The Angle Orthodontist (ANGLE ORTHOD )

Publisher: Angle Orthodontists Research and Education Foundation; Edward H. Angle Society of Orthodontists


The official publication of the Edward H. Angle Society of Orthodontists published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October and December by the EH Angle Education and Research Foundation.

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare as-received and sterilized micro-implants in order to assess the prospects of reusing them. Materials and Methods: Forty micro-implants from a single manufacturing lot were used in the study. Thirty were retrieved from patients after successful service in their mouth and with no signs of failure. The retrieved micro-implants were divided into three groups, according to method of sterilization: autoclave, gamma radiation, or ultraviolet radiation. All groups were subjected to scanning electron microscope analysis for surface morphology assessment. The specimens were immersed in a standard simulated body-fluid solution kept at 37°C in an incubator; the solution was then withdrawn at 24 hours and 30 days to evaluate aluminum and vanadium ion release by atomic absorption spectrophotometer in parts per billion. The micro-implants were then surgically implanted into the tibia of rabbits for a 1-month healing period, and the bone-implant blocks were processed for routine histologic examination. Results: This study revealed that sterilized micro-implants had altered surface topography, different ion release values, and different histologic cell reactions than the as-received micro-implants. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that retrieved self-drilling micro-implants have tip sharpness variations that require correction before insertion by bone drilling. The autoclave-sterilized micro-implants showed better histologic results than micro-implants sterilized by gamma or ultraviolet rays.
    The Angle Orthodontist 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To identify esthetic characteristics of the orbital soft tissues of attractive Italian adult women and men. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional computerized digitizers were used to collect the coordinates of facial landmarks in 199 healthy, normal subjects aged 18 to 30 years (71 women, 128 men; mean age, 22 years) and in 126 coetaneous attractive subjects (92 women, 34 men; mean age, 20 years) selected during beauty competitions. From the landmarks, six linear distances, two ratios, six angles, and two areas were calculated. Attractive subjects were compared with normal ones by computing z-scores. Results: Intercanthal width was reduced while eye fissure lengths were increased in both genders. Orbital heights (os-or) were increased only in attractive women, with a significant gender-related difference. The inclinations of the eye fissure were increased in attractive subjects, while the inclinations of the orbit were reduced. For several of the analyzed measurements, similar patterns of z-scores were observed for attractive men and women (r = .883). Conclusion: Attractive women and men had several specific esthetic characteristics in their orbital soft tissues; esthetic reference values can be used to determine optimal goals in surgical treatment.
    The Angle Orthodontist 05/2014;
  • The Angle Orthodontist 05/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: To test the feasibility of automated lateral cephalometric radiograph (LCR) superimposition using an image fitting algorithm. Materials and Using radiopaque markers, we identified seven cephalometric landmarks on three dry skulls, took digital LCRs on each in several rotated positions, and used a custom software program (XRay3D) to automatically superimpose each rotated image on the initial image using an anterior cranial base reference. We measured superimposition error at each landmark and adjusted image brightness levels to simulate potential fitting error due to exposure variation. The greatest mean error for 24 image rotation trials of less than 10 degrees was less than 0.5 mm. Rotations of 10 degrees or more were not reliably superimposed. Errors of 0.2-1.6 mm occurred for +/-10% brightness but increased exponentially with further brightness alteration. Automated superimposition of LCRs, using this fitting technique, has great potential when rotation is less than 10 degrees and brightness variation is less than 10%.
    The Angle Orthodontist 05/2010; 80(3):474-9.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine if measurements obtained from digital models from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were comparable to the traditional method of digital study models by impressions. Digital models of 30 subjects were used. InVivoDental (Anatomage, San Jose, Calif) software was used to analyze CBCT scans taken by a Galileos cone beam scanner (Sirona, Charlotte, NC) with a field of view of 15 x 15 x 15 cm(3) and a voxel resolution of 0.125 mm. OrthoCAD (Cadent, Fairview, NJ) software was used to analyze impression scans of patients at different stages of orthodontic treatment. Impressions were taken using alginate and were mailed to OrthoCAD for digital conversion. The scans were then electronically returned in digital format for analysis. The maxillary mean scores for the Little's Index were 9.65 mm for digital models and 8.87 mm for InVivoDental models, respectively. The mandibular mean scores for the Little's Index were 6.41 mm for digital models and 6.27 mm for InVivoDental models, respectively. The mean overjet measurements were 3.32 mm for digital models and 3.52 mm for InVivoDental models, respectively. The overbite measurements were 2.29 mm for digital models and 2.26 mm for InVivoDental models, respectively. The paired t-test showed no statistical significance between the differences in all measurements. CBCT digital models are as accurate as OrthoCAD digital models in making linear measurements for overjet, overbite, and crowding measurements.
    The Angle Orthodontist 05/2010; 80(3):435-9.
