# Chromatographia (CHROMATOGRAPHIA)

## Journal description

The ever increasing demands on the analyst make the rapid communication of new techniques and developments in the field of analytical chemistry of prime importance. CHROMATOGRAPHIA has been fulfilling this function for chromatography since it was first founded in 1968. During the intervening years, however, the journal has itself evolved to meet the challenges of changing times and demands. Thus, the composition of the Editorial Board is reviewed at regular intervals so as to reflect shifts in interest and the establishment of centres of excellence in countries that have not previously been active in the field. Publishing policy, including the number of papers and the format, are subject to continuous appraisal.

## Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015 1.37 1.437 1.195 1.075 1.098 1.312 1.145 1.171 0.959 1.145 1.145 1.23 1.317 1.619 1.741 1.844 2.079 1.869 1.438 1.885 1.601 1.573

## Impact factor over time

Impact factor
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Year

5-year impact 1.28 7.00 0.15 0.01 0.30 Chromatographia website Chromatographia (Online) 0009-5893 38523635 Document, Periodical, Internet resource Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

## Publications in this journal

• ##### Article: Metal–Organic Framework InH(d-C10H14O4)2 for Improved Enantioseparations on a Chiral Cyclodextrin Stationary Phase in GC
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ABSTRACT: The chiral MOF InH(d-C10H14O4)2 has a left-handed helical structure and adopts a diamond network. In this work, three capillary columns (A, B, and C) containing InH(d-C10H14O4)2, peramylated β-cyclodextrin and sodium chloride, and InH(d-C10H14O4)2 and peramylated β-cyclodextrin have been prepared and their respective enantioseparation abilities have been investigated. The polarity of the MOF is moderate, whereas peramylated β-cyclodextrin provides a stationary phase of low polarity. The numbers of theoretical plates (plate m−1) of the three columns have been measured with n-dodecane at 120 °C, which followed an increasing order of A (2,973) l-β-hydroxyisobutyrate, limonene, and menthol were separated with different resolutions on columns A, B, and C. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the run-to-run and column-to-column retention times were 0.50 and 2.50 %, respectively. The test results indicated that the incorporated InH(d-C10H14O4)2 enhanced the separations of racemates on a peramylated β-cyclodextrin stationary phase, resulting in high column efficiency and good reproducibility in gas chromatography.
Chromatographia 04/2015; 78(7-8). DOI:10.1007/s10337-015-2863-5
• ##### Article: Fluorimetric Assay for Measuring Neprilysin Activity Using HPLC
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ABSTRACT: A rapid and reproducible assay for the determination of neprilysin activity is reported. This method is based on fluorimetric detection of a dansylated dipeptide, 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl-d-Ala-Gly, enzymatically formed from the substrate 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl-d-Ala-Gly-Phe(pNO2)-Gly after separation by high-performance liquid chromatography using a C-18 reversed-phase column by isocratic elution. The detection limit of this method is at a level as low as 0.2 nmol mL−1, it yields highly reproducible results and the time consumed for analysis is less than 6.8 min per sample for separation and quantification. By using this assay, the stimulatory effect of (+)MK-801 (dizocilpine maleate)—a noncompetitive N-methyl-[d]-aspartate receptor antagonist—on this enzyme activity was observed in rat brain regions 3 days after the treatment. This new method would be useful for clarification of the physiological role of this enzyme.
Chromatographia 04/2015; 78(7-8). DOI:10.1007/s10337-015-2856-4
• ##### Article: Influence of Ring Frit Structure on Column Efficiency
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ABSTRACT: A new column frit structure termed ring frit was designed in this work to decrease the influence of column radial heterogeneity. Ring frit structure was characterized by a central impervious region which allowed the mobile phase to be injected only through the peripheral region into the column. This design was implemented to reduce the velocity gradient caused by radial heterogeneity and make the flow distribution uniform to improve column efficiency. The contributions of ring frit to column efficiency were confirmed by the computational fluid dynamics method and real life column experiments. Compared with a conventional frit, a ring frit structure can decrease the influence of radial heterogeneity on columns. Moreover, the effects of ring frit structure were related to the diameter of the central impervious region and column length.
