British Poultry Science (BRIT POULTRY SCI )

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Description

British Poultry Science, established in 1960, is a leading international journal for poultry scientists and advisers to the poultry industry throughout the world. Over 60% of the independently refereed papers published originate outside the UK. Most typically they report the results of studies with an experimental and biological framework which either make an original contribution to fundamental science or are of obvious application to the industry. Subjects which are covered include: anatomy, embryology, biochemistry, biophysics, physiology, reproduction and genetics; behaviour, microbiology, endocrinology, nutrition, environmental science, food science, feeding stuffs and feeding, management and housing welfare, breeding, hatching, poultry meat and egg yields and quality. Papers that adopt a modelling approach or describe the scientific background to new equipment or apparatus directly relevant to the industry are also published. The journal also features rapid publication of Short Communications and Summaries of papers presented at the Spring Meeting of the UK Branch of the WPSA.

  • Impact factor
    1.15
    Hide impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    1.37
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.03
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.37
  • Website
    British Poultry Science website
  • Other titles
    British poultry science (Online)
  • ISSN
    0007-1668
  • OCLC
    39501266
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Some individual journals may have policies prohibiting pre-print archiving
    • On author's personal website or departmental website immediately
    • On institutional repository or subject-based repository after either 12 months embargo for STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Journals or 18 months embargo for SSH journals
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On a non-profit server
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statements to accompany deposits (see policy)
    • The publisher will deposit in on behalf of authors to a designated institutional repository including PubMed Central, where a deposit agreement exists with the repository
    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • SSH: Social Science and Humanities
    • Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. The objective of this study was to estimate growth parameters of carcass components (wing, thighs and drumsticks, back and breast) and organs (heart, liver, gizzard and gut) in males and females of one meat-type quail strain (Coturnix coturnix sp) and two laying strains (Coturnix coturnix japonica) designated either yellow or red. 2. A total of 1350 quail from 1 to 42 d old were distributed in a completely randomised design, with 5 replicates of each strain. The carcass component weights and body organs were analysed weekly and evaluated using the Gompertz function; growth rates were evaluated through derivative equations. 3. The meat-type strain presented the highest growth rates in carcass components and organs. Across strains, females showed the highest weight of internal organs at maturity compared to males. 4. Females had greater growth potential in breast, wings and back than males for both yellow and red laying quail.
    British Poultry Science 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. Genetic parameters were determined for the worm burden of the most common gastro-intestinal nematodes in two chicken genotypes after being exposed to free-range farming conditions for a laying period. 2. Seventeen-week-old hens of two brown genotypes, LB plus (n = 230) and LB classic (n = 230), were reared for a laying period and subjected to post-mortem parasitological examinations at 79 weeks (LB plus) or 88 weeks (LB classic) of age. 3. There was no significant difference in faecal egg counts between the genotypes. Almost all hens (> 99%) were infected with at least one nematode species. Species-specific nematode prevalence ranged from 85.8% to 99.1% between the two genotypes. Heterakis gallinarum was the most prevalent nematode (98.5%), followed by Ascaridia galli (96.2%) and Capillaria spp. (86.1%). Capillaria spp. were composed of C. obsignata (79%), C. caudinflata (16%) and C. bursata (5%). 4. All phenotypic and genetic correlations among worm counts of different parasite species were positive in combined genotypes (rP ranged from 0.05 to 0.30, rG ranged from 0.29 to 0.88). A strong genetic correlation (rG = 0.88 ± 0.34) between counts of A. galli and H. gallinarum was quantified. Heritability for total worm burden for LB plus () and LB classic respectively were 0.55 ± 0.18 and 0.55 ± 0.34 . Across both genotypes, the heritability of total worm burden was 0.56 ± 0.16. 5. In conclusion, there is a high variation attributable to genetic background of chickens in their responses to naturally acquired nematode infections. The high positive genetic correlation between counts of closely related worm species (e.g. A. galli and H. gallinarum) may indicate existence of similar genetically determined mechanism(s) in chickens for controlling these nematodes.