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    ABSTRACT: To examine changes in gravity fluctuation caused by experimentally altering the area of occlusal contact. Subjects consisted of 15 adult Japanese males with normal stomatognathic function, no missing teeth except for the third molars, and equivalent occlusal contact in the anterior and bilateral posterior regions. Silicon biteplates fabricated for each subject to evaluate gravity fluctuation in relation to changes in occlusal contact area were as follows: RP(-)-OC(+) (entire occlusal surface covered in centric occlusion); RP(+)-OC(+) (entire occlusal surface covered with bite slightly raised); Ant or Pos/RP(+)-OC(+) (anterior or posterior region selectively covered); and RP(+)-OC(-) (only retromolar pads covered, no occlusal coverage). No significant differences in gravity fluctuation were noted between subjects wearing biteplates covering the entire occlusal surface. Subjects wearing biteplates with no occlusal contact showed greater gravity fluctuation than those with occlusal contact. In addition, gravity fluctuation for the Ant/RP(+)-OC(+) group (no occlusal contact in the posterior region) was greater than for RP(+)-OC(+) and Pos/RP(+)-OC(+). However, groups with unilateral occlusal contact in the posterior region exhibited large right and left sway amplitude. These results suggest that occlusal contact, especially posterior occlusal contact, affects gravity fluctuation, and that appropriate occlusion attained by maintaining even occlusal contact in the posterior region is crucial for gravity fluctuation.
    The Angle Orthodontist 05/2010; 80(3):540-6.
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    ABSTRACT: To longitudinally investigate the caries risk levels in children undergoing orthodontic treatment with sectional brackets. Materials and A total of 42 children scheduled for orthodontic treatment with sectional orthodontic appliances participated in this study. They were divided into two groups based on decayed, missing, and filled permanent and deciduous teeth (DMFT/dmft) scores and counts of mutans streptococci (MS) prior to treatment. One was the low caries risk group (n = 26) and the other was the high caries risk group (n = 16). Paraffin-stimulated whole saliva was collected for examination of salivary flow rate, buffer capacity, and MS and lactobacilli (LB) levels before treatment, 2 and 4 months after appliance placement, and 2, 4, and 8 months after appliance removal. The pretreatment salivary flow rates, buffer capacity, and MS levels remained statistically unchanged during and after active orthodontic treatment in both groups. The levels of LB in the high caries risk group were significantly elevated by appliance placement, but upon appliance removal started to fall significantly and came a little short of the pretreatment levels. In the low caries risk group, the pretreatment levels of LB remained statistically unchanged during and after treatment. There were no significant differences in salivary flow rate or buffer capacity, but there were significant differences in MS and LB scores between the two groups at every measurement time. In children undergoing orthodontic treatment with sectional brackets, LB levels are an important part in making caries risk assessment.
    The Angle Orthodontist 05/2010; 80(3):509-14.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether oral cleansing agents affect the essential work of fracture (EWF) and plastic work of fracture (PWF) for two types of orthodontic thermoplastic retainer materials. Polyethylene-terephthalate-glycol (PETG; Tru-Tain Splint) and polypropylene/ethylene-propylene rubber (PP-EPR) blend (Essix-C+) sheets were compared. For each material, six sets of 25 sheets were thermoformed into double-edge-notched-tension specimens; subsets of five specimens were formed with internotch distances (L) equal to 6, 8, 10, 12, or 14 mm, respectively. Sets were stored (160 hours, 25 degrees C) in air (DRY), distilled water (DW), Original Listerine (LIS), mint Crest ProHealth (CPH), 3% hydrogen peroxide (HP), or Polident solution (POL). Specimens were fractured in tension at 2.54 mm/min. Areas under load-elongation curves were measured to determine total work of fracture (W(f)). Linear regressions (W(f) vs L [n = 25]) yielded intercepts (EWF) and slopes (PWF). Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were used to evaluate differences in EWF and PWF estimates. PP-EPR blends showed higher EWFs after storage in HP vs storage in DW. PP-EPR blend showed higher EWFs after storage in CPH vs PETG. After HP storage, PP-EPR exhibited lower PWFs than with any other storage conditions. PP-EPR exhibited higher PWFs than PETG after storage in DRY, DW, and LIS. Compared with DW, none of the cleansers decreased the energy to initiate fracture. With one exception, no cleanser decreased the energy to continue plastic fracture extension. In PP-EPR blend, increased resistance to fracture initiation was observed with CPH and HP, yet, surprisingly, HP decreased resistance to plastic fracture growth.
    The Angle Orthodontist 05/2010; 80(3):554-61.
  • The Angle Orthodontist 05/2010; 80(3):i; author reply ii.
