Transactions of the American Fisheries Society (T AM FISH SOC )

Publisher: American Fisheries Society, American Fisheries Society

Description

The Society's highly regarded international journal of fisheries science has been published continuously since 1872. It features results of basic and applied research in genetics, physiology, biology, ecology, population dynamics, economics, health, culture, and other topics germane to marine and freshwater finfish and shellfish and their respective fisheries and environments. Available in print and electronic formats.

  • Impact factor
    1.55
    Show impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    1.87
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.31
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.60
  • Website
    Transactions of the American Fisheries Society website
  • Other titles
    Transactions of the American Fisheries Society
  • ISSN
    0002-8487
  • OCLC
    6445080
  • Material type
    Conference publication, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

American Fisheries Society

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Open access repositories
    • Publisher's version/PDF must be used
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To compare the roles of American lobster Homarus americanus and Atlantic rock crab Cancer irroratus in the food web processes of a coastal ecosystem, distribution, abundance, stomach contents, diet overlap, and occurrence in stomachs of predators were described for the two species collected during July–August trawl surveys in Northumberland Strait, southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Atlantic rock crab was more widely distributed, was more numerous on mud and muddy sand substrates, and occurred in deeper water than American lobster. Atlantic rock crab was the principal prey of American lobster while American lobster was almost never eaten by Atlantic rock crab. American lobster (benthic and pelagic stages) was a trace item in all fish and decapod stomachs examined except in those of the Shorthorn Sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius and other American lobsters. In contrast, Atlantic rock crab larvae commonly occurred in stomachs of many pelagic fishes while small (Leucoraja ocellata, Cunner Tautogolabrus adspersus, Longhorn Sculpin M. octodecemspinosus, and Shorthorn Sculpin. Atlantic rock crab had a broad diet consisting of fish, sevenspine bay shrimp Crangon septemspinosa, Atlantic rock crab (mostly cannibalism), bivalves, and polychaetes. American lobster had a narrow diet consisting mainly of Atlantic rock crab with lesser amounts of American lobster (old carapaces and cannibalism) and sea stars. Diet overlap between the two species was moderate and mainly due to joint consumption of Atlantic rock crab. Thus, Atlantic rock crab play a prominent role in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence food web (and therefore energy cycling) while American lobster serves mostly as an energy sink whose loss from the ecosystem would mainly affect people dependent upon the fishery.Received January 3, 2014; accepted May 30, 2014
    Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 09/2014; 143(5).
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    ABSTRACT: In general, snook Centropomus spp. are opportunistic carnivores, feeding on fish and crustaceans, as shown by other studies on diets of centropomids in the western Atlantic Ocean. Diet studies for centropomids in Florida refer only to a description of the diet and the ontogenetic shifts in prey preferences of Common Snook C. undecimalis. However, no food habit information for Smallscale Fat Snook C. parallelus is available in Florida. Stomach content analysis and quantitative descriptions of fish diet are important in understanding how species utilize resources, coexist in certain habitats, and possibly share available prey. The objective of this study was to describe the dietary composition for Smallscale Fat Snook in east-central Florida, in comparison to other diet studies for Smallscale Fat Snook and its congeners. The results show that, like other snook species, Smallscale Fat Snook is a carnivorous species, juveniles feed mainly on penaeid shrimp, and larger fish feed more on varied prey, mainly portunid crabs and teleost species. The diverse diet composition of Smallscale Fat Snook in east-central Florida suggests that the species is an opportunistic feeder, exploiting locally abundant prey, and feeds in a variety of estuarine and riverine habitats.Received March 18, 2014; accepted April 17, 2014
    Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 09/2014; 143(5).
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    ABSTRACT: In this investigation a single genetic stock of Hood River, Oregon, Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha was reared at three different hatchery facilities over three brood years (2008–2010) and monitored for size, growth rate, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, condition factor, whole body energetics, and precocious male maturation (age-2 minijack rate). This experimental design provided a unique opportunity to isolate environmental from genetic effects on salmonid life history. Differences in the seasonal thermal regimes and associated growth profiles among the three facilities resulted in modest differences in smolt development but significant variation in size at release (range = 18 g body weight, 118 mm FL to 31 g body weight, 142 mm FL) and minijack rates (range = 4.8–57.1%) among groups. Previous studies have found a positive relationship between body size at release and minijack rates. However, in this investigation the release group with the largest mean body size consistently had the lowest minijack rates. This unique result may be due to the more natural thermal regime and feeding profile experienced by fish at this facility compared with that of the other two facilities and highlights the importance and potential benefits of adhering to a more “wildlike” growth profile in hatchery supplementation programs.Received February 24, 2014; accepted May 29, 2014
    Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 09/2014; 143(5).