    British Poultry Science 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. Bacteriophages (BP) have gained increasing attention as a treatment of bacterial infection for animals. However, the data pertaining to dietary application of BP for laying hens have been limited. 2. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary BP on laying performance, egg quality, and caecal bacterial populations in laying hens. 3. The dietary BP used in this experiment was a mixture of individual BP targeting Salmonella Gallinarum, Salmonella Pullorum, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Derby, and Staphylococcus aureus. 4. A total of 360 Hy-Line Brown laying hens of 32 weeks of age were allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 6 replicates in a completely randomised design. The basal diet was prepared, and 0.4 or 0.8 g/kg BP mixture was supplemented to the basal diet. Diets were fed to hens for 8 weeks. 5. Laying performance and egg quality were not affected by dietary treatments. As inclusion levels of BP mixture in diets were increased, the DNA copy numbers for Salmonella spp. in the caecal contents decreased linearly, whereas the DNA copy numbers for Escherichia coli in the caecal contents increased linearly. 6. Results indicate that dietary supplementation of BP mixture decreases the target Salmonella spp. populations but increases Escherichia coli populations in the gastrointestinal tract of laying hens with little impact on laying performance and egg quality.
    British Poultry Science 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) exogenous donor, and N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a NO inhibitor, on growth performance, some biochemical parameters and ovarian primordial and primary follicles of quail. 2. A total of 480 Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), 1-d-old, including both males and females, were randomly allocated into one control group and 4 treatment groups each consisting of 96 birds. The control group was fed on the basal diet, whereas the experimental groups were fed on the basal diet supplemented with 50 mg SNP /kg, 200 mg SNP/kg, 50 mg l-NAME/kg or 200 mg l-NAME /kg. 3. In the group receiving 200 mg SNP /kg, BW was lower on d 28 and d 42 compared to the control group and BWG was lower between weeks 2 and 4 compared to the control group. In the same group, BWG and feed consumption were lower compared with the control group. In the group receiving 200 mg l-NAME /kg, BW on d 42 and BWG during were lower whereas feed consumption and FCR was higher than in the control group. 4. In the groups supplemented with SNP at 50 and 200 mg/kg, serum total protein and albumin were higher than the control group; however, serum lipid profile, and liver and kidney enzymes were not affected by supplementation with SNP or l-NAME. 5. The numbers of ovarian primordial and primary follicles were greater in the group fed on the diet supplemented with 200 mg SNP /kg group compared with the control group. Supplementation at 200 mg l-NAME /kg diet reduced the number of primary follicles compared to the controls, whereas the diameter of primordial and primary follicles increased. 6. In conclusion, supplementation with SNP and l-NAME depressed quail growth. Furthermore, the increase in NO following dietary supplementation with the NO-donor SNP delayed growth from primordial to primary and primary to secondary follicle transition in quail.
    British Poultry Science 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of laying hens for an excessive L-valine (L-val) supply on laying performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function, and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total number of 720 HyLine Brown hens were allocated to 5 dietary treatments groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 24 hens, from 40 to 47 weeks of age. Graded amounts of L-val were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 3, and 4 g/kg, respectively, in the experimental diets. 3. Supplementing the diet with L-val did not affect egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR), or egg quality. The average daily feed intake response to supplemental L-val was quadratic and was maximised at 2.0 g/kg diet L-val. No differences were observed for total protein, total amino acids, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), Ca, and P concentrations among the treatments. 4. Serum albumin concentration increased significantly in response to supplemental L-val, and was also maximised at 2.0 g /kg. In addition, serum glucose increased quadratically to peak at 2.0 L-val g/kg diet. Serum free valine increased as L-val concentration increased to 2.0 g/kg diet and then decreased linearly. 5. Supplementation of L-val did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). L-val supplementation did not affect the concentrations of immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and complements (C3 and C4). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) increased significantly at 2.0 g L-val/ kg diet. 6. It is concluded that high concentrations of L-val are tolerated and can be successfully supplemented into diets without detrimental effects on laying performance or immune function of laying hens. Further studies are required to investigate if the inclusion of L-val in combination with lower protein concentrations can maintain laying performance and reduce nitrogen excretion.