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    ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that different nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires may have dissimilar corrosion resistance in a fluoride-containing oral environment. Linear polarization test, a fast electrochemical technique, was used to evaluate the corrosion resistance, in terms of polarization resistance (R(p)), of four different commercial NiTi archwires in artificial saliva (pH 6.5) with various NaF concentrations (0%, 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5%). Two-way analysis of variance was used to analyze R(p) with the factors of archwire manufacturer and NaF concentration. Surface characterizations of archwires were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Both archwire manufacturer and NaF concentration had a significant influence on R(p) of NiTi archwires. Different surface topography was present on the test NiTi archwires that contained the similar surface chemical structure (TiO(2) and trace NiO). The surface topography did not correspond to the difference in corrosion resistance of the NiTi archwires. Increasing the NaF concentration in artificial saliva resulted in a decrease in R(p), or corrosion resistance, of all test NiTi archwires. The NiTi archwires severely corroded and showed similar corrosion resistance in 0.5% NaF-containing environment. Different NiTi archwires had dissimilar corrosion resistance in acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva, which did not correspond to the variation in the surface topography of the archwires. The presence of fluoride in artificial saliva was detrimental to the corrosion resistance of the test NiTi archwires, especially at a 0.5% NaF concentration.
    The Angle Orthodontist 05/2010; 80(3):547-53.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the accuracy and precision of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with regard to measurements of root length and marginal bone level in vitro and in vivo during the course of orthodontic treatment. Thirteen patients (aged 12-18 years) from an ongoing study and a dry skull were examined with CBCT using multiplanar reformatting for measurements of root length and marginal bone level. For in vivo evaluation of changes in root length, an index according to Malmgren et al was used, along with a modification of this method. The in vitro mean difference between physical and radiographic measurements was 0.05 mm (SD 0.75) for root length and -0.04 mm (SD 0.54) for marginal bone level. In vivo the error was <0.35 mm for root length determinations and <0.40 mm for marginal bone level assessments. Despite changes in tooth positions, the CBCT technique yields a high level of reproducibility, enhancing its usefulness in orthodontic research.
    The Angle Orthodontist 05/2010; 80(3):466-73.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the treatment effects of twin-block and Mandibular Protraction Appliance-IV (MPA-IV) in the treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion. Fifty North Indian girls with Class II division 1 malocclusion, in the age range of 9-13 years, were chosen. The subjects were divided among a control group (n = 10), a twin-block group (n = 25), and an MPA group (n = 15). Pre-follow-up and post-follow-up lateral cephalograms of control subjects and pretreatment and posttreatment lateral cephalograms of the treatment subjects were traced manually and subjected to a pitchfork analysis. Neither twin-block nor MPA-IV significantly restricted the forward growth of maxilla. Mandibular growth and improvement in the sagittal skeletal relation were significantly greater in the twin-block subjects. Distal movement of the maxillary dentition and mesial movement of the mandibular dentition were more prominent in the MPA-IV subjects. Molar correction and overjet reductions were significantly greater in the treatment subjects (P < .001). Twin-block and MPA-IV were effective in correcting the molar relationships and reducing the overjet in Class II division 1 malocclusion subjects. However, twin-block contributed more skeletal effects than MPA-IV for the correction of Class II malocclusion.
    The Angle Orthodontist 05/2010; 80(3):485-91.
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    ABSTRACT: To test if leptin can be detected in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) around moving teeth, and to determine whether any changes occur during orthodontic tooth movement. An upper canine requiring distal movement served as the test tooth; the contralateral canine was used as a control tooth. The control tooth was included in the orthodontic appliance, but was not subjected to the orthodontic force. GCF sampling from the distal sites of the test and control teeth was done at baseline, 1 hour, 24 hours, and 168 hours. Leptin concentrations of the test teeth decreased in a time-dependent manner. When compared with the baseline measurement, the decrease was significant at 168 hours (P < .05). The concentration of leptin in GCF is decreased by orthodontic tooth movement; the results of the present study also suggest that leptin may have been one of the mediators responsible for orthodontic tooth movement.
    The Angle Orthodontist 05/2010; 80(3):504-8.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic attachments. Materials and The study material consisted of 60 freshly extracted bovine permanent mandibular incisor teeth. All teeth were cleaned and randomly divided into three groups of 20 specimens and etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds, washed, and air-dried. Teeth in groups 1 and 2 were contaminated with ABS and blood, respectively. Teeth in group 3 were only air-dried. Roth Generous maxillary central incisor brackets were bonded with Transbond XT to all teeth. SBS was applied using a universal test machine. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to determine significant differences in SBS between the three groups, and Tukey honestly significant post hoc test was used to compare subgroups. The mean bond strengths and standard deviations of groups 1, 2, and 3 were 9.58 +/- 0.95, 4.04 +/- 0.69, and 19.56 +/- 1.84 MPa, respectively. Specimens contaminated with blood showed a statistically significant lower in vitro SBS than those contaminated with ABS. ABS may be used clinically for obtaining a blood-free tooth surface during application of the brackets on surgically exposed, impacted teeth.
    The Angle Orthodontist 05/2010; 80(3):570-4.