Biological Bulletin (BIOL BULL-US)

Publisher: Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, Mass.), Marine Biological Laboratory

Journal description

The Biological Bulletin publishes outstanding experimental research on the full range of biological topics and organisms, from the fields of Neurobiology, Behavior, Physiology, Ecology, Evolution, Development and Reproduction, Cell Biology, Biomechanics, Symbiosis, and Systematics. Published since 1897 by the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, The Biological Bulletin is one of America's oldest, peer-reviewed scientific journals. The journal is aimed at a general readership, and especially invites articles about those novel phenomena and contexts characteristic of intersecting fields.

Current impact factor: 1.57

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.567
2012 Impact Factor 1.234
2011 Impact Factor 1.698
2010 Impact Factor 2.475
2009 Impact Factor 1.942
2008 Impact Factor 1.949
2007 Impact Factor 1.71
2006 Impact Factor 1.649
2005 Impact Factor 1.321
2004 Impact Factor 0.995
2003 Impact Factor 1.15
2002 Impact Factor 1.243
2001 Impact Factor 1.071
2000 Impact Factor 0.895
1999 Impact Factor 0.925
1998 Impact Factor 0.766
1997 Impact Factor 0.945

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.20
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.34
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.77
Website The Biological Bulletin website
Other titles The Biological bulletin
ISSN 0006-3185
OCLC 1536426
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Marine Biological Laboratory

  • Pre-print
    • Archiving status unclear
  • Post-print
    • Archiving status unclear
  • Conditions
    • NIH authors may post final revised version of their manuscript in PubMed Central after publication
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
  • Classification
    ​ white