    British Poultry Science 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of juniper oil (JO) dietary supplementation on the laying performance, egg traits and egg malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations of quail. 2. A total of 400 female Pharaoh quail were equally divided into 4 groups containing 100 quail (5 replicates of 20 quail each). The study included a control treatment with no diet additives, and the treatments were as follows: (Group 1) 100 mg/kg JO; (Group 2) 200 mg/kg JO; (Group 3) 300 mg/kg JO. The experiment was carried out for 60 d. 3. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences in body weight, egg weight, egg mass, egg shape index, yolk colour, egg production, feed consumption or feed efficiency. 4. The Haugh unit was increased in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control group. Dietary fortification with JO improved egg shell thickness and breaking strength compared to the control group. Furthermore, the damaged egg ratio was significantly decreased in group 3 compared to the control. The increasing concentration of JO (200 and 300 mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in egg yolk MDA concentration after 15 and 30 d of storage at 20°C. 5. It was concluded that inclusion of JO in layer diets can improve egg quality characteristics in terms of Haugh unit, egg shell thickness and breaking strength. Moreover, supplementation of JO in the diets of quail may enhance the antioxidant status of eggs, and the most effective doses of JO were 200 and 300 mg/kg.
    British Poultry Science 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. The objective was to investigate inbreeding depression for some economic traits of Mazandaran native fowls using data collected from 1992 to 2012 (21 generations) using a REML animal model of significant fixed and random effects with inbreeding of birds and dams as covariates. 2. The mean inbreeding coefficient (F) for the whole population and dams was 4.67% and 4.12%, respectively, and the most of inbred birds (75.79%) and inbred dams (72.58%) had F< 12.5%. 3. Individual and dam inbreeding trends were 0.55% and 0.53% per year. 4. Inbreeding depression for body weight at hatch, at 8 weeks and 12 weeks of age, age at sexual maturity, weight at sexual maturity, egg weight at 1st d of laying and average egg weight at weeks 28th, 30th, and 32nd weeks of laying due to 1% increase in individual inbreeding were -0.11 g,-3.1 g, -1.3 g, 0.15 d, 0.59 g, -0.05 g and -0.03 g, respectively. 5. A 1% increase in maternal inbreeding resulted in reduction of 0.06, 0.6 and 3.6 g in body weight at hatch, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of age.
    British Poultry Science 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. The pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in ducks were investigated after a single intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) or oral (PO) dose at 20 mg/kg body weight. 2. The concentrations of doxycycline in plasma samples were assayed using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a noncompartmental model. 3. After IV administration, doxycycline had a mean (±SD) distribution volume (Vz) of 1761.9±328.5 ml/kg and was slowly eliminated with a terminal half-life (t1/2λz) of 21.21±1.47 h and a total body clearance (Cl) of 57.51±9.50 ml/h(/)kg. Following PO and IM administration, doxycycline was relatively slowly absorbed - the peak concentrations (Cmax) were 17.57±4.66 μg/ml at 2 h and 25.01±4.18 μg/ml at 1.5 h, respectively. The absolute bioavailabilities (F) of doxycycline after PO and IM administration were 39.13% and 70.71%, respectively. 4. The plasma profile of doxycycline exhibited favourable pharmacokinetics characteristics in Muscovy ducks, such as wide distribution, relatively slow absorption and slow elimination, though oral bioavailability was low.
    British Poultry Science 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. The potential use of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) and/or Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) as adjuvants for culture of chicken bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (chBM-DC) was investigated. 2. Chicken dendritic cells (DC) were isolated and cultured in the presence of recombinant chicken granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4. The chBM-DC displayed typical DC morphology and expressed DC surface markers (MHC-II and CD11c). 3. Cultured chBM-DC showed effective T-cell activation in vitro, based on a mixed lymphocyte response (MLR). Flow cytometry analysis showed an increased proportion of cells expressing CD40 and CD80 in the APS-stimulated culture, compared to the control culture. In the MLR, the APS- and CpG-stimulated chBM-DC could activate T-cells more than control chBM-DC. Real-time PCR assays showed that CpG can activate the TLR21 and an inflammatory response, while APS just reduced the expression of IRF-3. 4. The results demonstrated that in vitro the adjuvant CpG can stimulate chBM-DC to mature by activation of the TLR signalling pathway, whereas the adjuvant APS stimulates maturation of chBM-DC in vitro to a lesser degree and by another mechanism.
