Cancer Research (CANCER RES )

Publisher: American Association for Cancer Research; International Cancer Research Foundation; William H. Donner Foundation, American Association for Cancer Research


Cancer Research publishes significant, original studies in all areas of basic, clinical, translational, epidemiological, and prevention research devoted to the study of cancer and cancer-related biomedical sciences. Scientific topics include: biochemistry; chemical, physical, and viral carcinogenesis and mutagenesis; clinical investigations including clinical trials; endocrinology; epidemiology and prevention; experimental therapeutics; immunology and immunotherapy including biological therapy; molecular biology and genetics; radiobiology and radiation oncology; tumor biology; and virology. Thus its publication scope covers all subfields of cancer research. Papers are stringently reviewed and only those that report results of novel, timely, and significant research and meet high standards of scientific merit will be accepted for publication.

  • Impact factor
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  • 5-year impact
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  • Website
    Cancer Research website
  • Other titles
    Cancer chemotherapy screening data., Cancer research (Chicago, Ill.), Cancer research
  • ISSN
  • OCLC
  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

American Association for Cancer Research

  • Pre-print
    • Archiving status unclear
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • NIH authors may post authors' own version in PubMed Central for release 12 months after publication
    • HHMI, Wellcome Trust, Cancer Research UK and UK Medical Research Council authors may deposit authors own version in Europe PMC for release 6 months after publication
    • AACR will deposit on behalf of these authors, if required
    • Authors final version may be deposited on institutional website or institutional repository if required by institution
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to the publisher PDF of article on journal website
  • Classification
    ​ white