Chromatographia 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10337-015-2854-6
• ##### Article: Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Study of Metabolism of 5-Methylpyranopelargonidin
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ABSTRACT: Anthocyanin dyes represent an important group of plant polyphenols significantly affecting human diet. Their stability in solution is low and it depends on pH, presence of sulfur dioxide and other parameters. Many stable pyranoanthocyanins are formed by condensation of anthocyanins with small reactive compounds, i.e. pyruvic acid, acetaldehyde, acetone and others, commonly during maturation of food products (e.g. wines and juices). To date, little is known about their metabolism. This communication deals with the study of in vitro metabolism of 5-methylpyranopelargonidin (5-MePPl) as a simple member of the pyranoanthocyanin family and its direct comparison with common flavonoids quercetin and pelargonidin. Human colon adenocarcinoma cells LS174T and human hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2 were used for experiments. Metabolites were analyzed by UPLC/MS/MS. Quercetin underwent extensive biotransformation with a metabolic profile typical for flavonoids, corroborating that the used cells were metabolically active in parallel experiments with pelargonidin and 5-MePPl (condensation of two and three quercetin molecules was tentatively proposed in addition). Biotransformation of 5-methylpyranopelargonidin proceeded with higher yield of metabolites compared to pelargonidin. Processes related to accumulation of 5-MePPl metabolites in pellets exhibit significant differences compared to quercetin and pelargonidin. The fact can be ascribed to the presence of an additional ring (D) in the flavonoid skeleton and probably to a higher hydrophobicity of pyrano-dye compared to both other studied flavonoids. Hydroxylation, glucuronation and glucosidation are the main metabolic processes observed during in vitro metabolization of 5-MePPl providing several chromatographically resolved isomers of metabolites. Moreover, some combined metabolites were found and the site of metabolization in the 5-MePPl structure was specified based on collision spectra.
Chromatographia 02/2015; 78(3-4):189-201. DOI:10.1007/s10337-014-2832-4
• ##### Article: Quantification of Meranzin Hydrate in Rat Hippocampus and Plasma by LC–MS/MS: A Compound Derived from Chaihu–Shugan–San Displays Antidepressant Potential
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ABSTRACT: Meranzin hydrate (MH), a compound derived from Chaihu–Shugan–San (CSS), displayed potent preclinical antidepressant functions. In this study, an LC–MS/MS method was developed and validated to quantify the MH in rat hippocampus and plasma. Tert-butyl methyl ether and irbesartan were used as the extraction reagent and the internal standard (IS), respectively. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using the mobile phase, which consisted of a 20 mM solution of ammonium formate and acetonitrile at a ratio of 60:40. The flow rate was set at 0.3 mL min−1. The detection was performed by multiple reactions monitored in a positive ion mode via electrospray ionization. The transitions were monitored by m/z 279.1 → 188.9 for MH and m/z 429.0 → 206.9 for IS. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 0.70–278.29 ng mL−1, with a lower limit of quantification of 0.70 ng mL−1. The intra- and inter-day precision values were below 11.9 % relative standard deviation, and the accuracy was from 90.5 to 107.5 %. The recovery was from 85.7 to 89.5 %. The LC–MS/MS method was applied to quantify the MH in hippocampus tissue compared with that in plasma after intragastric administration of MH (9 mg kg−1) to rats. The results showed that the AUC(0–480), AUC(0–infinity), and C max values of MH in plasma were much higher than those values in the hippocampus of rats. Our study established a sensitive, reliable, and specific LC–MS/MS method for quantification of MH and confirmed the existence of MH in the rat hippocampus, which may contribute to antidepression mechanism research for MH in further study.
Chromatographia 02/2015; 78(3-4). DOI:10.1007/s10337-014-2838-y
• ##### Article: Pankaj Vadgama and Serban Petu (Eds): Detection Challenges in Clinical Diagnostics
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ABSTRACT: Advances in clinical diagnostic devices are moving exponentially, and it is believed that this sector is only at the beginning of the curve. Star Trek fans will point to the medical ‘Tricorder’ as the ultimate end result of clinical diagnostic research, but will accept it is probably several centuries away from reality. In contrast, tens of millions of blood samples are routinely drawn daily to be followed by automated and highly efficient analysis to determine the origins, presence or incipient onset of potential illnesses. Most results are guides, rather than specific indicators, that include glucose, electrolytes, blood fats, thyroid function, kidney function, blood cell counts, PSA tests and other ELISA evaluations. Many researchers are currently evaluating the presence of cancer marker proteins with an ever increasing success rate. It is clear once a diagnostic method is clinically approved and automated it becomes a huge resource of relevant and valuable information to the medica ...