    British Poultry Science 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. The effects of different fibre sources on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and gastrointestinal tract development were studied in growing Greylag geese (Anser anser). 2. Four experimental diets were formulated with maize straw silage (CSS), steam-exploded maize straw (SECS), steam-exploded wheat straw (SEWS), and steam-exploded rice straw (SERS) as fibre sources. A total of 224 male Greylag geese at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to one of the 4 experimental diets. 3. The birds fed on the CSS diets had higher average daily feed intakes than those fed on the steam-exploded straws. However, the 4 treatments had similar average daily gain, which contributed to significant differences in feed conversion ratios. The different fibre sources had no significant effects on the carcass characteristics. 4. The CSS-fed birds had larger gizzards and lower relative length of the caecae than the other three groups. However, the relative weights and lengths of the other gut segments, the relative weights of major organs, and the pH values of the gastrointestinal contents were similar between the 4 treatments. 5. It was concluded that straw fibres with different physicochemical properties exerted an effect on daily feed intake and gastrointestinal development, especially for the gizzard. The pre-treatment of straw had a large effect on utilisation efficiency and animal performance. Steam explosion is a promising straw pre-treatment for inclusion in diets for geese.
    British Poultry Science 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of frozen-thawed testicular cells transplanted into infertile cocks to restore spermatogenesis, and to compare two cryoprotectants (DMSO and Biofreeze). 2. A total of 24 infertile White Leghorn (WL) cocks were transplanted with cryopreserved testicular cells from fertile adult donor cocks. Both genetically close and phylogenetically distant chicken breeds were used as donor cocks. 3. Twelve out of 24 WL recipient cocks with cryopreserved testicular cells restored spermatogenesis within two months after the transplantation. Six out of 12 recipient cocks with restored spermatogenesis successfully produced progeny expressing the donor phenotype. 4. There was no difference between the cryoprotectants in cell viability after thawing or in the number of offspring produced from cryopreserved testicular tissue. 5. The present work represents the first report of production of a donor-derived healthy progeny following frozen-thawed testicular cell transplantation in adult birds. The described results may contribute to preservation of endangered avian species and to maintaining their genetic variability.
    British Poultry Science 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. This study was to evaluate the effects of supplementary dietary selenium (Se) given as sodium selenite on host immune response against necrotic enteritis (NE) in commercial broiler chickens. 2. Chicks were fed from hatching on a non-supplemented diet or diets supplemented with different levels of Se (0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 Se mg/kg). To induce NE, broiler chickens were orally infected with Eimeria maxima at 14 d of age and then with Clostridium perfringens 4 d later using our previously established NE disease model. 3. NE-associated clinical signs and host protective immunity were determined by body weight changes, intestinal lesion scores, and serum antibodies against α-toxin and NetB toxin. The effects of dietary Se on the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8LITAF, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) SF15, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), glutathione peroxidase 7 (GPx7), and avian β-defensins (AvBD) 6, 8, and 13 (following NE infection) were analysed in the intestine and spleen. 4. The results showed that dietary supplementation of newly hatched broiler chicks with 0.25 Se mg/kg from hatch significantly reduced NE-induced gut lesions compared with infected birds given a non-supplemented diet. The levels of serum antibody against the Necrotic enteritis B (NetB) toxin in the chicks fed with 0.25 and 0.50 mg/kg Se were significantly higher than the non-supplemented control group. The transcripts for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, iNOS, LITAF and GPx7, as well as AvBD6, 8 and 13 were increased in the intestine and spleen of Se-supplemented groups, whereas transcript for TNFSF15 was decreased in the intestine. 5. It was concluded that dietary supplementation with optimum levels of Se exerted beneficial effects on host immune response to NE and reduced negative consequence of NE-induced immunopathology.