Publications in this journal

  • San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium; 12/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor, with metastases present at diagnosis conferring a poor prognosis. Mechanisms of dissemination are poorly understood and metastatic lesions are genetically divergent from the matched primary tumor. Effective and less toxic therapies that target both compartments have yet to be identified. Here we report that the analysis of several large non-overlapping cohorts of medulloblastoma patients reveal MET kinase as a marker of sonic hedgehog (SHH) driven medulloblastoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of phosphorylated, active MET kinase in an independent patient cohort confirmed its correlation with increased tumor relapse and poor survival, suggesting that SHH medulloblastoma patients may benefit from MET-targeted therapy. In support of this hypothesis, we found that the approved MET inhibitor foretinib could suppress MET activation, decrease tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in SHH medulloblastomas in vitro and in vivo. Foretinib penetrated the blood-brain barrier and was effective in both the primary and metastatic tumor compartments. In established mouse xenograft or transgenic models of metastatic SHH medulloblastoma, foretinib administration reduced the growth of the primary tumor, decreased the incidence of metastases and increased host survival. Taken together, our results provide a strong rationale to clinically evaluate foretinib as an effective therapy for patients with SHH-driven medulloblastoma.
    Cancer Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Improved targeted therapies are needed to combat metastatic prostate cancer. Here we report the identification of the spleen kinase SYK as a mediator of metastatic dissemination in zebrafish and mouse xenograft models of human prostate cancer. While SYK has not been implicated previously in this disease, we found that its expression is upregulated in human prostate cancers and associated with malignant progression. RNAi-mediated silencing prevented invasive outgrowth in vitro and bone colonization in vivo, effects that were reversed by wild-type but not kinase-dead SYK expression. In the absence of SYK expression, cell surface levels of the progression-associated adhesion receptors integrin α2β1 and CD44 were diminished. RNAi-mediated silencing of α2β1 phenocopied SYK depletion in vitro and in vivo, suggesting an effector role for α2β1 in this setting. Notably, pharmacological inhibitors of SYK kinase currently in Phase I-II trials for other indications interfered similarly with the invasive growth and dissemination of prostate cancer cells. Our findings offer a mechanistic rationale to reposition SYK kinase inhibitors for evaluation in patients with metastatic prostate cancer
    Cancer Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: High concentrations of adenosine in tumor microenvironments inhibit anti-tumor cytotoxic lymphocyte responses. Although T cells express inhibitory adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) that suppress their activation and inhibit immune killing of tumors, a role for myeloid-cell A2ARs in suppressing the immune response to tumors has yet to be investigated. In this study we show that the growth of transplanted syngeneic B16F10 melanoma or Lewis lung carcinoma cells is slowed in Adora2af/f-LysMCre+/- mice, which selectively lack myeloid A2ARs. Reduced melanoma growth is associated with significant increases in MHCII and IL-12 expression in tumor-associated macrophages and with >90% reductions in IL-10 expression in tumor-associated macrophages, dendritic cells and Ly6C+ or Ly6G+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Myeloid deletion of A2ARs significantly increases CD44 expression on tumor-associated T cells and NK cells. Depletion of CD8+ T cells or NK cells in tumor-bearing mice indicates that both cell types initially contribute to slowing melanoma growth in mice lacking myeloid A2A receptors, but tumor suppression mediated by CD8+ T cells is more persistent. Myeloid-selective A2AR deletion significantly reduces lung metastasis of melanomas that express luciferase (for in vivo tracking) and ovalbumin (as a model antigen.
    Cancer Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the prognostic and/or predictive value of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) pathway-related biomarkers in the phase III CLEOPATRA study of pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel versus placebo plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel as first-line treatment for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer.
    Cancer Research 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Adoptive T cell therapy using chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells (CAR-T therapy) has shown dramatic efficacy in patients with circulating lymphoma. However, eradication of solid tumors with CAR-T therapy has not been reported yet to be efficacious. In solid tumors, stroma destruction, due to MHC-restricted cross-presentation of tumor antigens to T cells, may be essential. However, CAR-Ts recognize antigens in an MHC-independent manner on cancer cells but not stroma cells. In this report, we show how CAR-Ts can be engineered to eradicate large established tumors with provision of a suitable CD28 costimulatory signal. In a HER-2-dependent tumor model, tumor rejection by HER-2-specific CAR-Ts was associated with sustained influx and proliferation of the adoptively transferred T cells. Interestingly, tumor rejection did not involve NK cells, but was associated instead with a marked increase in the level of M1 macrophages and a requirement for IFNγ receptor expression on tumor stroma cells. Our results argue that CAR-T therapy is capable of eradicating solid tumors through a combination of antigen-independent stroma destruction and antigen-specific tumor cell targeting.
    Cancer Research 10/2014;
  • Cancer Research 10/2014; 74.
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    ABSTRACT: p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling has been implicated in the regulation of processes leading to cancer development and progression. Chronic inflammation is a known risk factor for tumourigenesis, yet the precise mechanism of this association remains largely unknown. The related p38αMAPK (MAPK14) proteins p38γ (MAPK12) and p38δ (MAPK13) were recently shown to modulate the immune response, although their role in tumourigenesis remains controversial and their function in inflammation-associated cancer has not been studied. We analysed the role of p38γ and p38δ in colon cancer associated to colitis, using the azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulphate colitis-associated colon cancer model in wild type (WT), p38γ-, p38δ- and p38γ/δ-deficient (p38γ/δ-/-) mice. We found that p38γ/δ deficiency significantly decreased tumour formation, in parallel with a decrease in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. Analysis of leukocyte populations in p38γ/δ-/- mouse colon showed less macrophage and neutrophil recruitment than in WT mice. Furthermore, WT chimaeric mice with transplanted p38γ/δ-/- bone marrow (BM) had less tumours than WT mice transplanted with WT BM, whereas tumour number was significantly increased in p38γ/δ-/- chimaeric mice with WT BM compared to p38γ/δ-/- mice transplanted with p38γ/δ-/- BM. Together, our results establish that p38γ and p38δ are central to colitis-associated colon cancer formation through regulation of haematopoietic cell response to injury, and validate p38γ and p38δ as potential targets for cancer therapy.