Chromatographia 02/2015; 78(3-4). DOI:10.1007/s10337-014-2833-3
• ##### Article: Variations in GC–MS Response Between Analytes and Deuterated Analogs
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ABSTRACT: Isotopic analogs are commonly used as appropriate internal standards. It was observed that analytes usually have higher mass responses than their equimolar deuterated analogs leading to quantification discrepancy. The standard addition method was adopted on dimethyl azelate (DMA) and d 6-dimethyl azelate (d 6-DMA) to investigate possible reasons for this behavior. Cross contribution of mass responses, intermolecular deuterium-hydrogen exchange during chromatographic separation, and deviation in mass ionization response of C-H against C-D bonds were studied. GC-MS analysis revealed that neither cross contribution of ions nor H2/H exchange was responsible for the difference in responses between DMA and d 6-DMA. On the other hand, a study of carbon nucleus relaxation conducted by 13C-NMR showed that relaxation rate of carbonyl carbon in d 6-DMA is faster than DMA (9 and 3 s−1, respectively). This indicates rapid interaction between spin of deuterium nucleus with spin of unpaired electrons in the structure. Accordingly, DMA has more electrons in triplet/singlet state (i.e., unpaired electrons) in each time moment promoting propagation of radicalization reactions inside the electron impact chamber. In conclusion, this should increase the response of total ion current (TIC) and generate overestimated results for equimolar ratios of analytes such as dimethyl azelate, dimethyl adipate and dimethyl phthalate against their deuterated counterparts.
Chromatographia 02/2015; 78(3-4):251-258. DOI:10.1007/s10337-014-2842-2
• ##### Article: Novel Anion Exchangers with Spatially Distant Trimethylammonium Groups in Linear and Branched Hydrophilic Functional Layers
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ABSTRACT: Novel polystyrene–divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) based anion exchangers having branched structure of ion exchange functional groups are prepared and characterised. Two proposed synthetic methods include acylation of PS-DVB microspherical particles followed by reductive amination with dimethylamine or methylamine, which results in obtaining tertiary or secondary amino groups on the surface, respectively. Further alkylation of amino groups was provided by reaction with either (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride or glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride, which allowed the simultaneous insertion of trimethylammonium functional group and hydrophilic spacer into the structure. The other considered option is reaction with diglycidyl ethers, which requires further amination of terminal epoxide rings with trimethylamine. The proposed approaches resulted in preparation of the ion exchangers with extended linear or branched anion exchange structure with trimethylammonium groups located at a distance from the surface and connected via hydrophilic linkers. The ion exchange selectivity and separation efficiency of obtained anion exchangers are studied for the model mixture of inorganic anions (F−, HCOO−, Cl−, NO2−, Br−, NO3−, H $${\text{PO}}_{ 4}^{2 - }$$ and $${\text{SO}}_{4}^{ 2- }$$ ) using hydroxide eluents. The adsorbents with branched ion exchange layer having three positively charged sites in the structure of attached groups demonstrate superior column efficiencies and better peak symmetry as compared with anion exchanger having linear structure with two positively charged sites in the chain. In case of branched anion exchangers the calculated values of column efficiencies for polarisable NO3− and Br− are 44,000 and 50,000 N/m, respectively, and significantly higher than 7,000 and 8,000 N/m obtained for anion exchanger with linear structure of the ion exchange layer.
Chromatographia 01/2015; 78(3-4). DOI:10.1007/s10337-014-2831-5
• ##### Article: Mass Spectrometry in Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
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ABSTRACT: Mass spectrometry (MS) has a long history in which it has undergone a transformation from an instrument used in elemental analysis to a flexible tool for bio-analysis. Recent years have seen the adoption of the mass spectrometer in the (clinical) microbiology laboratory, as a tool for both research and diagnostic purposes. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS) has been the frontrunner in routine identification, enabling pathogen identification through whole cell extract profiling. However, many more MS-based applications related to clinical microbiology and the study of infectious diseases exist. This review provides an overview of recently published studies using MS for, i.e., pathogen identification, exploration of potential diagnostic makers and dosage studies, exemplifying the versatility of the technique and its potential applications in the study of microbes.
