The Anatomical Record (Anat Rec )

Publisher: American Association of Anatomists; American Society of Zoologists; Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, John Wiley and Sons


The Anatomical Record is an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists whose purpose is to rapidly publish new discoveries in the morphological aspects of molecular cellular systems and evolutionary biology. Emphasis will focus upon major new findings in the anatomical consequences of gene disruption activation or over expression upon cell tissue or organ architecture. The journal recognizes the importance of descriptive studies in contemporary research particularly when framed in the context of experimental models or questions. An important priority will be those discoveries and new advances made through the use of imaging modalities that range from those that image real-time signalling processes to ones that image protein or gene expression in individual cells tissues or whole organisms. Papers will be accepted dealing with functional morphology of any vertebrate organ system including those with a developmental comparative or evolutionary theme. With respect to developmental biology our sister journal-- Developmental Dynamics --focuses on biochemical and molecular mechanisms of vertebrate and invertebrate development. Our area of coverage will be directed primarily to the organ or system level where descriptive studies of normal and abnormal development may become an important consideration in characterizing phenotypes. In addition timely reviews of important topics related to Anatomy and its subdisciplines will be regularly included. Discontinued - now The Anatomical Record Part A and B.

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    Anatomical Record, The website
  • Other titles
    New anatomist., Anatomical record., New anatomist., The anatomical record
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  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

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John Wiley and Sons

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    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
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    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'John Wiley and Sons' is an imprint of 'Wiley'
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Publications in this journal

