Cancer Research (CANCER RES )

Publisher: American Association for Cancer Research; International Cancer Research Foundation; William H. Donner Foundation, American Association for Cancer Research

Journal description

Cancer Research publishes significant, original studies in all areas of basic, clinical, translational, epidemiological, and prevention research devoted to the study of cancer and cancer-related biomedical sciences. Scientific topics include: biochemistry; chemical, physical, and viral carcinogenesis and mutagenesis; clinical investigations including clinical trials; endocrinology; epidemiology and prevention; experimental therapeutics; immunology and immunotherapy including biological therapy; molecular biology and genetics; radiobiology and radiation oncology; tumor biology; and virology. Thus its publication scope covers all subfields of cancer research. Papers are stringently reviewed and only those that report results of novel, timely, and significant research and meet high standards of scientific merit will be accepted for publication.

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Not published yet
2014 Impact Factor Not published yet
2013 Impact Factor 9.284
2012 Impact Factor 8.65
2011 Impact Factor 7.856
2010 Impact Factor 8.234
2009 Impact Factor 7.543
2008 Impact Factor 7.514
2007 Impact Factor 7.672
2006 Impact Factor 7.656
2005 Impact Factor 7.616
2004 Impact Factor 7.69
2003 Impact Factor 8.649
2002 Impact Factor 8.318
2001 Impact Factor 8.302
2000 Impact Factor 8.46
1999 Impact Factor 8.614
1998 Impact Factor 8.37
1997 Impact Factor 8.426
1996 Impact Factor 8.958
1995 Impact Factor 8.206
1994 Impact Factor 6.822
1993 Impact Factor 6.011
1992 Impact Factor 5.156

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 8.58
Cited half-life 8.00
Immediacy index 1.54
Eigenfactor 0.30
Article influence 3.08
Website Cancer Research website
Other titles Cancer chemotherapy screening data., Cancer research (Chicago, Ill.), Cancer research
ISSN 0008-5472
OCLC 1553285
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

American Association for Cancer Research

  • Pre-print
    • Archiving status unclear
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • NIH authors may post authors' own version in PubMed Central for release 12 months after publication
    • HHMI, Wellcome Trust, Cancer Research UK and UK Medical Research Council authors may deposit authors own version in Europe PMC for release 6 months after publication
    • AACR will deposit on behalf of these authors, if required
    • Authors final version may be deposited on institutional website or institutional repository if required by institution
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to the publisher PDF of article on journal website
  • Classification
    ​ white

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Radiotherapy is a curative treatment option in prostate cancer. Nevertheless, patients with high-risk prostate cancer are prone to relapse. Identification of the predictive biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of radioresistance bears promise to improve cancer therapies. In this study, we show that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity is indicative of radioresistant prostate progenitor cells with an enhanced DNA repair capacity and activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Gene expression profiling of prostate cancer cells, their radioresistant derivatives, ALDH+ and ALDH- cell populations revealed the mechanisms, which link tumor progenitors to radioresistance, including activation of WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway. We found that expression of ALDH1A1 gene is regulated by WNT signaling pathway and co-occurs with expression of β-catenin in prostate tumor specimens. Inhibition of WNT pathway led to a decrease in ALDH+ tumor progenitor population and to radiosensitization of cancer cells. Taken together, our results indicate that ALDH+ cells contribute to tumor radioresistance and their molecular targeting may enhance the effectiveness of radiotherapy.