Chromatographia 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10337-014-2839-x
• ##### Article: Simultaneous Determination of Triterpenoidal Saponins in Rat Urine After Oral Administration of Pulsatilla chinensis Extract Using HPLC–MS
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of the following triterpenoidal saponins: anemoside A3, anemoside B4, 23-hydroxybetulinic acid, pulsatilloside B, pulsatilloside C, and cirenshenoside S in rat urine. The chromatographic separation was performed using a Sapphire C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) and gradient elution was used during the analysis. Anemoside A3, anemoside B4, and 23-hydroxybetulinic acid were detected with the mass spectrometer in negative ion mode monitoring at m/z 749.6/471.2, 1,219.7/749.4, 471.4/471.4 and pulsatilloside B, pulsatilloside C, and cirenshenoside S were in positive ion mode monitoring at m/z 819.4/347.2, 965.5/493.2, and 1,097.9/493.1, respectively. The calibration curves were indicative of good linearity (r 2 ≥ 0.9965) in the range of interest for each analyte. Intra-day and inter-day precision (CV %) was less than 9.1 and 8.7 %, respectively, and accuracy was between −8.4 and 8.3 %. Recovery was 81.02–102.9 %. The method is very rapid, simple, and reliable, and suitable for excretion studies. It can be routinely used for simultaneous determination of six triterpenoidal saponins in rat urine. These results indicated that the newly developed method can also be applied to studies after administration of extraction of saponins from Pulsatilla chinensis to rats.
Chromatographia 01/2015; 78(3-4). DOI:10.1007/s10337-014-2840-4
• ##### Article: Bioassay-Guided Separation and Identification of a New Anti-Lung Cancer Compound from Cordyceps militaris by Means of Off-Line Two-Dimensional Preparative Chromatography, Real-Time Cell Analysis, and X-ray Single-Crystal Diffraction
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ABSTRACT: A simple method is described for efficient isolation of compounds with anticancer activity. The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Cordyceps militaris was used as an example, and the newly developed iCELLigence real-time cell-analyzer (RTCA) ensured that only bioactive components were isolated by off-line two-dimensional preparative HPLC. Preparative separation in the first-dimension was performed on a bare silica column; 14 fractions were obtained from 18 g crude sample in eight injections. A C18 preparative column was selected for separation in the second dimension. The bioactive compound was further purified by the drowning-out crystallization method, with tetrahydrofuran and n-hexane as drowning-out anti-solvent and drowning-out agent, respectively. Purity was assessed by analytical HPLC and the chemical structure was determined by use of MS, NMR, and X-ray single crystal diffraction spectroscopy. The anticancer compound was identified as (3R,9R,10S,13S,14S,17S)-17-((2S,5R,E)-5,6-dimethylhept-3-en-2-yl)-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-dodecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[α]phenanthren-3-ol). These results indicate that the method used in this work enabled efficient isolation of a highly pure anticancer compound from an ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of Cordyceps militaris. This method also has much potential for purification of other weakly polar compounds and could enable purification of other traditional Chinese medicines.
Chromatographia 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10337-015-2849-3
• ##### Article: Analysis of Drug Interactions with Dopamine Receptor by Frontal Analysis and Cell Membrane Chromatography
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ABSTRACT: Determining the interactions between drugs and receptors is very important in revealing the activity and mechanism of drugs. The dopamine receptor was purified from rat brain tissue and immobilized on the surface of silica gel to prepare the stationary phase. From the model of frontal analysis conducted with DAR/CMC columns, the dissociation equilibrium constants (K D) were (4.87 ± 0.35) × 10−6 M for dopamine, (5.58 ± 0.20) × 10−7 M for olanzapine, (5.22 ± 0.12) × 10−7 M for quetiapine, (4.50 ± 0.37) × 10−7 M for bupropion, and (3.41 ± 0.28) × 10−7 M for domperidone. The affinity order conducted by frontal analysis had a positive correlation with the k values of the antagonists. Competitive binding study showed that domperidone, bupropion, quetiapine and olanzapine occupied certain binding sites of DAR on the column, thus hindering the association of dopamine. In addition, hydrophobic interaction was the main force for domperidone, bupropion and dopamine to bind with DAR. For quetiapine and olanzapine, hydrogen bond or Van der Waals force is the major factor contributing to the interaction. The studies showed that CMC could be applied to the investigation of drug-receptor interactions.