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Poecilogony is the production of different larval types within the same species. Although rare, poecilogonous species are ideal systems for testing the evolutionary and ecological implication of different developmental modes in marine invertebrates. Here, we described a new case of poecilogony, the Southern Hemisphere spionid Boccardia wellingtonensis. We used a combination of common-garden experiments, video recordings, and in vitro manipulations of individuals from three sites to (1) document the type of poecilogony, the brooding behavior of the mother, and the hatching process; (2) experimentally measure the effect of nurse eggs on the growth and type of larvae produced; and (3) document variation in the length of the brooding period, number of capsules, larvae, and nurse eggs of mothers from three sites to explore the potential for plasticity in reproductive traits. These results were compared to the previously reported poecilogonous species B. proboscidea, which resembles B. wellingtonensis in size, morphology, ecology, and reproductive strategy but differs in capsule structure. We found that in contrast to B. proboscidea, B. wellingtonensis produced larvae that, in isolation and in the presence of nurse eggs, developed into a wide range of offspring sizes. Mothers brood and hatch the larvae with frequent partial hatching of the brood during the brooding period. Although larvae could not liberate themselves, larvae crossed to other capsules as interconnections between capsules broke during the developmental period, potentially affecting food availability, sibling competition for nurse eggs, and cannibalism. Variation in brooding time and number of capsules deposited among sites suggest local adaptations. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.
    Biological Bulletin 04/2015; 228(2):85-97.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Asking the right questions about evolution of development, larval morphology, and life history requires knowledge of ancestral state. Two hypotheses dominate current opinion about the ancestral life cycle of bilaterians: the "larva-first" and the "intercalation" hypotheses. Until recently, the larva-first hypothesis was preeminent. This proposes that the original indirect life cycle of bilaterians included a planktotrophic larva followed by a benthic adult. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that a planktotrophic larva is plesiomorphic for echinoderms. A preponderance of developmental studies on echinoderms may have fostered a tendency to extrapolate conclusions about echinoderm development to other clades, particularly the concept that larval and juvenile/adult bodies are mostly separate entities. However, some of the recent reconstructions of bilaterian phylogeny suggest that nonfeeding larvae may have been ancestral for bilaterians, and these may have been intercalated into a life cycle that was originally direct. I review comparative data on molluscan development that suggests the trochophore-like stage is little more than a gastrula with transient structures (prototroch and apical sensory organ) to allow a temporary planktonic phase during development. Most lineage founder cells of molluscan embryos generate progeny that develop through the veliger stage into structures of the juvenile, which becomes benthic when the prototroch and apical sensory organ are lost. In light of this, the model of separate larval and juvenile bodies with the latter developing from nests of multipotent cells within the larva is inappropriate for molluscs. The intercalation hypothesis may be a better model for interpreting development of molluscs and other lophotrochozoans.
    Biological Bulletin 07/2009; 216(3):216-25.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the large variation in adult bodyplan phenotypes, a worm-shaped morphology is considered plesiomorphic for both Lophotrochozoa and Bilateria. Although almost all larval and adult lophotrochozoan worms have serially arranged ring muscles in their body wall, a comparison of their ontogeny reveals no less than six different developmental pathways that lead to this homogenous arrangement of ring muscles. However, in all taxa, with the exception of chaetodermomorph molluscs and the segmented annelids, ring muscle development starts with synchronous formation of certain pioneer myocytes, which is thus considered basal for Lophotrochozoa. Recent studies on spiralian neurogenesis revealed remnants of ancestral segmentation in echiurans and sipunculans, thus confirming molecular phylogenetic studies that propose a close relationship of these three taxa. Larval entoprocts exhibit a mosaic of larval and adult molluscan characters and, among other apomorphies, share with polyplacophoran Mollusca a complex larval apical organ and a tetraneurous nervous system, strongly suggesting a monophyletic assemblage of Entoprocta and Mollusca. The term Tetraneuralia is proposed herein for this lophotrochozoan clade. Overall, formation of the lophotrochozoan neuromuscular bodyplan appears as a highly dynamic process on both the ontogenetic and the evolutionary timescales, highlighting the importance of insights into these processes for reconstructing ancestral bodyplan features and phylogenetic relationships.
    Biological Bulletin 07/2009; 216(3):293-306.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: When conditions fluctuate unpredictably, selection may favor bet-hedging strategies that vary offspring characteristics to avoid reproductive wipe-outs in bad seasons. For many marine gastropods, the dispersal potential of offspring reflects both maternal effects (egg size, egg mass properties) and larval traits (development rate, habitat choice). I present data for eight sea slugs in the genus Elysia (Opisthobranchia: Sacoglossa), highlighting potentially adaptive variation in traits like offspring size, timing of metamorphosis, hatching behavior, and settlement response. Elysia zuleicae produced both planktotrophic and lecithotrophic larvae, a true case of poecilogony. Both intracapsular and post-hatching metamorphosis occurred among clutches of "Boselia" marcusi, E. cornigera, and E. crispata, a dispersal dimorphism often misinterpreted as poecilogony. Egg masses of E. tuca hatched for up to 16 days but larvae settled only on the adult host alga Halimeda, whereas most larvae of E. papillosa spontaneously metamorphosed 5-7 days after hatching. Investment in extra-capsular yolk may allow mothers to increase larval size relative to egg size and vary offspring size within and among clutches. Flexible strategies of larval dispersal and offspring provisioning in Elysia spp. may represent adaptations to the patchy habitat of these specialized herbivores, highlighting the evolutionary importance of variation in a range of life-history traits.
    Biological Bulletin 07/2009; 216(3):355-72.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Larval behaviors prior to settlement are important for both dispersal and the likelihood that larvae will encounter settlement habitat. The role of endogenous factors such as larval age and size are likely to be important in determining pre-settlement behavior but are less well understood than exogenous factors. In a simple experiment we explored the role of larval age and size on pre-settlement behavior in two species of bryozoan. We then used the results of this experiment to develop a theoretical model, which explored potential fitness benefits associated with phenotype-dependent changes in larval behavior (i.e., behaviors that changed depending on larval age or larval size) in a heterogeneous environment. In the experiment we delayed the metamorphosis of larvae of Bugula neritina andWatersipora arcuata and assessed the changes in the behavior of individual larvae (exploring the substratum vs. swimming away from it) as a function of larval age and size. In B. neritina, larval size had no effect on larval swimming behavior, but the youngest and oldest larvae spent more time exploring the substrate than did larvae of intermediate age. In W. arcuata, larval size and age had interactive effects on larval behavior. Our theoretical model predicted that phenotype-dependent behaviors carried a fitness benefit relative to phenotype-independent behaviors, but this depended strongly on the availability and quality of habitat elsewhere. We suggest that, taken together, larval age and size are important endogenous factors that act to affect pre-settlement larval behavior and that changes in behavior may act to increase fitness.
    Biological Bulletin 07/2009; 216(3):344-54.