    Cancer Research 02/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are key mediators of tumor immune surveillance and are important prognostic indicators in cancer progression. Among the various lymphocyte subsets implicated in protection against cancer are γδ T lymphocytes, which can kill tumor cells and secrete potent antitumor cytokines. By contrast, recent reports have revealed an unexpected series of protumor functions of γδ T cells in mouse models and human patients. In particular, specific γδ T-cell subsets are capable of recruiting immunosuppressive myeloid populations, inhibiting antitumor responses, and enhancing angiogenesis, thus promoting cancer progression. A common mediator of such functions appears to be the cytokine IL17, whose pathogenic effects can override the antitumor immune response orchestrated by IFNγ. Here, we review these studies and discuss their implications for the manipulation of γδ T cells in cancer immunotherapy. Cancer Res; 75(5); 1-5. ©2014 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Research 02/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pregnancy at early, but not late age, has a strong and life-long protective effect against breast cancer. The expected overall increase in breast cancer incidence demands the development of a pharmaceutical mimicry of early-age pregnancy-mediated protection. Recently, converging results from rodent models and women on molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effect of early-age pregnancy have opened the door for translational studies on pharmacologic prevention against breast cancer. In particular, alterations in Wnt and TGFβ signaling in mammary stem/progenitor cells reveal new potential targets for preventive interventions, and thus might help to significantly reduce the incidence of breast cancer in the future. Cancer Res; 1-5. ©2014 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Research 02/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: miRNAs are important regulatory elements for gene expression that are involved in diverse physiologic and pathologic processes. Canonical miRNA biogenesis consists of a two-step processing, from primary transcripts (pri-miRNA) to precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNA) mediated by Drosha in the nucleus and from pre-miRNAs to mature miRNAs mediated by Dicer in the cytoplasm. Various routes of miRNA maturation that are tightly regulated by signaling cascades and specific to an individual or a subclass of miRNAs have been recently identified. Here, we review the current findings in signaling-mediated miRNA processing as well as their potential clinical relevance in cancer. Cancer Res; 75(5); 1-9. ©2014 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Research 02/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer stem cells (BCSC) are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiation, which may destroy tumor masses but not all BCSC that can mediate relapses. In the present study, we showed that the level of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in BCSC is relatively higher than in bulk tumor cells, contributing to a relatively higher level of therapeutic resistance. We designed a highly potent small molecule inhibitor, CWP232228, which antagonizes binding of β-catenin to TCF in the nucleus. Notably, although CWP232228 inhibited the growth of both BCSC and bulk tumor cells by inhibiting β-catenin-mediated transcription, BCSC exhibited greater growth inhibition than bulk tumor cells. We also documented evidence of greater insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) expression by BCSC than by bulk tumor cells, and that CWP232228 attenuated IGF-I mediated BCSC functions. These results suggested that the inhibitory effect of CWP232228 on BCSC growth might achieved through the disruption of IGF-I activity. Taken together, our findings indicate that CWP232228 offers a candidate therapeutic agent for breast cancer that preferentially targets BCSC as well as bulk tumor cells. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Research 02/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ability of chemotherapeutic agents to induce apoptosis, predominantly via the mitochondrial (intrinsic) apoptotic pathway, is thought to be a major determinant of the sensitivity of a given cancer to treatment. Intrinsic apoptosis, regulated by the BCL-2 family, integrates diverse apoptotic signals to determine cell death commitment and then activates the nodal effector protein BAK to initiate the apoptotic cascade. In this study, we identified the tyrosine kinase BMX as a direct negative regulator of BAK function. BMX associates with BAK in viable cells and is the first kinase to phosphorylate the key tyrosine residue needed to maintain BAK in an inactive conformation. Importantly, elevated BMX expression prevents BAK activation in tumor cells treated with chemotherapeutic agents and is associated with increased resistance to apoptosis and decreased patient survival. Accordingly, BMX expression was elevated in prostate, breast and colon cancers compared to normal tissue, including in aggressive triple-negative breast cancers where BMX over-expression may be a novel biomarker. Furthermore, BMX silencing potentiated BAK activation rendering tumor cells hypersensitive to otherwise sublethal doses of clinically relevant chemotherapeutic agents. Our finding that BMX directly inhibits a core component of the intrinsic apoptosis machinery opens opportunities to improve the efficacy of existing chemotherapy by potentiating BAK-driven cell death in cancer cells. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Research 02/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: CYP3A5 is a cytochrome P450 protein that functions in the liver metabolism of many carcinogens and cancer drugs. However, it has not been thought to directly affect cancer progression. In our present study, we challenge this perspective by demonstrating that CYP3A5 is downregulated in many hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) where it has an important role as a tumor suppressor that antagonizes the malignant phenotype. CYP3A5 was downregulated in multiple cohorts of human HCC examined. Lower CYP3A5 levels were associated with more aggressive vascular invasion, poor differentiation, shorter time to disease recurrence after treatment and worse overall patient survival. Mechanistic investigations showed that CYP3A5 overexpression limited MMP2/9 function and suppressed HCC migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting AKT signaling. Notably, AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 was inhibited in CYP3A5-overexpressing HCC cells, an event requiring mTORC2 but not Rictor/mTOR complex formation. CYP3A5-induced ROS accumulation was found to be a critical upstream regulator of mTORC2 activity, consistent with evidence of reduced GSH redox activity in most clinical HCC specimens with reduced metastatic capacity. Taken together, our results defined CYP3A5 as a suppressor of HCC pathogenesis and metastasis with potential utility a prognostic biomarker. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Research 02/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The introduction of enzalutamide and abiraterone has led to improvement in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, acquired resistance to enzalutamide and abiraterone therapies frequently develops within a short period in many patients. In the present study, we developed enzalutamide resistant prostate cancer cells in an effort to understand the mechanisms of resistance. Global gene expression analysis showed that steroid biosynthesis pathway is activated in enzalutamide resistant prostate cancer cells. One of the crucial steroidogenic enzymes, AKR1C3, was significantly elevated in enzalutamide resistant cells. In addition, AKR1C3 is highly expressed in metastatic and recurrent prostate cancer and in enzalutamide resistant prostate xenograft tumors. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of the steroid metabolites revealed that androgen precursors such as cholesterol, DHEA and progesterone, as well as androgens are highly up regulated in enzalutamide resistant prostate cancer cells compared to the parental cells. Knock down of AKR1C3 expression by shRNA or inhibition of AKR1C3 enzymatic activity by indomethacin resensitized enzalutamide resistant prostate cancer cells to enzalutamide treatment both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, overexpression of AKR1C3 confers resistance to enzalutamide. Furthermore, the combination of indomethacin and enzalutamide resulted in significant inhibition of enzalutamide-resistant tumor growth. These results suggest that AKR1C3 activation is a critical resistance mechanism associated with enzalutamide resistance, targeting intracrine androgens and AKR1C3 will overcome enzalutamide resistance and improve survival of advanced prostate cancer patients. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Research 02/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BH3 mimetic drugs may be useful to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) but the sensitivity of primary tumor cells has not been fully evaluated. Here B-lineage ALL cell cultures derived form a set of primary tumors were studied with respect to sensitivity to the BH3 mimetics ABT-263 and ABT-199 and to Bcl-2 dependence and function. These ALL cells each expressed high levels of Bcl-2 and exhibited great sensitivity to ABT-263 and ABT-199, which induced rapid apoptotic cell death. BH3 profiling indicated that the ALL cultures were Bcl-2 dependent. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed a multifaceted role for Bcl-2 in binding pro-apoptotic partners including Bax, Bak, Bik and Bim. ABT-263 disrupted Bcl-2:Bim interaction in cells. Mcl-1 overexpression rendered ALL cells resistant to ABT-263 and ABT-199 with Mcl-1 assuming the role of Bcl-2 in binding Bim. Freshly isolated pediatric ALL blasts also expressed high levels of Bcl-2 and exhibited high sensitivity to Bcl-2 inhibition by the BH3 mimetic compounds. Overall, our results showed that primary ALL cultures were both more sensitive to BH3 mimetics and more uniform in their response than established ALL cell lines which have been evaluated previously. Further, the primary cell model characterized here offers a powerful system for preclinical testing of novel drug and drug combinations to treat ALL. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Research 02/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The hallmark of most cancer cells is the metabolic shift from mitochondrial to glycolytic metabolism for adapting to the surrounding environment. Although epigenetic modification is intimately linked to cancer, the molecular mechanism, by which epigenetic factors regulate cancer metabolism, is poorly understood. Here, we show that lysine specific demethylase-1 (LSD1, KDM1A) has an essential role in maintaining the metabolic shift in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Inhibition of LSD1 reduced glucose uptake and glycolytic activity, with a concurrent activation of mitochondrial respiration. These metabolic changes coexisted with the inactivation of the hypoxia-inducible factor HIF-1α, resulting in a decreased expression of GLUT1 and glycolytic enzymes. By contrast, during LSD1 inhibition, a set of mitochondrial metabolism genes was activated with the concomitant increase of methylated histone H3 at lysine 4 in the promoter regions. Consistently, both LSD1 and GLUT1 were significantly overexpressed in carcinoma tissues. These findings demonstrate the epigenetic plasticity of cancer cell metabolism, which involves an LSD1-mediated mechanism. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Research 02/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: TP53 gene mutation is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer, but additional biomarkers that can further refine the impact of the p53 pathway are needed to achieve clinical utility. In this study, we evaluated a role for the HDMX-S/FL ratio as one such biomarker, based on its association with other suppressor mutations that confer worse prognosis in sarcomas, another type of cancer that is surveilled by p53. We found that HDMX-S/FL ratio interacted with p53 mutational status to significantly improve prognostic capability in patients with breast cancer. This biomarker pair offered prognostic utility that was comparable with a microarray-based prognostic assay. Unexpectedly, the utility tracked independently of DNA-damaging treatments and instead with different tumor metastasis potential. Finally, we obtained evidence that this biomarker pair might identify patients who could benefit from anti-HDM2 strategies to impede metastatic progression. Taken together, our work offers a p53 pathway marker, which both refines our understanding of the impact of p53 activity on prognosis and harbors potential utility as a clinical tool. Cancer Res; 75(4); 1-11. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Research 02/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There has been little study of how the evolution of chemoresistance in cancer affects other aspects of disease pathogenesis. Here, we show that an important chemoresistance axis driven by cytidine deaminase (CDA) also acts to suppress cell cycle progression by regulating cyclin E-CDK2 signaling. We found that CDA was regulated by miR-484 in a gemcitabine-resistant model of breast cancer. Elevating miR-484 expression reversed the CDA effects, thereby enhancing gemcitabine sensitivity, accelerating cell proliferation and redistributing cell cycle progression. Conversely, elevating CDA to restore its expression counteracted the chemosensitization and cell proliferative effects of miR-484. In clinical specimens of breast cancer, CDA expression was frequently downregulated and inversely correlated with miR-484 expression. Moreover, high expression of CDA was associated with prolonged disease-free survival in studied cohorts. Collectively, our findings established that miR-484-modulated CDA has a dual impact in promoting chemoresistance and suppressing cell proliferation in breast cancer, illustrating the pathogenic tradeoffs associated with the evolution of chemoresistance in this malignant disease. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Research 02/2015;
  • Cancer Research 02/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glucose and amino acids are key nutrients supporting cell growth. Amino acids are imported as monomers, but an alternative route induced by oncogenic KRAS involves uptake of extracellular proteins via macropinocytosis and subsequent lysosomal degradation of these proteins as a source of amino acids. In this study, we examined the metabolism of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a poorly vascularized lethal KRAS-driven malignancy. Metabolomic comparisons of human PDAC and benign adjacent tissue revealed that tumor tissue was low in glucose, upper glycolytic intermediates, creatine phosphate, and the amino acids glutamine and serine, two major metabolic substrates. Surprisingly, PDAC accumulated essential amino acids. Such accumulation could arise from extracellular proteins being degraded through macropinocytosis in quantities necessary to meet glutamine requirements, which in turn produces excess of most other amino acids. Consistent with this hypothesis, active macropinocytosis is observed in primary human PDAC specimens. Moreover, in the presence of physiologic albumin, we found that cultured murine PDAC cells grow indefinitely in media lacking single essential amino acids and replicate once in the absence of free amino acids. Growth under these conditions was characterized by simultaneous glutamine depletion and essential amino acid accumulation. Overall, our findings argue that the scavenging of extracellular proteins is an important mode of nutrient uptake in PDAC. Cancer Res; 75(3); 544-53. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Research 02/2015; 75(3):544-53.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The bradykinin receptor B1R is overexpressed in many human cancers where it might be used as a general target for cancer imaging. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using radiolabeled kallidin derivatives to visualize B1R expression in a preclinical model of B1R-positive tumors. Three synthetic derivatives were evaluated in vitro and in vivo for receptor binding and their ability to visualize tumors by positron emission tomography (PET). Enalaprilat and phosphoramidon were used to evaluate the impact of peptidases on tumor visualization. While we found that radiolabeled peptides based on the native kallidin sequence were ineffective at visualizing B1R-positive tumors, peptidase inhibition with phosphoramidon greatly enhanced B1R visualization in vivo. Two stabilized derivatives incorporating unnatural amino acids ((68)Ga-SH01078 and (68)Ga-P03034) maintained receptor-binding affinities that were effective, allowing excellent tumor visualization, minimal accumulation in normal tissues and rapid renal clearance. Tumor uptake was blocked in the presence of excess competitor, confirming that the specificity of tumor accumulation was receptor-mediated. Our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for non-invasive B1R detection by PET imaging as a general tool to visualize many human cancers. Copyright © 2014, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Research 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aberrant processes driving hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are not fully understood. Lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPAR) are commonly overexpressed in HCC, but their contributions to malignant development are not well established. In this report, we show that aberrant expression of LPAR6 sustains tumorigenesis and growth of HCC. Overexpression of LPAR6 in HCC specimens associated with poor survival in a cohort of 128 patients with HCC. We took a genetic approach to elucidate how LPAR6 sustains the HCC tumorigenic process, including through an expression profiling analysis to identify genes under the control of LPAR6. RNAi-mediated attenuation of LPAR6 impaired HCC tumorigenicity in tumor xenograft assays. Expression profiling and mechanistic analyses identified Pim-3 as a pathophysiologically relevant LPAR6 target gene. In nonmalignant cells where LPAR6 overexpression was sufficient to drive malignant character, Pim-3 was upregulated at the level of transcription initiation through a STAT3-dependent mechanism. A further analysis of HCC clinical specimens validated the connection between overexpression of LPAR6 and Pim-3, high proliferation rates, and poorer survival outcomes. Together, our findings establish LPAR6 as an important theranostic target in HCC tumorigenesis. Cancer Res; 75(3); 1-12. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Research 01/2015; 75(3).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A system characterized by redundancy has various elements that are able to act in the same biological or dynamic manner, where the inhibition of one of those elements has no significant effect on the global biological outcome or on the system's dynamic behavior. Methods that aim to predict the effectiveness of cancer therapies must include evolutionary and dynamic features that would change the static view that is widely accepted. Here, we explore several important issues about mechanisms of redundancy, heterogeneity, biological importance and drug resistance and describe methodological challenges that, if overcome, would significantly contribute to cancer research. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Research 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF1) is a tumor suppressor that regulates cell fate in several cell types. Here we report an inverse correlation in expression of nuclear IRF1 and the autophagy regulator ATG7 in human breast cancer cells that directly impacts their cell fate. In mice harboring mutant Atg7, nuclear IRF1 was increased in mammary tumors, spleen, and kidney. Mechanistic investigations identified ATG7 and the cell death modulator Beclin-1 (BECN1) as negative regulators of IRF1. Silencing ATG7 or BECN1 caused estrogen receptor-α (ERα) to exit the nucleus at the time when IRF1 nuclear localization occurred. Conversely, silencing IRF1 promoted autophagy by increasing BECN1 and blunting IGF-1 receptor and mTOR survival signaling. Loss of IRF1 promoted resistance to anti-estrogens, whereas combined silencing of ATG7 and IRF1 restored sensitivity to these agents. Using a mathematical model to prompt signaling hypotheses, we developed evidence that ATG7 silencing could resensitize IRF1-attenuated cells to apoptosis through mechanisms that involve other estrogen-regulated genes. Overall, our work shows how inhibiting the autophagy proteins ATG7 and BECN1 can regulate IRF1 dependent and independent signaling pathways in ways that engender a new therapeutic strategy to attack breast cancer. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Research 01/2015;