British journal of experimental pathology (Br J Exp Pathol )

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  • Other titles
    British journal of experimental pathology, Experimental pathology
  • ISSN
    0007-1021
  • OCLC
    1537285
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: In a carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) air pouch inflammation model, accumulation of exudate decreased at a relatively rapid rate and almost disappeared 3 days after a 2% CMC injection into the preformed air pouch. After a second injection of 2% CMC solution into the 1-day-old CMC pouch on the day following the first CMC injection, the decrease in rate of exudate was similar to the change seen after the first CMC injection. In another group of rats, 3 days after the first CMC injection when inflammation had subsided, a second injection of 2% CMC solution into the 3-day-old CMC pouch resulted in a marked increase of exudate accumulation, inflammatory cell infiltration and vascular permeability. Histologically, large numbers of macrophages accumulated in the 3-day-old CMC pouch and fibroblast proliferation and newly formed blood vessels were also visible. The enhanced exudative reaction was significantly inhibited by dexamethasone but not by indomethacin. These results indicate that the enhanced inflammatory reactions appear to be closely correlated with the increase of reactivity at the site of inflammation and the exudative reaction was not mediated by cyclo-oxygenase products.
    British journal of experimental pathology 01/1990; 70(6):705-16.
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    ABSTRACT: Epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes have a close functional interrelationship. In order to study this relationship we used computer-assisted three-dimensional morphometry (CAM) to investigate the shape and size changes of the cutaneous melanocyte in healing guinea-pig skin. The combination of CAM with osmium iodide staining and resin embedding of tissue gave excellent results and allowed qualitative and quantitative morphometric assessment of melanocytes in vertical epidermal sections. The changes in melanocytes and keratinocytes during healing of a standard 1 cm full thickness wound in the guinea-pig were studied. After an initial decrease, more melanocytes per mm2 of epidermis were seen (from 36 days). These were smaller in volume with shorter, less branched dendrites compared to controls. An unexpected finding was a late phase of melanocyte proliferation, at the end of our study period (99 days). Clearly, the complex changes in the melanocyte-keratinocyte relationship during wound healing continue throughout and beyond the period of our study.
    British journal of experimental pathology 01/1990; 70(6):679-89.
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    ABSTRACT: The effect was studied of chronic alcohol intake in the rat during pregnancy and lactation on the brown adipose tissue (BAT) in pups. The idea was to find a possible relationship to cot death since in some cot death victims increased amounts of BAT have been observed. Exposure to ethanol increased the relative weight of the brown adipose tissue in pups and enhanced both its total protein content and the activities of the oxidative enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase. In the BAT of pups sympathetic activity, as demonstrated by noradrenaline, was also increased by long-term exposure to alcohol. In theory, an increased thermogenic capacity of the BAT in the newborn together with other factors such as emotional stress and infections could lead to death from hyperthermia, in which case only non-specific morphological signs would be found in the cadaver.
    British journal of experimental pathology 01/1990; 70(6):691-5.
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    ABSTRACT: An assessment of mitochondrial bioenergetics in protein-malnourished rats indicates that there is a reduction of brain mitochondrial metabolism in protein malnutrition. Specifically, mitochondria of protein-malnourished offspring of malnourished rats exhibit (i) an enhancement of state 4 respiration, (ii) a reduction of ADP-stimulated state 3 respiration, (iii) a decrease in ADP:O ratios, (iv) reductions of FCCP-induced ATPase action and in the rates of proton and calcium ion translocation, and (v) diminished activities of redox enzymes. In general, these changes are less pronounced in malnourished weanling rats born of healthy dams. Although the exact molecular mechanism of these defects is not yet known, the alterations are definitely caused by diet-induced changes in the structure and integrity of inner mitochondrial membrane components.
    British journal of experimental pathology 01/1990; 70(6):607-19.
