The Anatomical Record (Anat Rec )

Publisher: American Association of Anatomists; American Society of Zoologists; Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, John Wiley & Sons


The Anatomical Record is an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists whose purpose is to rapidly publish new discoveries in the morphological aspects of molecular cellular systems and evolutionary biology. Emphasis will focus upon major new findings in the anatomical consequences of gene disruption activation or over expression upon cell tissue or organ architecture. The journal recognizes the importance of descriptive studies in contemporary research particularly when framed in the context of experimental models or questions. An important priority will be those discoveries and new advances made through the use of imaging modalities that range from those that image real-time signalling processes to ones that image protein or gene expression in individual cells tissues or whole organisms. Papers will be accepted dealing with functional morphology of any vertebrate organ system including those with a developmental comparative or evolutionary theme. With respect to developmental biology our sister journal-- Developmental Dynamics --focuses on biochemical and molecular mechanisms of vertebrate and invertebrate development. Our area of coverage will be directed primarily to the organ or system level where descriptive studies of normal and abnormal development may become an important consideration in characterizing phenotypes. In addition timely reviews of important topics related to Anatomy and its subdisciplines will be regularly included. Discontinued - now The Anatomical Record Part A and B.

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  • Website
    Anatomical Record, The website
  • Other titles
    New anatomist., Anatomical record., New anatomist., The anatomical record
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  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