    Cancer Research 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Acquired resistance to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a key step in the early stages of tumorigenesis. Mutations in TGF-β signaling components are rare, and little is known about development of resistance in breast cancer. On the other hand, an activated Notch pathway is known to play a substantial role in promoting breast cancer development. Here, we present evidence of crosstalk between these two pathways through HEYL. HEYL, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor and a direct target of Notch signaling, is specifically overexpressed in breast cancer. HEYL represses TGF-β activity by binding to TGF-β-activated Smads. HeyL-/- mice have defective mammary gland development with fewer terminal end buds. On the other hand, HeyL transgenic mice show accelerated mammary gland epithelial proliferation and 24% of multiparous mice develop mammary gland cancer. Therefore, repression of TGF-β signaling by Notch acting through HEYL may promote initiation of breast cancer.
    Cancer Research 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: One of the major limitations of modern cancer vaccine vectors is that, unlike infectious pathogens, to which the immune system has evolved to respond, they are not sufficiently effective in delivering tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) in an immunogenic form to intact professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) at their anatomic location. To overcome this challenge, we exploited Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2) and its type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver a TAA of choice into the cytosol of APCs in situ. We have systematically compared candidate genes from the SPI2 locus of Salmonella typhimurium in the vaccine design, using model antigens and a codon-optimized human TAA, survivin (coSVN). In a screen of 20 SPI2 promoter/effector combinations, the PsifB::sseJ pair demonstrated the maximal potency for antigen translocation in the APC cytosol, presentation to CD8 T cells, and immunogenicity in mice. Therapeutic vaccination with the PsifB::sseJ-coSVN construct (p8032) resulted in CXCR3-dependent tumor infiltration with CD8 T cells, reversal of the CD8:Treg ratio at the tumor site, and potent anti-tumor activity in a CT26 colon carcinoma model. The vaccine's immunogenicity and anti-tumor potency were further enhanced by co-administration of an NKT-cell ligand, 7WD8-5, which strongly enhanced production of IL-12 and IFNγ in vaccinated mice. Furthermore, therapeutic vaccination with p8032/7WD8-5 resulted in complete tumor regression in an A20 lymphoma model, with the generation of protective memory. Thus, oral antigen delivery via SPI2-encoded T3SS of Salmonella may be the foundation for an effective cancer vaccine platform.
    Cancer Research 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with chronic inflammation and immunosuppression mediated by myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Although chemotherapy reduces tumor burden at early stages, it tends to have limited effect on a progressive disease, possibly due to adverse effects on the immune system in dictating disease outcome. Here we show that advanced CRC patients display enhanced MDSC levels, reduced CD247 expression and that some conventional CRC chemotherapy supports the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. A FOLFOX combined therapy reduced immunosuppression whereas a FOLFIRI combined therapy enhanced immunosuppression. Mechanistic studies in a CRC mouse model revealed that FOLFIRI-like therapy including the drugs CPT11 and 5FU damaged host immune competence in a manner that limits treatment outcomes. CPT11 blocked MDSC apoptosis and myeloid cell differentiation, increasing MDSC immunosuppressive features and mouse mortality. In contrast, 5FU promoted immune recovery and tumor regression. Thus, CPT11 exhibited detrimental immunoregulatory effects that offset 5FU benefits when administered in combination. Our results highlight the importance of developing therapeutic regimens that can target both the immune system and tumor in developing improved personalized treatments for CRC.
    Cancer Research 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: PCTAIRE1 is distant relative of the cyclin-dependent kinase family that has been implicated in spermatogenesis and neuronal development, but it has not been studied in cancer. Here we report that PCTAIRE1 is expressed in prostate, breast, and cervical cancer cells where its RNAi-mediated silencing causes growth inhibition with aberrant mitosis due to defects in centrosome dynamics. PCTAIRE1 was not similarly involved in proliferation of non-transformed cells including diploid human IMR-90 fibroblasts. Through yeast two-hybrid screening we identified tumor suppressor p27 as a PCTAIRE1 interactor. In vitro kinase assays showed PCTAIRE1 phosphorylates p27 at Ser10. PCTAIRE1 silencing modulated Ser10 phosphorylation on p27 and led to its accumulation in cancer cells but not in non-transformed cells. In a mouse xenograft model of PPC1 prostate cancer, conditional silencing of PCTAIRE1 restored p27 protein expression and suppressed tumor growth. Mechanistic studies in HeLa cells showed that PCTAIRE1 phosphorylates p27 during the S and M phases of the cell cycle. Notably, p27 silencing was sufficient to rescue cells from mitotic arrest caused by PCTAIRE1 silencing. Clinically, PCTAIRE1 was highly expressed in primary breast and prostate tumors compared to adjacent normal epithelial tissues. Together our findings reveal an unexpected role for PCTAIRE1 in regulating p27 stability, mitosis and tumor growth, suggesting PCTAIRE1 as a candidate cancer therapeutic target.
    Cancer Research 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (pIC) is a synthetic dsRNA that acts as an immune agonist of TLR3 and RLR to activate dendritic and NK cells that can kill tumor cells. pIC can also trigger apoptosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells but its mechanism of action is obscure. In this study, we investigated the potential therapeutic activity of a formulation of pIC with polyethylenimine ([pIC](PEI)) in PDAC and investigated its mechanism of action. [pIC](PEI) stimulated apoptosis in PDAC cells without affecting normal pancreatic epithelial cells. Mechanistically, [pIC](PEI) repressed XIAP and survivin expression and activated an immune response by inducing MDA-5, RIG-I and NOXA. Phosphorylation of AKT was inhibited by [pIC](PEI) in PDAC and this event was critical for stimulating apoptosis through XIAP and survivin degradation. In vivo administration of [pIC](PEI) inhibited tumor growth via AKT-mediated XIAP degradation in both subcutaneous and quasi-orthotopic models of PDAC. Taken together, these results offer a preclinical proof-of-concept for the evaluation of [pIC](PEI) as an immunochemotherapy to treat pancreatic cancer.
    Cancer Research 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Alarmins are endogenous mediators that are elicited rapidly in response to danger signals, enhancing innate and adaptive immune responses by promoting the recruitment and maturation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The nucleosome-binding protein HMGN1 is a potent alarmin that binds TLR4 and induces antigen-specific Th1 immune responses, but its contributions to antitumor immunity have not been explored. We found that ovalbumin (OVA)-expressing EG7 mouse thymoma cells grew much faster in Hmgn1-deficient mice than littermate-matched controls. Tumor-bearing Hmgn1-/- mice generated fewer OVA-specific CD8 cells in the spleen than EG7-bearing Hmgn1+/+ mice, suggesting that HMGN1 supported T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. Additionally, EG7 tumors expressing HMGN1grew more slowly than control EG7 tumors, suggesting greater resistance to HMGN1-expressing tumors. This resistance relied on T cell mediated immunity because it was abolished by in vivo depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Moreover, Mice vaccinated with a DNA vector expressing an HMGN1-gp100 fusion protein manifested gp100-specific, Th1-polarized immune responses, acquiring resistance to challenge with mouse B16F1 melanoma. Overall, our findings show that HMGN1 contributes to antitumor immunity and it may offer an effective adjuvant to heighten responses to cancer vaccines.
    Cancer Research 09/2014;