    British Poultry Science 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: 1. High standards of biosecurity are known to reduce the risk of disease outbreaks; however, uptake of advice and implementation of biosecurity measures are dependent on many factors.2. This study assessed the uptake of targeted biosecurity advice by 60 laying hen farms provided during biosecurity audit visits. Advice was provided as bullet point cards focusing on specific areas identified as benefitting from improvement. These covered site entrance, site tidiness, vaccination, boot hygiene, hand hygiene, house tidiness, rodent control, fly control, red mite control and cleaning and disinfection between flocks. Background knowledge of Salmonella and biosecurity and farmers’ willingness and intent to implement additional measures were assessed.3. About 50% of the principal decision-makers had basic background knowledge of Salmonella, with 22% considered well informed; almost all agreed that biosecurity could impact on Salmonella control and many appeared willing to implement additional biosecurity measures. Sixty-three per cent of study farms were categorised using the Defra Farmer Segmentation Model as Modern Family Businesses (MFBs), with 7–11% of farms being categorised as Custodian, Lifestyle Choice, Pragmatist or Challenged Enterprise; however, categorisation, did not determine uptake of advice. The most frequently used advice cards were boot hygiene, red mite control, hand hygiene, site entrance and cleaning and disinfection; uptake of advice ranged from 54 to 80% depending on the advice card.4. Uptake of advice by the farmers was encouraging, especially considering it was being provided by people other than their usual source of biosecurity information. Those who did not implement the recommended measures cited cost, difficulty of enforcement and practicality as the main reasons. However, the positive uptake of advice and implementation of recommended measures by many farmers demonstrates that targeted advice, discussed face to face with farmers, on a small number of key areas, is a potentially effective method of providing biosecurity information to complement more lengthy formal advisory reports.
    British Poultry Science 09/2014; 55(5).
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    ABSTRACT: 1. In line with European legislation and the UK National Control Programme for Salmonella, poultry farms are sampled to establish their Salmonella status. Regular samples are collected by the farmer (operator), with annual routine (official) samples being collected by the competent authority to verify achievement of the Salmonella programme reduction target.2. To confirm sampling was being carried out effectively, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted. The aim was to identify any complicating factors the samplers encountered and the decisions made in these circumstances.3. There was good compliance with the official sampling visits, with few delays reported. However, farm-specific clothing/separate boots for non-caged houses were rarely provided by the operator, whereas boot dips and hand washing facilities were usually available. The collection of dust was often a problem for official samplers, operator boot swabs were not always moistened before sampling and both sampler groups did not always follow the recommended method for the collection of faeces from belts and scrapers.4. Overall, there was a good application of the sampling protocol, although a few areas for improvement were identified.
    British Poultry Science 09/2014; 55(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. The objective of the study was to investigate the differences in eggshell quality, bone quality and serum bone biochemistry markers associated with changes in age and dietary soybean oil levels in laying hens. 2. A total of 54, 19-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed in 18 battery cages (3 birds/cage) and randomly divided into 3 diet treatments for 90 d: control-fat (CF, 1.9% soybean oil ), moderate-fat (MF, 7% soybean oil ) and high-fat (HF, 10% soybean oil). 3. The hens' body weights, egg production, egg weights, eggshell thickness and femoral diameter were higher at d 90 than at d 60 or d 30. Meanwhile, feed intake, relative bone weights, all bone strength parameters and serum Ca were lower at d 90 or 60 than at d 30. 4. Compared to the CF hens, the feed intake, body weights, abdominal fat pad weights and serum alkaline phosphatase activity were elevated in MF or HF hens. The eggshell thickness, relative femoral and tibial weight, femoral stiffness, femoral modulus, tibial mixed force, serum calcium and phosphorus levels were lower in MF or HF hens than CF hens. 5. These findings suggest that bone loss in caged hens starts from an early stage of the laying period, and dietary oil (particularly with diets over 10% soybean oil) has harmful effects on eggshell quality, bone strength and bone mineralisation from an early stage of the laying period.