John Wiley & Sons

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    • Author can archive a pre-print version
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    • Author can archive a post-print version
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    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
    • On personal web site or secure external website at authors institution
    • Not allowed on institutional repository
    • JASIST authors may deposit in an institutional repository
    • Non-commercial
    • Pre-print must be accompanied with set phrase (see individual journal copyright transfer agreements)
    • Published source must be acknowledged with set phrase (see individual journal copyright transfer agreements)
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'John Wiley and Sons' is an imprint of 'Wiley-Blackwell'
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    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Early Miocene sloths are represented by a diversity of forms ranging from 38 to 95 kg, being registered mainly from Santacrucian Age deposits in southern-most shores of Patagonia, Argentina. Their postcranial skeleton differs markedly in shape from those of their closest living relatives (arboreal forms of less than 10 kg), Bradypus and Choloepus. In order to gain insight on functional properties of the Santacrucian sloths forelimb, musculature was reconstructed and a comparative, qualitative morphofunctional analysis was performed, allowing proposing hypotheses about biological role of the limb in substrate preferences, and locomotor strategies. The anatomy of the forelimb of Santacrucian sloths resembles more closely extant anteaters such as Tamandua and Myrmecophaga, due to the robustness of the elements, development of features related to attachment of ligaments and muscles, and conservative, pentadactylous, and strong-clawed manus. The reconstructed forelimb musculature was very well developed and resembles that of extant Pilosa (especially anteaters), although retaining the basic muscular configuration of generalized mammals. This musculature allowed application of powerful forces, especially in adduction of the forelimb, flexion and extension of the antebrachium, and manual prehension. These functional properties are congruent with both climbing and digging activities, and provide support for proposed Santacrucian sloths as good climbing mammals, possibly arboreal or semiarboreal, being also capable diggers. Their climbing strategies were limited, thus these forms relied mainly on great muscular strength and curved claws of the manus to move cautiously on branches. Anat Rec, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Anatomical Record 03/2013; 296:305-325.
  • The Anatomical Record 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The current study used MR imaging to determine the volume of the cerebellum and its component parts in the brain of three adult male African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and compared this with published data from Asian elephants and other mammalian species including odontocete cetaceans, primates, chiropterans, insectivores, carnivores, and artiodactyls. The cerebellum of the adult elephant has a volume of ∼925 mL (average of both African and Asian species). Allometric analysis indicates that the elephant has the largest relative cerebellum size of all mammals studied to date. In addition, both odontocete cetaceans and microchiropterans appear to have large relative cerebellar sizes. The vermal and hemispheric components of the African elephant cerebellum are both large relative to other mammals of similar brain size, however, for odontocete cetaceans the vermal component is small and the hemispheric component is large. These volumetric observations are related to life-histories and anatomies of the species investigated. The current study provides context for one aspect of the elephant brain in the broader picture of mammalian brain evolution
    The Anatomical Record 01/2012;
  • The Anatomical Record 01/2011;
  • The Anatomical Record 01/2010; 293:388-401.
  • The Anatomical Record 01/2010; 293:1400.
  • The Anatomical Record 01/2009; 55:25-42.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate age- and sex-related changes in the geometry parameters (metacarpal cortical index (MCI) and Breaking Bending Resistance Index [BBRI]) of long hand bones in a large Chuvashian cohort using cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs. The data were gathered in 1994 (557 individuals) and 2002 (513 individuals). The latter sample included 260 individuals who were studied only during the second expedition, and 253 individuals who were previously investigated in 1994. Statistical analyses included a maximum likelihood- based model-fitting technique and a t-test comparison. Our study describes age-related MCI and BBRI changes in both sexes from the age of 18 years to 84 years. At any age, the BBRI values were higher in males than in females, but MCI was greater in females than in males before age 50 and lower after that age. The study provides initial evidence of a secular trend in MCI and BBRI. In male hand bones, the cortex became relatively thicker and it better resisted bending and breaking in comparison to individuals born at the beginning of the 20th century. In females, the trend toward higher MCI values can be observed only in those born between 1936 and 1966 and the trend toward higher BBRI values stopped in 1950.
    The Anatomical Record 01/2008; 291(7):835-844.
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    ABSTRACT: The detailed morphology of the renal nerves in mice has not been reported previously. The aims of this study were to describe the general morphology of the extrinsic renal nerve in C57BL/6 mice, and determine its morphometric parameters. The major renal nerve innervating the left kidney was isolated in five mice. Thin sections of the nerve segments were then examined by transmission electron microscopy. The renal nerve averaged 35.4 +/- 3.6 (S.E.M.) microm in diameter and 741 +/- 104 microm in area. The renal nerve contained an average of 830 +/- 169 unmyelinated fibers and only 4.6 +/- 1.7 myelinated fibers. The axon diameter of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers averaged 2.2 +/- 0.3 microm and 0.76 +/- 0.02 microm, respectively. The diameter of the unmyelinated fibers ranged from 0.3 to 2.0 microm, and the distribution histogram was unimodal. The majority of fibers (85%) had diameters of 0.6-1.0 microm. These results are similar to those obtained for renal nerves of rats with respect to the predominance of unmyelinated fibers. However, the diameter of unmyelinated fibers is larger in rats and the distribution histogram of rat unmyelinated fibers is bimodal, in contrast to the unimodal distribution in mice. The morphological description of the renal nerves in mice provides baseline data for further investigations of the structural basis of altered autonomic reflexes. The results will be useful in analyses of genes that influence the development and structure of sympathetic and sensory innervation of the kidney in genetically manipulated mice.
    The Anatomical Record 01/2003; 268(4):399-404.
