Journal of the Anatomical Society of India (J Anat Soc India )

Publisher: Anatomical Society of India

Description

Official journal of the Anatomical Society of India.

  • Impact factor
    0.06
  • 5-year impact
    0.00
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.00
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  • Website
    Journal of the Anatomical Society of India website
  • Other titles
    Journal of the Anatomical Society of India (Online)
  • ISSN
    0003-2778
  • OCLC
    54075570
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction The coracoclavicular joint (CCJ) has been used as an anthropological marker for human migration, with a strong presence in Asian population. In South America, studies are scarce and incomplete. The aim was to determine the frequency of articular facet of CCJ in an osteological sample pertaining to Mapuche indigenous population in Chile. Methods We used 96 clavicles (48 left and 48 right), and the presence and characteristics of the articular facet on the conoid tubercle were determined by direct observation. Maximum transverse diameter (MTD) and maximum antero-posterior diameter (MAPD) were measured using a digital caliper. The frequency obtained was compared with other osteological studies on worldwide population. Results Articular facet was found in 22.9% of the cases. Twelve facets (12.5%) were present on the right side and 10 (10.4%) on the left, with 10 paired bilaterally and two paired unilaterally on the right side. Articular facets were very clear and prominent in 4 cases (4.2%), regularly prominent in 6 (6.3%), and poorly prominent in 14 (14.6%). The facets were usually oval, with an MTD and MAPD of 19.2 and 18.8 mm, respectively, without differences by side. Discussion Mapuche ethnic group showed the highest frequency of osteological material reported to date between native South American and global population. Their presence may not be related to a geographical migration, but to other causes such as genetic, environmental, or evolutionary adaptation factors. The study of CCJ as anthropological trait must be addressed through direct observation in osteological material, because radiological studies may underestimate its frequency.
    Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 01/2014; 63(1):19–23.
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    ABSTRACT: Lumbago is the pain of variable duration in the lumbar region of dorsal spine. It is a leading cause of physical morbidity and disability. In recent times it has become a major medical concern across the globe specially in developed and industrialized countries. The ailment is of multifactorial origin but the degenerative changes are on the pinnacle. Out of the three major degenerative changes, viz: disc degeneration, spinal stenosis and facet joint arthrosis, the later two have been reviewed and analyzed in detail as a part of Ph.D thesis work of the second author under supervision of the first author. On analysis, it is found that: a. With the advent of recent imaging techniques there has been a major paradigm shift in the diagnosis and treatment of lumbago. b. Spinal stenosis with facet joint arthrosis is always associated with lumbago whereas spinal stenosis alone may or may not be. c. The kinesiology of the spine plays an important role in the degenerative process of the spine.
    Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 01/2014; 63(1):77–84.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Suprascapular notch is situated in lateral section of margo superior of scapula as adjacent to substratum of processus coracoideus. Suprascapular nerve compression is characterized with chronic localized pain spreading to shoulder posterior and/or lateral areas, to under brachion and into the neck; and with weakness in shoulder abduction, and also atrophy of supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. In our study, we aimed to exhibit notch suprascapularis morphology and the variations of this structure which creates an important passage for suprascapular nerve. Methods This study was conducted on 100 patients (35 females–65 males). Average age of individuals included into the study was 17–87 years. Results The morphological study of the suprascapular notch revealed six different types of notches. Discussion The data we have obtained in our study are important to constitute a reference space of Turkish society. Furthermore, the fact that the differences between genders and right-left are exhibited will be helpful for surgeons who perform surgery in this region. Therefore, we conclude that the exhibited results will provide a better detail of information regarding morphometry of suprascapular notch and will aid in diagnosing and surgical treatment for shoulder pain.
    Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 01/2014; 63(1):61–66.
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    ABSTRACT: Background There are two important aspects in a relationship between malocclusion and the area of rhinology. First, there is the negative impact of nasal obstruction on normal facial growth. Second, surgical treatment of malocclusion under general anesthesia is chiefly done through nasotracheal intubation. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of nasal septal deviation and concha bullosa among patients with malocclusion as common anatomical variations that can affect nasotracheal intubation in comparision with previous studies. Methods This study was carried out on the subjects of 634 patients who underwent surgery for malocclusion. High resolution computed tomography (CT) taken preoperatively was analyzed and we measured position and angle of septal deviation and classified degree and position of pneumatization of middle concha. Results Septal deviation was found in 402 patients (63.4%). Concha bullosa was found in 328 patients (51.7%). Both of them were found in 238 patients. Three hundred twenty-five patients had the middle concha bullosa, sorted by type into true (182), lamella (80) and bulbous type (33), while for 30 patients, combination of two or more types were observed. Conclusion This study showed that the frequency of anatomical variations affecting nasotracheal intubation was high in Korean patients with malocclusion. We emphasize that more closely preoperative evaluation is necessary for patients with malocclusion planning on surgery using nasotracheal intubation.
    Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a case of a 73-year-old male with peripheral vascular disease of the lower limbs, who on shown MDCT angiography, to have a hepatomesenteric trunk (HMT), and left gastric artery (LGA) and splenic artery (SpA) arising independently from the abdominal aorta (AA), and with additional right renal arteries. The HMT with a length of 5 mm (with an aspect of a common stem origin of common hepatic artery (CHA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) arose from the anterior wall of the AA at the level of upper one-third of the L2 vertebral body. The CHA originating from the superior part of the right edge of the HMT, have an ascendent path in front of AA, and finally fork in gastroduodenal artery and hepatic artery proper. With a descending path the SMA across the left renal vein, uncinate process, and inferior part of the duodenum (D3) made an aortomesenteric angle of 61°. The aortomesenteric distance at the level of the L3 vertebral body was 51 mm. The present case is only the 13th reported HMT in association with an independently arising LGA and SpA from the AA, the first case report with this condition using MDCT angiography. Knowledge of the variations in origin and distribution of the HMT is important for planning and performing procedures such as duodenopancreatectomy, liver transplantation, and chemoembolization of the pancreas and hepatic tumors.
    Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Azygous anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is one of the extremely rare variant occuring in the A2 segment of ACA, where the bilateral A1 segments unite together to form a single midline trunk. This trunk supplies both ACA territories. It has been also referred to as the unpaired pericallosal stem artery, unpaired anterior cerebral artery, common anterior cerebral trunk and azygos pericallosal artery. Method 1.5 T (GE OPTIMA MR 360) was used for obtaining the angiographs, 114 MRA were reviewed, 90 male and 24 female, aged between 20 and 75 years. Result The Azygous type anterior cerebral artery was present in (3.5%), in (1.75%) a long trunk depicting the classical Azygous anterior cerebral artery was present, while in (1.75%) a short median stem was present. Discussion This type of presentation is a risk factor for development of aneurysm in distal part of ACA due to alteration of hemodynamics, sometimes this variation may be associated with vascular or nonvascular neurological anomalies like arteriovenous malformations, defects of septum pellucidm, Holoprosencephaly, meningomyelocele.
    Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The jugular foramen lies between the occipital bone and the petrosal portion of the temporal bone. It allows the passage of important nervous and vascular vein and inferior petrosal sinus. Glomic tumors, schwannomas, metastatic lesions and infiltrating inflammatory processes are associated with this foramen, which can account for injuries of related structures. Morphometric study of this foramen will serve as guide for imaging and operative procedures in the jugular foramen region. Material and methods One hundred and sixteen dry adult skulls of unknown sex of south Indian origin were utilized for this study. Following dimensions of the foramen were measured with the help of a digital vernier caliper: i) Maximum dimension along the long axis; ii) Maximum dimension perpendicular to the long axis; iii) Maximum height of dome of jugular fossa and iv) Distance of stylomastoid foramen from lateral margin of jugular foramen. The minimum distance of stylomastoid foramen from the lateral margin of the foramen was also measured. Observations The findings of the present study bring forth some important facts as follows: On an average, all the dimensions measured were more on the right side. The jugular fossa showed great variability ranging from total absence of fossa to deep excavation anterolaterally forming a large fossa with the well-defined roof. Conclusion These observations call for further studies on variability of jugular fossa and its possible implications. The distance of the stylomastoid foramen from the jugular foramen will serve as guide for operating surgeons using infratemporal approach during skull base surgeries.
    Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The aim of the present study is to evaluate the modulatory role of Curcumin on cerebellar Myelin basic protein (MBP) expression and associated behavioral parameters by histochemistry and Morris Water Maze (MWM) following exposure of rat pups to sodium arsenite (NaAsO2). Methods After obtaining the ethical clearance, pregnant Wistar rats were issued from the Central Animal Facility (CAF) and maintained according to the guidelines of Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA). The day of birth of pups was designated as postnatal day zero (PND 0). Mother reared pups were divided into: control (normal, sham) and experimental groups receiving NaAsO2 alone or NaAsO2 with Curcumin via intraperitoneal route (i.p.) from PND 1 to 21. Morris Water Maze (MWM) test was carried out on PND 21 to assess the exploratory behavior of the animals. Luxol Fast Blue staining and immuno-localization of MBP was carried out to evaluate the status of myelination in the cerebellar white matter. Results Animals subjected to combined exposure to Curcumin and NaAsO2 showed improved exploratory behavior besides maintenance of myelin structure and up-regulation of MBP expression in the cerebellar white matter. Discussion The up-regulation of cerebellar MBP expression together with improved exploratory behavior of animals subjected to combined exposure to Curcumin and arsenic (iAs) provides the experimental evidence for mechanistic role of Curcumin in ameliorating NaAsO2 induced neurotoxicity, probably based on the essential properties of Curcumin such as scavenging free radicals and chelation of arsenic.
    Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 01/2014; 63(1):3–11.
  • Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 01/2014;
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    Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 01/2014; 63(1):94.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Entrapment of the medial heel region nerves is often mentioned as a possible cause of heel pain. Some authors have suggested that the medial calcaneal nerve (MCN) may be involved in such heel pain. The aim of the present study is to describe the variations of the origin of the medial calcaneal nerve and its branching patterns in the medial aspect of the calcaneus which establishes an anatomical guide for diagnosis and therapy of some tarsal region diseases. Material and methods The formation and course of the MCN were traced to its branches in the distal ankle with the use of 4.8 X stereomicroscope (Carl-Zeis) or 28 X loop magnification for dissections of 36 newborn feet of formalin fixed cadavers. Results The MCN originated from the tibial nerve (TN) in 61.1% and from the lateral plantar nerve (LPN) 16.7%, bilaterally. It branches from the TN on the right side and from the LPN on the left side in 11.1%, from the LPN on the right side and from the TN on the left side in 11.1%.The MCN consisted of 1 terminal branch in 3 out of 36 feet, 2 terminal branches in 28 out of 36, and 3 terminal branches in 5 out of 36. Discussion The course and the origin of MCN on the medial aspect of the heel and its terminal branches were quite different. These variabilities will enable the surgeon to find and preserve the MCN and its terminal branches.
    Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The circle of Willis is a large arterial anastomotic ring present at the basal cistern of the brain, uniting the internal carotid and the vertebrobasilar system. Branches from this arterial ring are distributed to supply the brain. In the year 1664, Sir Thomas Willis was the first to describe the importance of the circle in maintaining collateral flow. It was observed that there is very little mixing of blood between the collateral branches of the circle. These collaterals may however open up during occlusive episodes of the proximal feeding vessels. The anatomy of the circle is known to vary considerably and functionally a complete circle is a rare finding. This type of incomplete or variant forms off the circle may diminish its role as a collateral route. Methods The morphological pattern of circle of Willis of 70 healthy individuals from northeast India was studied retrospectively using Time of Flight-Magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA). Results Only 17 (24.28%) MRA's presented with a complete (classic) circle of Willis. Most common variant observed in our study was unilateral hypoplastic posterior communicating artery (20%). Most common variant observed in the anterior circulation was unilateral hypoplastic A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery (11.42%). Discussion Most of the variant forms observed were comparable with earlier established findings. This variability (rare patterns) can be distinguished from an anomalous architecture if correlated phylogenically and embryologically.
    Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 01/2014; 63(1):67–73.
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    ABSTRACT: Non-immune hydrops foetalis is a serious disorder characterized by abnormal fluid accumulation in two or more foetal serous compartments together with generalized soft tissue oedema. It is a consequence of aberrant fluid homeostasis and prenatal cardiac failure, usually resulting from foetal anaemia caused by a variety of factors. We report one such case of a male infant aborted at 23 weeks of gestation which showed classical signs of hydrops scalp oedema, pleural effusion, ascites. In addition, hydrocephalus (enlarged head) and epidural haematomas were also observed. Hypertelorism and low set ears were the facial abnormalities noted. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of its kind to be reported with all the three conditions (non-immune hydrops foetalis, hydrocephalus, epidural haematoma) associated together. This coexistence is best explained by the common pathway of intracranial haemorrhage and the development of anaemia.
    Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 01/2014;
  • Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 01/2014; 63(1):92–93.
  • Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 01/2014; 63(1):1–2.