  • The Anatomical Record 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, finite element analysis (FEA) has emerged as a useful tool for the analysis of skeletal form-function relationships. While this approach has obvious appeal for the study of fossil specimens, such material is often fragmentary with disrupted internal architecture and can contain matrix that leads to errors in accurate segmentation. Here we examine the effects of varying the detail of segmentation and material properties of teeth on the performance of a finite element model of a Macaca fascicularis cranium within a comparative functional framework. Cranial deformations were compared using strain maps to assess differences in strain contours and Procrustes size and shape analyses, from geometric morphometrics, were employed to compare large scale deformations. We show that a macaque model subjected to biting can be made solid, and teeth altered in material properties, with minimal impact on large scale modes of deformation. Macaca models clustered tightly by bite point rather than by modelling simplification approach, and fell out as being distinct from another species. However localised fluctuations in predicted strain magnitudes were recorded with different modelling approaches, particularly over the alveolar region. This study indicates that, while any model simplification should be undertaken with care and attention to its effects, future applications of FEA to fossils with unknown internal architecture may produce reliable results with regard to general patterns of deformation, even when detail of internal bone architecture cannot be reliably modelled. Anat Rec, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Anatomical Record 12/2014; 298(1):107-121.
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    ABSTRACT: Early Miocene sloths are represented by a diversity of forms ranging from 38 to 95 kg, being registered mainly from Santacrucian Age deposits in southern-most shores of Patagonia, Argentina. Their postcranial skeleton differs markedly in shape from those of their closest living relatives (arboreal forms of less than 10 kg), Bradypus and Choloepus. In order to gain insight on functional properties of the Santacrucian sloths forelimb, musculature was reconstructed and a comparative, qualitative morphofunctional analysis was performed, allowing proposing hypotheses about biological role of the limb in substrate preferences, and locomotor strategies. The anatomy of the forelimb of Santacrucian sloths resembles more closely extant anteaters such as Tamandua and Myrmecophaga, due to the robustness of the elements, development of features related to attachment of ligaments and muscles, and conservative, pentadactylous, and strong-clawed manus. The reconstructed forelimb musculature was very well developed and resembles that of extant Pilosa (especially anteaters), although retaining the basic muscular configuration of generalized mammals. This musculature allowed application of powerful forces, especially in adduction of the forelimb, flexion and extension of the antebrachium, and manual prehension. These functional properties are congruent with both climbing and digging activities, and provide support for proposed Santacrucian sloths as good climbing mammals, possibly arboreal or semiarboreal, being also capable diggers. Their climbing strategies were limited, thus these forms relied mainly on great muscular strength and curved claws of the manus to move cautiously on branches. Anat Rec, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Anatomical Record 03/2013; 296:305-325.
  • The Anatomical Record 01/2011;
  • The Anatomical Record 01/2010; 293:1400.
  • The Anatomical Record 01/2009; 55:25-42.
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    ABSTRACT: The detailed morphology of the renal nerves in mice has not been reported previously. The aims of this study were to describe the general morphology of the extrinsic renal nerve in C57BL/6 mice, and determine its morphometric parameters. The major renal nerve innervating the left kidney was isolated in five mice. Thin sections of the nerve segments were then examined by transmission electron microscopy. The renal nerve averaged 35.4 +/- 3.6 (S.E.M.) microm in diameter and 741 +/- 104 microm in area. The renal nerve contained an average of 830 +/- 169 unmyelinated fibers and only 4.6 +/- 1.7 myelinated fibers. The axon diameter of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers averaged 2.2 +/- 0.3 microm and 0.76 +/- 0.02 microm, respectively. The diameter of the unmyelinated fibers ranged from 0.3 to 2.0 microm, and the distribution histogram was unimodal. The majority of fibers (85%) had diameters of 0.6-1.0 microm. These results are similar to those obtained for renal nerves of rats with respect to the predominance of unmyelinated fibers. However, the diameter of unmyelinated fibers is larger in rats and the distribution histogram of rat unmyelinated fibers is bimodal, in contrast to the unimodal distribution in mice. The morphological description of the renal nerves in mice provides baseline data for further investigations of the structural basis of altered autonomic reflexes. The results will be useful in analyses of genes that influence the development and structure of sympathetic and sensory innervation of the kidney in genetically manipulated mice.
    The Anatomical Record 01/2003; 268(4):399-404.
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    ABSTRACT: Piecemeal degranulation is a unique pattern of cell secretion that consists of a slow release of granule contents from cytoplasmic secretory granules, which leaves empty chambers that do not fuse with each other or with the plasma membrane. To our knowledge, no cell types other than mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils have been reported in the literature to show morphological features of piecemeal degranulation. In the present study we provide evidence for ultrastructural morphologies characteristic of piecemeal degranulation in entero-endocrine cells of the human and murine gastrointestinal epithelia. Human biopsy samples were taken from the mucosa of the distal duodenum, proximal jejunum, and colon in 10 patients undergoing endoscopic examination for malabsorption, diarrhea, and/or abdominal pain. Murine gastrointestinal samples were obtained from 10 adult C57 mice. All specimens were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) according to standard protocols. Results showed that different types of gastrointestinal entero-endocrine cells, in both humans and mice, were recognizable with ultrastructural features diagnostic for piecemeal degranulation, including specific granule and cytoplasmic changes. In the granules, the content was found to be loosely packed or diminished. Notably, altered granules did not fuse with each other or with the plasma membrane, and were characteristically intermingled with normal, resting granules. At times, the release events transformed the granules into enlarged, empty containers. Numerous entero-endocrine cells presented a rich supply of membrane-bound vesicles (50-200 nm in diameter) that were free in the cytoplasm or attached to granules. This finding of piecemeal degranulation in gastrointestinal entero-endocrine cells suggests that such a secretory model might be a general degranulation pattern in cells involved in paracrine-endocrine secretion.