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    ABSTRACT: The protective effects of beta 1-adrenergic blockade with metoprolol (Betaloc Astra) were demonstrated in the gerbil model of myocardial injury provoked by acute ischaemic brain lesions. The myocardial injury was reversible and lipid droplet accumulation was its most striking morphological feature. These droplets were easy to measure in EM photographs and their size was expressed as percentage of sarcoplasmic volume. The EM data of fat accumulation were compared in hearts of carotid-ligated animals with and without metoprolol pretreatment, and in animals with the carotid isolated only, at standard intervals 3-48 h after operation. While in carotid-ligated-only animals the average myocardial fat contents rose to a peak of 1.9% at 10 h, in metoprolol pretreated animals the amount of fat was always significantly lower and started to return earlier to basal values (peak at 6 h, 1.1%). In carotid-isolated-only animals, fat accumulation peaked at 6-10 h (1.1%) and returned quickly to normal levels (0.34 +/- 0.18%). This effective pharmacological blockade with metoprolol strongly supports the concept of catecholamine mediation between acute intracranial lesions and myocardial injury. The background and significance of myocardial fat accumulation is discussed. The EM morphometry of fat droplets appears to be a suitable tool for quantification of reversible myocardial damage most useful for experimental evaluation of cardioprotective measures. As changes in succinic dehydrogenase histochemistry (from 'myofibrillar' to 'granular' pattern) correlated with EM measured fat accumulation, the simplicity and speed of the SDH method recommends itself for fast orientation about presence of myocardial damage.
    British journal of experimental pathology 01/1990; 70(6):659-67.
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    ABSTRACT: Cultured vascular endothelium secretes the enzyme lysyl oxidase which cross-links both collagen and elastin. The major reducible cross-link synthesized by cultured human umbilical arterial and venous endothelium is dihydroxylysinonorleucine (di-OH-LNL). Treatment of the cultures with the lathyrogen beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), which inhibits lysyl oxidase, inhibited synthesis of this cross-link. Cultured porcine aortic endothelium synthesized three major reducible lysine-derived cross-links: dihydroxylysinonorleucine (di-OH-LNL), hydroxylysinonorleucine (OH-LNL) and lysinonorleucine (LNL); BAPN also inhibited synthesis of these three cross-links. Earlier in-vivo observations on BAPN-treated chick embryos had shown a 20% increase in the hydration of cartilage and other tissues; the likeliest explanation was that cross-link disruption permitted the proteoglycans in cartilage to express their hydrophilic nature when freed of their collagenous network. Capillary basement membrane contains laminin, proteoglycan and type IV collagen. Following the finding of oedema in lathyritic cartilage, we would propose that agents which disrupt collagen cross-links in cultured vascular endothelium, damaging capillary basement membrane, be considered as one possible mechanism in the pathogenesis of oedema.
    British journal of experimental pathology 01/1990; 70(6):621-6.
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    ABSTRACT: We have addressed the problem of distinguishing angiogenesis induced in the chick chorioallantoic membrane by injury and inflammation from angiogenesis induced by primary stimulation. Focal, slow-release application of trypsin stimulated a localized spoke-wheel pattern of vascularity. In comparison, a range of doses up to a sublethal amount of trypsin applied generally, in liquid form, resulted in no change in DNA synthesis or vessel content, despite a transient influx of inflammatory cells. This contrasts with previous work with fibrin degradation products, histamine and heparin which each produce characteristic patterns of increased DNA synthesis leading to angiogenesis in the entire 'dropped' area of the chorioallantoic membrane. Such general application, therefore, avoids the danger of misinterpretation of focal, toxic effects.
    British journal of experimental pathology 01/1990; 70(6):627-35.
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    ABSTRACT: The pathological effect of parainfluenza type I (Sendai virus) is known to be a bronchopneumonia, which becomes a chronic pneumonia in the immunodeficient athymic (nude) mouse. The severity of this established chronic pneumonia can be dramatically altered by providing the nude mouse with humoral monoclonal antibodies which are neutralizing, and are directed against the fusion protein, of the virus. The alveolitis, which is a significant part of the pathology, is suppressed due to a reduction (greater than 90%) in the number of virus-infected alveolar macrophages present in the alveoli. This clearly identifies the infected alveolar macrophage as the primary effector cell in the pathogenesis of alveolitis caused by parainfluenza virus type I. The implications of using virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, which have little immunomodulatory toxicity, in the treatment of viral pneumonias are discussed.
    British journal of experimental pathology 01/1990; 70(6):727-35.
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    ABSTRACT: Biosynthesis of interleukin-I beta (IL-I beta) by inflammatory peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) was studied in terms of biological activity (thymocyte co-mitogenic assay), IL-I beta mRNA expression (cytoplasmic slot blot analysis) and detection of immunoreactive IL-I beta molecule (immunocytochemistry). Our findings were taken to conclude that IL-I beta expression was observed only in PEC harvested from early inflammatory site and the kinetic profile of the IL-I activity during the course of the inflammation was explained by IL-I beta mRNA expression, namely de-novo synthesis by inflammatory exudate cells. With respect to a single cell level, it was definitely proved that polymorphonuclear leucocytes were the major producer of IL-I beta during the casein-induced acute inflammation in rabbits.