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    ABSTRACT: Sirenomelia is a lethal condition characterized by fusion of the lower limbs with severe malformations of the urogenital and lower gastrointestinal tract. We report a baby born with bilateral fused lower limbs, blind ended colon and single umbilical artery .Antenatal Diagnosis by ultrasonography may be difficult. Knowledge of this rare syndrome is important for health care providers.
    Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Functions of supination and flexion of the forearm and the origin of biceps brachii (BB) muscle by its two heads indicates separate role of each head. A detailed study of morphology of BB can throw light on this interesting observation. Methods In the present study, fifty cadaveric upper limbs (26 right and 24 left) were dissected. Tendons of the two heads were separated up to their insertion. Results Long head (LH) and short head (SH) were separated by a septum of loose areolar tissue in greater part of their length. Medial fibres of the SH contributed to the bicipital aponeurosis. Below the middle of the arm a thin tendon projected laterally from the posterolateral edge of SH, where some fibres of LH were seen inserting. The average length of distal biceps tendon (BT) was 7.56 cm on right and 7.64 cm on left. The width of BT was found to increase gradually towards its insertion. Above the elbow tendons were placed parallel to each other, that of LH being lateral and SH medial. Crossing the bend of the elbow twisting of fibres was observed so that SH was anterior to the LH tendon. At its insertion, SH tendon was distal to LH tendon and prolonged slightly beyond the radial tuberosity. A well defined inverted ‘J’ shaped bursa was found at the insertion. Discussion This morphological description helps in proper appreciation of the functions of Biceps brachii and may be helpful to the surgeons in the repair of ruptured BT.
    Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 01/2014; 63(1):24–29.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction To search for pre and postganglionic neurons innervating the adrenal gland by injecting retrograde tract tracer fast blue in the adrenal medulla. Methods The motor innervation of rat adrenal gland was studied by a fluorescent tract tracer fast blue. 5 μl of 2% aqueous suspension of fast blue was injected into left adrenal gland. After a survival period of 4–5 days, spinal cord, sympathetic ganglia, suprarenal ganglion, coeliac ganglion and left adrenal gland were dissected out and 15 μm thick plastic sections (JB4 Polysciences) were examined under a fluorescent microscope. Results Retrogradely labeled preganglionic neurons were observed in the ipsilateral intermediolateral column of spinal cord from T3 to L2 spinal segments with maximum concentration of labeled neurons from T6 to T11. The labeled neurons were multipolar, spherical or fusiform in shape with transverse diameter 10–20 μm and vertical diameter varying from 12 to 30 μm. Postganglionic labeled neurons were also observed in the left suprarenal ganglion and left sympathetic ganglia (T5 –L2) with maximum concentration from T6 to L1. Labeled neurons varied from 12 to 30 μm in diameter and were randomly distributed throughout the ganglion. Discussion The preganglionic neurons from T3 to L2 spinal segments and postganglionic nerve fibers from ipsilateral sympathetic ganglia (T5 –L2) and suprarenal ganglion supplying the adrenal gland might be responsible for the hormone release by regulating blood flow and also by directly innervating the parenchymal cells.
    Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 01/2014; 63(1):57–60.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Trabeculation of urinary bladder is a common complication of benign prostatic hyperplasia, a predominant cause of bladder outlet obstruction in elderly males. The musculature of the urinary bladder, known as the detrusor urinae muscle, is hypertrophied so as to overcome the bladder outlet obstruction giving rise to trabeculated appearance of the urinary bladder. Methods In the present case study, trabeculation of the urinary bladder was observed in one of the cadavers, an elderly male aged 79 years, during routine dissection of pelvis by the students in the department of anatomy. Small pieces of the bladder were excised from its walls. Seven μm thick paraffin sections were stained with Masson's trichrome stain and examined under light microscope. Results The urinary bladder was big in size weighing 240 g. Well developed large trabeculae were seen criss-crossing the walls of the bladder on its inner surface. Smooth muscle hypertrophy and abundant deposition of collagen fibres between smooth muscle fibres were the main histological features. Stained sections of the median lobe of prostate gland showed large prostatic follicles with epithelial hyperplasia and inflamed fibrous stroma suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Discussion Benign prostatic hyperplasia commonly affects elderly men above 50 years of age presenting with symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction. In the present case study, we report the histological findings of the trabeculated urinary bladder observed in an elderly male cadaver during routine dissection.
    Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 01/2014; 63(1):85–88.

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