    The Anatomical Record 01/2003; 268(4):353-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Acupuncture meridians traditionally are believed to constitute channels connecting the surface of the body to internal organs. We hypothesize that the network of acupuncture points and meridians can be viewed as a representation of the network formed by interstitial connective tissue. This hypothesis is supported by ultrasound images showing connective tissue cleavage planes at acupuncture points in normal human subjects. To test this hypothesis, we mapped acupuncture points in serial gross anatomical sections through the human arm. We found an 80% correspondence between the sites of acupuncture points and the location of intermuscular or intramuscular connective tissue planes in postmortem tissue sections. We propose that the anatomical relationship of acupuncture points and meridians to connective tissue planes is relevant to acupuncture's mechanism of action and suggests a potentially important integrative role for interstitial connective tissue.
    The Anatomical Record 01/2003; 269(6):257-65.
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    ABSTRACT: We prepared decalcified sagittal sections (20 microm thick) from the incisal, middle, and basal regions of the mandibular incisor of male Wistar rats aged 2, 6, 12, and 24 months, and examined the sections using polarized light microscopy. Most of the birefringent fibers appeared to run obliquely across the periodontal ligament. Birefringent fibers running parallel to the long axis of the incisor were also found in the intermediate area of the ligament. Similar fiber architecture was observed in all four age groups. Quantitative analysis showed that the retardation values of collagen were higher in the bone- and tooth-related areas and lower in the intermediate area of the ligament. The values for the bone- and tooth-related areas increased from the basal toward the incisal regions in all four age groups. Age-related changes in the retardation values were found only in the incisal region of the incisor. In the incisal region, the values for the bone- and tooth-related areas increased markedly from 2-24 months of age, whereas those for the intermediate area increased slightly but significantly with age. Our findings indicate that the degrees of molecular organization and alignment of collagen fibers in the bone- and tooth-related areas of the ligament are higher than those in the intermediate area and increase near the incisal region and with age. It is also suggested that the collagen fibers in the intermediate area remain immature along the long axis of the incisor throughout the life span of the animal.
    The Anatomical Record 01/2003; 268(4):381-7.
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that the incidence of hip fractures is increasing as the population ages, and that vascularity is one of the most important characteristics for any tissue (the proximal femur being no exception). Additionally, calcified fibrocartilage from tendon and ligament insertions comprises a significant portion of the fractional area of the proximal femur's cortical shell. The goal of the present investigation was to quantify and compare the microvascularity of the cortical bone and calcified fibrocartilage of the proximal femur in a sheep model. There were no regional differences in the vascular density of the cortical bone. However, the calcified fibrocartilage from tendon and capsular insertions were determined to be avascular, and regions of the proximal femur with insertions lacked a vascularized periosteum. If a vessel was present in the calcified fibrocartilage, it was located within an isolated region of bone tissue or osteoid. Since blood vessels appear to be a significant contributor to the health and remodeling of mineralized tissue, it is hypothesized that the large areas of avascular calcified fibrocartilage present on the elderly femoral neck may predispose these regions to damage accumulation. Therefore future research should examine the role of the vascularity to the proximal femur in the mechanisms of numerous pathological conditions, such as avascular necrosis, osteopenia, and hip fractures.
    The Anatomical Record 01/2003; 268(4):365-70.
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    ABSTRACT: Progress in paleoanthropology is impeded when new fossil materials are published but unavailable for comparative study, as is too often the case. In this commentary, we review the stages of description and analysis that new fossils must undergo and conclude that it is disingenuous to argue that fossils have not been properly "published" when descriptions and new names formulated in accordance with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature have appeared in leading scientific journals. Once such names and descriptions have been published, it is imperative that the original fossils concerned be available to the scientific community for comparative analysis, for by the very nature of science, no statement about such fossils, however carefully prepared by the original describers (or anyone else), can be regarded as definitive. Science is a system of provisional knowledge that constantly requires re-examination and testing. It cannot function as a system in which assertions have to be left unchallenged for want of free access to the primary data.
    The Anatomical Record 01/2003; 269(6):239-41.
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    ABSTRACT: The Modular Resource Center (MRC) at the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University was created in 1993 as a way to provide visual resources in support of a newly implemented problem-based curriculum in which the anatomical sciences are taught primarily in the first tutorial-based course, The Animal Body. Over two dozen modules have been created specifically in support of this course, whereas additional modules have been created in support of other basic science courses. The basic unit of organization of the MRC is a module presented in a carrel that provides students a way to study, either alone or in groups, a given topic. The topic is presented through a script and an integrated set of anatomical materials including plastinated dissected specimens, vascular casts, skeletal preparations, models, radiographs, histological slides, and photo- and electron micrographs. The key feature of this resource center is that it is not a museum; rather it is more analogous to an interactive library, that can be used for reference, study, and review, not only by veterinary students but also by faculty, interns, residents, and undergraduates. A unique aspect is that all materials have been made by veterinary students working with faculty during the summer. Although started as a resource in support of a tutorial-based curriculum, the MRC has evolved over a decade into an anatomy resource that would be highly valued in any curricular format.
    The Anatomical Record 01/2003; 269(6):249-56.