Chromatographia 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10337-015-2867-1
• ##### Article: Honokiol Metabolites Study in Rat Kidney Employing UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS and 13C Stable Isotope Labeling
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ABSTRACT: Kidneys are an important organ since they make a significant contribution to the metabolism and excretion of drugs in vivo. The aim of this study was to identity and tentatively elucidate honokiol metabolites in the rat kidney, after healthy rats were exposed to a 1:1 mixture of labeled 13C-honokiol and unlabeled honokiol, by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer platform. This platform is well known for its fast acquisition speed, superior sensitivity, high resolution, and excellent mass accuracy. Finally, a total of 19 metabolites belonging to phase II metabolites were identified tentatively by exact mass, and the fragmentation spectra of four metabolites are reported for the first reported time. Our results indicated that honokiol was metabolized via phase II biotransformation including sulfation, acetylation, glucuronidation and amino acid conjugation in rat kidney tissues. This is the first study focused on the honokiol biotransformation in the tissue of kidney, providing important details for a comprehensive standing of the metabolites of honokiol.
Chromatographia 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10337-015-2859-1
• ##### Article: Separation Behavior of Short Oligonucleotides by Ion-Pair Reversed-Phase Capillary Liquid Chromatography Using a Silica-Based Monolithic Column Applied to Simple Detection of SNPs
Chromatographia 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10337-015-2855-5
• ##### Article: Michael D. Holloway and Oliver Rudd: Fracking—The Operations and Environmental Consequences of Hydraulic Fracturing
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ABSTRACT: Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is a well-established technique which has been used by the oil industry for many years, but its application for the production of methane is relatively new. Its application in the USA has revolutionised gas supplies and is a contributory cause for the current dramatic drop in crude oil prices. Although methane is still a fossil fuel and its combustion produces CO2, it is much better in this respect than coal. Methane-fired electricity generation plants can reach efficiencies greater than 50 % whereas a coal-fired plant is doing well to exceed 38 %. Attempts have been made in the UK to establish trials in two areas: South Lancashire and West Sussex. These attempts have met with strong opposition from environmental bodies and local residents for a number of reasons. Early trials in Lancashire were claimed to be the cause of earth tremors. Whilst this is possibly true, even a relatively stable geological region like the UK still has several hundred earth tr ...
Chromatographia 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10337-015-2857-3
• ##### Article: Multi-Pesticide Analysis in Sediment by GC-EI-MS/MS Using Programmed Temperature Vaporization–Large Volume Injection Technique
Chromatographia 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10337-015-2876-0
• ##### Article: Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Methylphosphonic Acid Determination in Water Samples after Derivatization with p-Bromophenacyl Bromide
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ABSTRACT: Methylphosphonic acid is the most stable hydrolysis product of organophosphate nerve agents, which persist in environmental samples for a long time. A highly sensitive method of methylphosphonic acid detection in environmental waters has been developed and validated. Derivatization process and stability of p-bromophenacyl bromide methylphosphonic acid derivate were studied. Derivate was stable for 2 days and water content no greater than 7 % did not influence the reaction yield. The analyte concentration step in a rotary evaporator was employed prior to analysis. Detection of the pre-column methylphosphonic acid derivatization product was carried out using tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization after hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography separation. Evaporation recovery of 90 % was obtained. The intraday and interday repeatability were 6 and 25 %, respectively. Matrix effect influence was not observed. The hydrophilic interaction chromatography method results in excellent peak shape at adequate retention time. Developed approach successfully combines relatively fast derivatization and sample preparation with hydrophilic interaction chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry which allows to achieve the lowest limit of detection (0.1 ng mL−1) for methylphosphonic acid in spiked environmental waters in comparison with other HPLC techniques.
Chromatographia 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10337-015-2862-6
• ##### Article: A Novel Fluorinated Boron Nitride Nanotube Organic Monolithic Column for Capillary Liquid Chromatography
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ABSTRACT: A novel HPLC stationary phase based on fluorinated boron nitride nanotubes (F-BNNTs) incorporated into a monolithic polymeric material was developed. This F-BNNT stationary phase was synthesized to combine the analytical performance of boron nitride nanotubes and the fluorine-based unique selectivity for polar compounds. This F-BNNT column appeared to work well when fluorinated or halogenated compounds were encountered.
Chromatographia 01/2015; 78(1-2). DOI:10.1007/s10337-014-2814-6