    British journal of experimental pathology 01/1990; 70(6):597-606.
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    ABSTRACT: Experiments were undertaken to demonstrate and partially explain the protective effect of bovine lactoferrin (LB) when administered intravenously to mice 24 h before a challenge with a lethal dose of Escherichia coli. About 70% of mice pretreated with LB survived challenge. The survival rates in control mice treated with E. coli alone and pretreated with bovine serum albumin (BSA), were 4 and 8%, respectively. Human lactoferrin (LH) had almost the same protective effect as LB. Sufficient amounts of ferric ions were given to mice, in single and multiple doses, for full serum transferrin saturation 30 min before or after E. coli administration. The multiple dose of ferric ions did not change considerably the survival rate of mice pretreated with LB. In contrast, a single dose of ferric ions gradually decreased the survival rate of the mice after the first week of experiment. From day 14 this decrease was statistically significant in all groups of mice treated with a single dose of ferric ions when compared with mice pretreated only with LB, and the difference ranged from 25 to 35% on day 30. The possible mechanism(s) of protective effect of LB and role of iron ions are discussed.
    British journal of experimental pathology 01/1990; 70(6):697-704.
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    British journal of experimental pathology 01/1990; 70(6):737-57.
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    ABSTRACT: Fischer F344 rats were given a cyclical diet of 0.06% 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), which progressively induced oval cell proliferation, cirrhosis and hyperplastic (or neoplastic) nodules. Primary liver tumours developed from 7 months after ceasing the diet. Liver samples taken during and after AAF administration and specimens of primary tumours were processed into frozen sections and examined microscopically for morphological changes in cell populations, stained histochemically for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTase) and four phosphatases, and stained by the immunoperoxidase technique for the presence of antigens detected by seven anti-liver cell monoclonal antibodies and monoclonal antibodies to six oncoproteins. During and after AAF treatment several of the anti-liver antibodies revealed foci of aberrantly or heterogeneously-stained cells, although anti-oncoprotein antibodies showed no consistent changes. Foci of cells positive for GGTase and heterogeneous for adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) were also seen. Nodules invariably showed heterogeneous antigenicity, raised GGTase and abnormal ATPase expression. Primary tumours exhibited varying degrees of positivity, negativity and heterogeneity with the anti-liver monoclonal antibodies, and all were positive for GGTase. Comparison between various parameters and different lesions showed the greatest concordance between nodules and tumours, suggesting that nodules are probably the precursors of malignant tumours in this system.
    British journal of experimental pathology 01/1990; 70(6):647-57.
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    ABSTRACT: During the development of an acute inflammatory reaction induced in the rat pleural cavity by dextran, calcium pyrophosphate, saline or phosphate buffered saline, macrophages present at a distant site (peritoneal cavity) display an increased capacity to release prostanoids: prostaglandins, prostacyclin and thromboxane. Enhanced levels of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha were observed both in peritoneal lavages (experiments in vivo) and in macrophage supernatants after 24-h culture (experiments in vitro). TXB2 levels were mainly increased in peritoneal lavages and PGE2 in culture supernatants. In vivo, levels of prostanoids in the peritoneal cavity reached a maximum 24 h after the induction of pleurisy whatever the injected substance. In vitro, amounts of arachidonic acid metabolites were highest in supernatants of cultured peritoneal macrophages harvested 72 h after the pleural injection of dextran or CaPP. These results show that the regulation of macrophage functions is closely related to prostanoid production, especially the release of PGE2 and PGI2.
    British journal of experimental pathology 11/1989; 70(5):525-31.
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    ABSTRACT: Post-embedding immunogold electron microscopy (IAuEM) techniques utilizing low-temperature embedding in Lowicryl K4m and LR White resin were used to localize the binding sites of two sheep anti-rat glomerular basement membrane polyclonal antibodies (P1 and P2) and a sheep anti-rat lung antigen antibody. P1 localization was bilaminar in a linear pattern along the subepithelial and particularly the subendothelial aspect of the glomerular basement membrane. P2 was bound diffusely throughout the lamina densa, even at supramaximal doses. The anti-lung antibody bound in an interrupted linear pattern throughout the lung basement membrane (alveolar and capillary), and showed an intense, diffuse binding to the glomerular basement membrane. IAuEM allowed definition of the precise basement membrane binding sites of these polyclonal reagents.
    British journal of experimental pathology 11/1989; 70(5):557-65.
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    British journal of experimental pathology 11/1989; 70(5):589-96.

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