American Journal of Veterinary Research (AM J VET RES )

Publisher: American Veterinary Medical Association, American Veterinary Medical Association


The mission of the American Journal of Veterinary Research is to publish, in a timely manner, peer-reviewed reports of the highest quality research that has the clear potential to enhance the health, welfare, and performance of animals. The journal will maintain the highest ethical standards of scientific journalism and promote such standards among its contributors. In addition, the journal will foster global interdisciplinary cooperation in veterinary medical research.

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    AJVR: American Journal of Veterinary Research website
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    American journal of veterinary research, AJVR
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American Veterinary Medical Association

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Publications in this journal

  • American Journal of Veterinary Research 01/2015;
  • American Journal of Veterinary Research 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective-To determine whether stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) concentrations in serum, plasma, and synovial fluid differed among untrained, race-trained, and osteochondral-injured Thoroughbred racehorses. Animals-22 racehorses without osteochondral injury and 37 racehorses with osteochondral injury. Procedures-Horses without osteochondral injury were examined before and after 5 to 6 months of race training. Horses with osteochondral injury were undergoing arthroscopic surgery for removal of osteochondral fragments from carpal or metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joints (fetlock joints). Serum, plasma, and fetlock or carpal synovial fluid samples were obtained and analyzed for SDF-1 concentration by use of an ELISA. Results-In horses with fetlock or carpal joint injury, mean synovial fluid SDF-1 concentrations were significantly higher, serum SDF-1 concentrations were significantly lower, and synovial fluid-to-serum SDF-1 ratios were significantly higher than in untrained and trained horses. Synovial fluid SDF-1 concentrations were not significantly different between trained and untrained horses. Plasma SDF-1 concentrations were not different among the 3 groups. Results obtained with serum, compared with synovial fluid and plasma, had better sensitivity for differentiating between osteochondral-injured horses and uninjured horses. In horses with fetlock joint osteochondral injury, serum SDF-1 concentrations were correlated with radiographic and arthroscopic inflammation scores, but not arthroscopic cartilage scores. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that serum SDF-1 concentrations were more sensitive than plasma and synovial fluid concentrations for detection of osteochondral injury in the fetlock or carpal joint of racehorses. Analysis of serum and synovial SDF-1 concentrations in horses with experimentally induced joint injury may help define the onset and progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis and aid in the evaluation of anti-inflammatory treatments.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 08/2014; 75(8):722-30.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective-To determine the expression of tight junction and adherens junction proteins in duodenal mucosa samples of dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Animals-12 dogs with IBD and 6 healthy control Beagles. Procedures-Duodenal mucosa biopsy samples were endoscopically obtained from dogs with IBD and healthy control Beagles. The expression of claudin-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -7, and -8; E-cadherin; and β-catenin in the duodenal mucosa samples was determined by means of immunoblotting. The subcellular localization of E-cadherin in the duodenal mucosa samples was determined with immunofluorescence microscopy. Results-The expression of each claudin and β-catenin was not significantly different between control dogs and dogs with IBD. However, expression of E-cadherin was significantly lower in duodenal mucosa samples of dogs with IBD than it was in samples obtained from healthy control dogs. Results of immunofluorescence microscopy indicated decreased intensity of E-cadherin labeling in the tips of villi in duodenal mucosa samples obtained from 6 dogs with IBD, compared with staining intensity for other dogs. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results of this study indicated expression of claudin-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -7, and -8 and β-catenin was not significantly different between duodenal mucosa samples obtained from control dogs and those obtained from dogs with IBD. However, E-cadherin expression was significantly lower in the villus epithelium in duodenal mucosa samples obtained from dogs with IBD versus samples obtained from control dogs, which suggested that decreased expression of that protein has a role in the pathogenesis of IBD in dogs.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 08/2014; 75(8):746-51.