    British Poultry Science 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. Detrimental effects of in ovo administrated of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on the embryonic development of skeletal muscle were determined using histological methods. 2. A total of 420 eggs of a Ross broiler parent stock were incubated and divided into 4 groups: 1) control, 2) 5 ng AFB1/egg group, 3) 15 ng AFB1/egg group, 4) 40 ng AFB1/egg group. Test solutions were injected via the air-sac, just prior to setting the eggs in the incubator 3. Five eggs from each group were opened on different days of incubation (11d, 13d, 17d and 21d). Developmental stages of were determined according to the Hamburger-Hamilton scale and embryos were weighed. Skeletal muscle tissue samples were dissected and fixed, sectioned and stained with Crossman's trichrome and AgNOR. 4. The mean relative embryo, leg muscle and breast muscle weights of AFB1 treated groups were lower than the control group and decreased with increasing AFB1. The nucleus area and AgNOR area of the AFB1 treated groups were also lower than the control group whereas there were no significant differences in AgNOR numbers and AgNOR area/nucleus area among the treatment groups. 5. It was concluded that in ovo administrated of aflatoxin B1 adversely affected the embryonic development of skeletal muscle and that affected animals might therefore be more susceptible to skeletal and muscle disorders during the growing period.
    British Poultry Science 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. The aim of this work was to compare a group of virulence-associated characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens that had died with signs of colibacillosis against E. coli isolates from ready-to-market chicken meat in the West-Bank. 2. The isolates were investigated to determine the virulence factor profile, phylogenetic group and the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). A total of 66 avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains from different affected broiler farms and 21 E. coli isolates from ready-to-market chicken carcasses (hereinafter called meat strains) from 8 slaughter houses were analysed. 3. The overall content of virulence factors (VF) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) among APEC strains, with over 75% of APEC strains having ≥ 4 VF, while over 75% of the meat strains had less than 4 VF. The VF iss, tsh and iucD were frequently detected in APEC and meat strains, whereas cvi, papC, vat, tsh and irp2 occurred more significantly in meat strains. Phylogenetic typing showed that 67% of the meat strains belonged to group B2. Phylogroup D was predominant (50%) in the APEC strains. Using double disc diffusion and PCR, 10.6% of the APEC and 9.5% of the meat strains were determined to be ESBL positive. 4. Our findings show that the virulence factors papC, vat, irp2 and to a lesser extent tsh and cvi are significantly more prevalent in APEC strains. The results demonstrate that chicken meat can be contaminated with APEC strains (≥ 4 VF). A significant percentage of the meat strains fall in the B2 group, which is a phylogroup largely associated with human pathogenic ExPEC strains. The results of ESBL screening indicated that broiler chicken products in Palestine represent a potential reservoir of ESBL genes and therefore could be considered a possible public health risk.
    British Poultry Science 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of taurine on growth performance, meat quality, oxidative status and muscle taurine content in broilers. In Experiment 1, 50 1-d-old male Cobb chicks were given a diet supplemented with 0, 0.125, 0.50, 2.00 or 8.00 g/kg taurine from 1 to 42 d of age. In Experiment 2, 80 22-d-old male Cobb chicks were given a diet supplemented with 4.00 g/kg taurine for 0, 1, 2 or 3 weeks. Taurine contents of thigh and breast muscle increased linearly with increasing dietary taurine. Taurine supplementation for 1, 2 and 3 weeks significantly increased the taurine content of breast muscle. The taurine contents of liver and thigh meat were significantly increased by taurine supplementation for 3 weeks. The taurine contents of thigh and breast meat from broilers given a diet supplemented with 4 g/kg taurine for 3 weeks increased to 1.89 times the concentrations of the control group. There were no detrimental effects on growth performance, breast or thigh muscle yield, pH value or drip-water loss, and taurine supplementation did not affect the serum carbonyl content. Serum malondialdehyde concentration was significantly decreased by taurine supplementation for 1, 2 or 3 weeks.
    British Poultry Science 07/2014;