artery. He was treated with intravenous rt-PA at 116 minutes after symptom onset. One hour later, his symptom was not improved and BA was still occluded on follow-up MRA. Therefore, we performed mechanical thrombectomy with Merci(®) Retrieval System. At 323 minutes after onset, BA was successfully recanalized and NIHSS score decreased to 4 without hemorrhagic complication. Medication of oral warfarin was started on day 19 because paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was detected by electrocardiogram. The retrieved thrombus was pathologically diagnosed as a organizing mixed thrombus probable cardiac origin. On day 27, he was discharged home without any neurological deficit. Additional thrombectomy with Merci(®) Retrieval System is a promising treatment strategy for BA occlusion which is resistant to intravenous rt-PA thrombolysis.
    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 09/2011; 51(9):706-9.
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    ABSTRACT: An anonymous postal survey of cardiologists, diabetologists, gynecologists, and ophthalmologists in Osaka was performed to assess the medical care-seeking behaviors of and problems associated with the medical management of patients with myotonic dystrophy (DM). The questionnaires were sent to 927 cardiologists, 357 diabetologists, 882 gynecologists, and 915 ophthalmologists. Of these, 172 cardiologists, 85 diabetologists, 220 gynecologists, and 154 ophthalmologists responded. More than 30% of responders had provided care to DM patients, and approximately 10% had experience diagnosing DM patients. These facts suggest that DM patients receive medical care from various specialists due to complications involving multiple systems and some of them visit other specialists prior to neurologists. Some patients were diagnosed after perinatal or perioperative difficulties. Therefore, it seems important to improve the ability of physicians to identify DM patients. Because specialists with experience diagnosing DM paid more attention to the characteristic features of DM, such as grip myotonia and hatchet face, a simple screening test may be useful for detecting DM. Some responders pointed out the negative attitude of DM patients toward medical care and the lack of neurologists for consultation as problems in the medical management of DM patients. Cooperation among neurologists and other specialists and education of DM patients are important to improve the medical management of DM patients.
    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 09/2011; 51(9):677-82.