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective-To determine the efficacy of a multivalent modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine containing a Mannheimia haemolytica toxoid to reduce pneumonia and mortality rate when administered to calves challenge exposed with virulent Bibersteinia trehalosi. Animals-74 Holstein calves. Procedures-Calves were assigned to 2 treatment groups. Calves in the control group (n = 36) were vaccinated by SC administration of 2 mL of a commercial 5-way MLV vaccine, and calves in the other group (38) were vaccinated by SC administration of a 2-mL dose of a 5-way MLV vaccine containing M haemolytica toxoid (day 0). On day 21, calves were transtracheally administered B trehalosi. Serum was obtained for analysis of antibody titers against M haemolytica leukotoxin. Nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected from calves 1 day before vaccination (day -1) and challenge exposure (day 20) and cultured to detect bacterial respiratory pathogens. Clinical scores, rectal temperature, and death attributable to the challenge-exposure organism were recorded for 6 days after challenge exposure. Remaining calves were euthanized at the end of the study. Necropsy was performed on all calves, and lung lesion scores were recorded. Results-Calves vaccinated with the MLV vaccine containing M haemolytica toxoid had significantly lower lung lesion scores, mortality rate, and clinical scores for respiratory disease, compared with results for control calves. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Administration of a multivalent MLV vaccine containing M haemolytica toxoid protected calves against challenge exposure with virulent B trehalosi by reducing the mortality rate, lung lesion scores, and clinical scores for respiratory disease.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 08/2014; 75(8):770-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective-To evaluate effects of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) on canine stifle joint biomechanics in a cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifle joint by use of a 3-D computer model simulating the stance phase of gait and to compare biomechanics in TPLO-managed, CrCL-intact, and CrCL-deficient stifle joints. Sample-Computer simulations of the pelvic limb of a Golden Retriever. Procedures-A previously developed computer model of the canine pelvic limb was used to simulate TPLO stabilization to achieve a tibial plateau angle (TPA) of 5° (baseline value) in a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for tibial fragment rotation of 13° to -3°. Ligament loads, relative tibial translation, and relative tibial rotation were determined and compared with values for CrCL-intact and CrCL-deficient stifle joints. Results-TPLO with a 5° TPA converted cranial tibial translation to caudal tibial translation and increased loads placed on the remaining stifle joint ligaments, compared with results for a CrCL-intact stifle joint. Lateral collateral ligament load was similar, medial collateral ligament load increased, and caudal cruciate ligament load decreased after TPLO, compared with loads for a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Relative tibial rotation after TPLO was similar to that of a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Stifle joint biomechanics were affected by TPLO fragment rotation. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-In the model, stifle joint biomechanics were partially improved after TPLO, compared with CrCL-deficient stifle joint biomechanics, but TPLO did not fully restore CrCL-intact stifle joint biomechanics. Overrotation of the tibial fragment negatively influenced stifle joint biomechanics by increasing caudal tibial translation.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 07/2014; 75(7):626-632.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective-To evaluate the effectiveness of a topically applied gel containing essential oils (menthol and thymol) and polyphenolic antioxidants (phloretin and ferulic acid) for reducing halitosis in dogs. Animals-20 dogs. Procedures-A blinded crossover clinical trial was conducted. Dogs received a dental cleaning and examination (periodontal examination including periodontal probing and assessments of plaque, calculus, and gingivitis). Owners then applied a gel (active or placebo) to oral soft tissues twice daily for a 4-week period. Teeth of the dogs were cleaned again, and owners applied the other gel for a 4-week period. Clinicians scored halitosis immediately after the initial cleaning and at 4 and 8 weeks, and owners scored halitosis weekly. Results-Halitosis assessment by clinicians revealed that both groups had improvement in halitosis scores. Two dogs were removed because of owner noncompliance. In the active-to-placebo group (n = 9), halitosis was significantly reduced during application of the active gel but increased during application of the placebo. Seven of 9 owners reported increased halitosis when treatment was changed from the active gel to the placebo. In the placebo-to-active group (n = 9), halitosis decreased during application of the placebo and continued to decrease during application of the active gel. Seven of 9 owners reported a decrease in halitosis with the active gel. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-An oral topically applied gel with essential oils and polyphenolic antioxidants applied daily after an initial professional dental cleaning decreased oral malodor in dogs.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 07/2014; 75(7):653-657.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective-To determine the differentiation of canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) into endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Animals-3 healthy adult Beagles. Procedures-Canine ASCs were isolated and cultured from adipose tissue, and endothelial differentiation was induced by culturing ASCs in differentiation medium. Morphological and immunophenotypic changes were monitored. Expression of endothelial-specific markers was analyzed by conventional and real-time RT-PCR assay. The in vitro and in vivo functional characteristics of the endothelial-like cells induced from canine ASCs were evaluated by use of an in vitro solubilized basement membrane tube assay, low-density lipoprotein uptake assay, and in vivo solubilized basement membrane plug assay. Results-After differentiation culture, the cells developed morphological changes, expressed EPC markers such as CD34 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, and revealed functional characteristics in vitro. Furthermore, the induced cells allowed vessel formation in solubilized basement membrane plugs in vivo. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that canine ASCs developed EPC characteristics when stimulated by differentiation medium with growth factors. Thus, differentiated canine ASC-EPCs may have the potential to provide vascularization for constructs used in regenerative medicine strategies.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 07/2014; 75(7):685-91.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective-To compare the effects of 2 NSAIDs (phenylbutazone and meloxicam) on renal function in horses. Animals-9 Thoroughbred or Standardbred mares (mean ± SD age, 5.22 ± 1.09 years [range, 2 to 12 years]; mean body weight, 470 ± 25 kg [range, 442 to 510 kg]). Procedures-A randomized blinded placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted to examine the effects of treatment with phenylbutazone, meloxicam, or a placebo (control solution) on renal responses to the administration of furosemide, dobutamine, and exercise (15 minutes at 60% of maximum heart rate). Renal function was assessed by use of bilateral ureteral catheterization for simultaneous determination of creatinine clearance, sodium excretion, and urine flow rate. Results-Both phenylbutazone and meloxicam attenuated diuresis and natriuresis and reduced glomerular filtration rate, compared with results for the control solution, when horses were treated with furosemide. Mean arterial blood pressure, urine flow rate, and glomerular filtration rate were increased during or after (or both) dobutamine infusion. Both NSAIDs reduced urine flow rate and sodium excretion associated with dobutamine infusion and exercise but had no effect on glomerular filtration rate. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Responses to meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 preferential agent, appeared comparable to those detected after phenylbutazone treatment, which suggested that COX-2 was the mediator of prostanoid-induced changes to renal function in horses and indicated that COX-2-preferential agents would be likely to have adverse renal effects similar to those for nonselective COX inhibitors in volume-depleted horses.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 07/2014; 75(7):668-679.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective-To determine the effect of region of interest (ROI) setting and slice thickness on trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) measured with quantitative CT in dogs. Animals-14 healthy Beagles. Procedures-CT of the lumbar vertebrae and a quantitative CT phantom was performed. The BMD of trabecular bone was measured from L1 to L7 in 2 ways in all dogs. First, sequential 9.6-mm-thick CT images were acquired and then CT images were reconstructed into transverse CT images with slice thicknesses of 2.4, 4.8, and 9.6 mm. The obtained images were analyzed by circular ROI and trace ROI methods. Second, lumbar vertebrae were scanned with the installed quantitative CT protocol with a slice thickness of 10 mm and then the CT images were analyzed by installed automatic BMD software. Results-Interclass correlation coefficients of the automatic software (0.975 to 1.0) and the circular method (0.871 to 0.996) were high, compared with those of the trace method (0.582 to 0.996). The BMD measured with the automatic software was not significantly different from that measured with circular ROI and a slice thickness of 9.6 mm. The BMD measured by use of the circular method was not different according to slice thickness. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results obtained by use of automatic software were similar to those obtained by use of more manual methods. The CT images with thinner slice thickness (2.4 and 4.8 mm) could be used in dogs of toy and small breeds to measure lumbar vertebrae BMD to reduce the limitations of the standard 10-mm slice thickness.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 07/2014; 75(7):642-647.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective-To directly compare solid-phase gastric emptying times assessed by means of a [(13)C]sodium acetate breath test ([(13)C]-SABT) and technetium Tc 99m albumin colloid radioscintigraphy ((99m)Tc-ACR) in healthy cats. Animals-12 healthy cats. Procedure-After ingestion of a test meal containing 50 mg of [(13)C]sodium acetate and 250 MBq of (99m)Tc-albumin colloid, each cat underwent simultaneous [(13)C]-SABT and (99m)Tc-ACR on 2 consecutive days. Breath samples and scintigrams were acquired at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 300, 360, 480, and 600 minutes after meal ingestion. Quartiles of gastric emptying (25%, 50%, and 75%) were calculated for breath test analysis by use of the area under the curve of the (13)C:(12)C ratio. Quartiles of gastric emptying times were extrapolated from the scintigraphic findings by beans of nonlinear curve regression analysis. Results-Mean ± SD gastric half-emptying (50%) times obtained with [(13)C]-SABT and (99m)Tc-ACR, were 239 ± 28 minutes and 276 ± 59 minutes, respectively. A 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that mean gastric emptying times determined with [(13)C]-SABT and (99m)Tc-ACR differed significantly. For the stages of gastric emptying, Pearson correlation between the 2 methods was good at 25% (r = 0.655) and weak at 50% (r = 0.588) and 75% (r = 0.566)of gastric emptying. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that the [(13)C]-SABT can be a valid alternative to (99m)Tc-ACR in healthy cats; it was easy to perform, was tolerated well by the cats, and had acceptable correlation to scintigraphic findings at gastric emptying of 25%, 50% and 75%. Studies in cats with delayed gastric emptying will be needed to verify the validity of the [(13)C]-SABT.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 07/2014; 75(7):648-652.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To determine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of midazolam after IV and IM administration in alpacas. Animals: 6 alpacas. Procedures: Midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) was administered IV or IM in a randomized crossover design. Twelve hours prior to administration, catheters were placed in one (IM trial) or both (IV trial) jugular veins for drug administration and blood sample collection for determination of serum midazolam concentrations. Blood samples were obtained prior to and 3, 12, and 24 minutes, and 1, 1.5, 3, 4.5, 8, 12, and 24 hours after IV administration and prior to and 5, 15, and 30 minutes, and 1, 1.5, 3, 4.5, 8, 12, and 24 hours after IM administration. Midazolam concentrations were determined by use of tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: Maximum concentrations after IV administration (median, 1,394 ng/mL [range, 1150-1503 ng/mL]) and IM administration (411 ng/mL [217-675 ng/mL]) were at 3 minutes and 5-30 minutes, respectively. Distribution half-life was 18.7 (13-47) minutes after IV administration and 41 (30-80) minutes after IM administration. Elimination half-life was 98 (67-373) minutes and 234 (103-320) minutes after IV and IM administration, respectively. Total clearance after IV administration was 11.3 (6.7-13.9) mL/min/kg and steady state volume of distribution was 525 (446-798) mL/kg. Bioavailability of midazolam after IM administration was 92%. Peak onset of sedation occurred at 0.4 minutes (IV) and 15 minutes (IM). Sedation was significantly greater after IV administration. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Midazolam was well absorbed after IM administration, had a short duration of action, and induced moderate levels of sedation in alpacas.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 07/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate molecular and histologic characteristics of the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT), and suspensory ligament (SL) and assess trace-mineral concentrations in serum, liver, and hair of juvenile llamas with metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joint hyperextension. 12 juvenile llamas (6 with bilateral hyperextension of metacarpophalangeal joints, metatarsophalangeal joints, or both and 6 clinically normal control llamas). Radiography and ultrasonography of metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal regions were performed. Llamas were euthanized, and SDFT, DDFT, and SL samples were collected for histologic evaluation of collagen and elastin content and orientation, proteoglycan content, and collagen type III immunohistochemistry. Total RNA was isolated from SL tissue, and gene expression of collagen types I and III, lysyl oxidase, and matrix metalloproteinase-13 was evaluated via real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assay. Liver, serum, and hair samples were evaluated for trace mineral content. Collagen type III gene expression and proteoglycan content were significantly increased in SL samples of affected juvenile llamas, compared with those of control llamas. No difference was detected in collagen and elastin content and orientation or in gene expression of collagen type I, lysyl oxidase, or matrix metalloproteinase-13 between groups. Affected llamas had significantly increased serum molybdenum and decreased liver cobalt concentrations, compared with values for control llamas. Increased collagen type III gene expression and proteoglycan content in SL samples of affected juvenile llamas provided evidence of ongoing SL matrix repair. Trace mineral differences may have been attributable to dietary imbalances in affected llamas.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 04/2011; 72(4):550-5.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate topographic and age-dependent adaptation of subchondral bone density in the elbow joints of healthy dogs by means of computed tomographic osteoabsorptiometry (CTOAM). Animals-42 elbow joints of 29 clinically normal dogs of various breeds and ages. Subchondral bone densities of the humeral, radial, and ulnar joint surfaces of the elbow relative to a water-hydroxyapatite phantom were assessed by means of CTOAM. Distribution patterns in juvenile, adult, and geriatric dogs (age, < 1 year, 1 to 8 years, and > 8 years, respectively) were determined and compared within and among groups. An area of increased subchondral bone density was detected in the humerus distomedially and cranially on the trochlea and in the olecranon fossa. The ulna had maximum bone densities on the anconeal and medial coronoid processes. Increased bone density was detected in the craniomedial region of the joint surface of the radius. A significant age-dependent increase in subchondral bone density was revealed in elbow joint surfaces of the radius, ulna, and humerus. Mean subchondral bone density of the radius was significantly less than that of the ulna in paired comparisons for all dogs combined and in adult and geriatric, but not juvenile, dog groups. An age-dependent increase in subchondral bone density at the elbow joint was revealed. Maximal relative subchondral bone densities were detected consistently at the medial coronoid process and central aspect of the humeral trochlea, regions that are commonly affected in dogs with elbow dysplasia.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 04/2011; 72(4):491-9.