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    ABSTRACT: We prepared decalcified sagittal sections (20 microm thick) from the incisal, middle, and basal regions of the mandibular incisor of male Wistar rats aged 2, 6, 12, and 24 months, and examined the sections using polarized light microscopy. Most of the birefringent fibers appeared to run obliquely across the periodontal ligament. Birefringent fibers running parallel to the long axis of the incisor were also found in the intermediate area of the ligament. Similar fiber architecture was observed in all four age groups. Quantitative analysis showed that the retardation values of collagen were higher in the bone- and tooth-related areas and lower in the intermediate area of the ligament. The values for the bone- and tooth-related areas increased from the basal toward the incisal regions in all four age groups. Age-related changes in the retardation values were found only in the incisal region of the incisor. In the incisal region, the values for the bone- and tooth-related areas increased markedly from 2-24 months of age, whereas those for the intermediate area increased slightly but significantly with age. Our findings indicate that the degrees of molecular organization and alignment of collagen fibers in the bone- and tooth-related areas of the ligament are higher than those in the intermediate area and increase near the incisal region and with age. It is also suggested that the collagen fibers in the intermediate area remain immature along the long axis of the incisor throughout the life span of the animal.
    The Anatomical Record 01/2003; 268(4):381-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Acupuncture meridians traditionally are believed to constitute channels connecting the surface of the body to internal organs. We hypothesize that the network of acupuncture points and meridians can be viewed as a representation of the network formed by interstitial connective tissue. This hypothesis is supported by ultrasound images showing connective tissue cleavage planes at acupuncture points in normal human subjects. To test this hypothesis, we mapped acupuncture points in serial gross anatomical sections through the human arm. We found an 80% correspondence between the sites of acupuncture points and the location of intermuscular or intramuscular connective tissue planes in postmortem tissue sections. We propose that the anatomical relationship of acupuncture points and meridians to connective tissue planes is relevant to acupuncture's mechanism of action and suggests a potentially important integrative role for interstitial connective tissue.
    The Anatomical Record 01/2003; 269(6):257-65.
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    ABSTRACT: Sturgeons constitute a family of living "fossil" fish whose heart is related to that of other ancient fish and the elasmobranches. We have undertaken a systematic study of the structure of the sturgeon heart aimed at unraveling the relationship between the heart structure and the adaptive evolutionary changes. In a related paper, data were presented on the conus valves and the subendocardium. Here, the structure of the conus myocardium, the subepicardial tissue, and the conus-aorta transition were studied by conventional light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, actin localization by fluorescent phalloidin was used. The conus myocardium is organized into bundles whose spatial organization changes along the conus length. The variable orientation of the myocardial cell bundles may be effective in emptying the conus lumen during contraction and in preventing reflux of blood. Myocardial cell bundles are separated by loose connective tissue that contains collagen and elastin fibers, vessels, and extremely flat cells separating the cell bundles and enclosing blood vessels and collagen fibers. The ultrastructure of the myocardial cells was found to be very similar to that of other fish groups, suggesting that it is largely conservative. The subepicardium is characterized by the presence of nodular structures that contain lympho-hemopoietic (thymus-like) tissue in the young sturgeons and a large number of lymphocytes after the sturgeons reach sexual maturity. This tissue is likely implicated in the establishment and maintenance of the immune responses. The intrapericardial ventral aorta shows a middle layer of circumferentially oriented cells and internal and external layers with cells oriented longitudinally. Elastin fibers completely surround each smooth muscle cell, and the spaces between the different layers are occupied by randomly arranged collagen bundles. The intrapericardial segment of the ventral aorta is a true transitional segment whose structural characteristics are different from those of both the conus subendocardium and the rest of the ventral aorta.
    The Anatomical Record 01/2003; 268(4):388-98.
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    ABSTRACT: We characterize the urorectal septum malformation sequence (URSMS) in discordant fetal lambs and relate it to the human syndromes with which URSMS is associated. We found abnormal external genitalia, imperforate anus, and fistulous connections between the rectum, bladder, and vagina. Discordance among the dizygous twins eliminated teratogens as a likely etiologic factor. We summarize the relevant literature and propose a molecular model for the pathogenesis of the URSMS, in which alterations in sonic hedgehog and homeobox genes lead to caudal mesodermal deficiency during blastogenesis.
    The Anatomical Record 01/2003; 268(4):405-10.
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    ABSTRACT: Progress in paleoanthropology is impeded when new fossil materials are published but unavailable for comparative study, as is too often the case. In this commentary, we review the stages of description and analysis that new fossils must undergo and conclude that it is disingenuous to argue that fossils have not been properly "published" when descriptions and new names formulated in accordance with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature have appeared in leading scientific journals. Once such names and descriptions have been published, it is imperative that the original fossils concerned be available to the scientific community for comparative analysis, for by the very nature of science, no statement about such fossils, however carefully prepared by the original describers (or anyone else), can be regarded as definitive. Science is a system of provisional knowledge that constantly requires re-examination and testing. It cannot function as a system in which assertions have to be left unchallenged for want of free access to the primary data.
    The Anatomical Record 01/2003; 269(6):239-41.
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    ABSTRACT: The Modular Resource Center (MRC) at the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University was created in 1993 as a way to provide visual resources in support of a newly implemented problem-based curriculum in which the anatomical sciences are taught primarily in the first tutorial-based course, The Animal Body. Over two dozen modules have been created specifically in support of this course, whereas additional modules have been created in support of other basic science courses. The basic unit of organization of the MRC is a module presented in a carrel that provides students a way to study, either alone or in groups, a given topic. The topic is presented through a script and an integrated set of anatomical materials including plastinated dissected specimens, vascular casts, skeletal preparations, models, radiographs, histological slides, and photo- and electron micrographs. The key feature of this resource center is that it is not a museum; rather it is more analogous to an interactive library, that can be used for reference, study, and review, not only by veterinary students but also by faculty, interns, residents, and undergraduates. A unique aspect is that all materials have been made by veterinary students working with faculty during the summer. Although started as a resource in support of a tutorial-based curriculum, the MRC has evolved over a decade into an anatomy resource that would be highly valued in any curricular format.
    The Anatomical Record 01/2003; 269(6):249-56.

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