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    ABSTRACT: The southeastern USA is home to one of the richest—and most imperiled and threatened—freshwater fish assemblages in North America. For many of these rare and threatened species, conservation efforts are often limited by a lack of data. Drawing on a unique and extensive data set spanning over 20 years, we modeled occurrence probabilities of 126 stream fish species sampled throughout North Carolina, many of which occur more broadly in the southeastern USA. Specifically, we developed species-specific occurrence probabilities from hierarchical Bayesian multispecies models that were based on common land use and land cover covariates. We also used index of biotic integrity tolerance classifications as a second level in the model hierarchy; we identify this level as informative for our work, but it is flexible for future model applications. Based on the partial-pooling property of the models, we were able to generate occurrence probabilities for many imperiled and data-poor species in addition to highlighting a considerable amount of occurrence heterogeneity that supports species-specific investigations whenever possible. Our results provide critical species-level information on many threatened and imperiled species as well as information that may assist with re-evaluation of existing management strategies, such as the use of surrogate species. Finally, we highlight the use of a relatively simple hierarchical model that can easily be generalized for similar situations in which conventional models fail to provide reliable estimates for data-poor groups.Received January 13, 2014; accepted May 5, 2014
    Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 09/2014; 143(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Balancing the disparate objectives of fishery augmentation and conservation of an endemic fish population presents a substantial challenge. In the case of Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery (Warm Springs Hatchery), strategies for achieving both objectives included incorporation of natural fish into the hatchery broodstock and restricting proportions of hatchery fish on the spawning grounds. The hatchery has been more successful in implementing the latter than the former. We analyzed 76 single nucleotide polymorphism markers in Spring Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha collected from the Warm Springs River in 1976–1977 (prior to hatchery production) and 2001–2011 (posthatchery) to examine whether the genetic characteristics of the endemic population had changed during that time. Pre- and posthatchery collections clustered together when compared with those from Round Butte Hatchery, which has a nearby segregated program, and other Columbia River populations. The difference between pre- and posthatchery collections was nonsignificant, but posthatchery samples exhibited significantly lower expected heterozygosity. We observed some evidence of reduced effective size and increased genetic drift in fish produced at Warm Springs Hatchery (relative to natural-origin fish) and even stronger evidence of this in fish produced at Round Butte Hatchery. We conclude that natural-origin Chinook Salmon returning to the Warm Springs River form a distinct group within the interior Columbia Basin spring-run lineage and have changed very little over the past eight generations. We further speculate that differences between hatchery- and natural-origin fish at Warm Springs Hatchery are expected to increase if hatchery operations remain static (i.e., little integration of natural-origin fish and incorporation of Round Butte Hatchery fish in the broodstock).Received February 11, 2014; accepted May 30, 2014
    Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 09/2014; 143(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Many fisheries management decisions require predictions of spatial dynamics, and simulation of realistic movement is critically important for accurately representing population-level dynamics with spatially explicit individual-based models (IBMs). Movement approaches developed to date have been applied across a wide range of spatiotemporal resolutions. We compared four movement approaches or submodels (restricted-area search, kinesis, event based, and run and tumble) using an IBM (roughly based on Bay Anchovy Anchoa mitchilli and Northern Anchovy Engraulis mordax) that simulated growth, mortality, and movement of a cohort on a two-dimensional grid. We evaluated the submodels in 2.7- × 2.7-km environments at five resolutions defined by various cell sizes and time steps. We used a genetic algorithm to calibrate each movement submodel over a 300-generation training phase and then tested the mean movement parameters for a single generation in the training environment and a novel environment. Restricted-area search, kinesis, and event-based submodels had higher egg production than a random walk model (baseline, assuming no behavioral movement) across spatiotemporal resolutions in training and novel environments. The run-and-tumble submodel also had higher egg production than the random walk model but only under certain conditions. Although restricted-area, kinesis, and event-based submodels outperformed random walk at all resolutions, the submodels did not perform equally well across resolutions in terms of egg production and aggregation of model individuals in high-quality cells (i.e., those with high growth and low mortality). The variability in performance was due to the change in habitat quality experienced by model individuals from one time step to the next. Restricted-area and event-based submodels had higher egg production when model individuals experienced small changes in habitat quality, whereas the kinesis and run-and-tumble submodels performed better when model individuals experienced larger changes in habitat quality.Received October 16, 2013; accepted March 11, 2004
    Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 09/2014; 143(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Fish stocking (artificial supplementation) has been used to augment populations and angling opportunities. However, genetic composition and adaptations of native fish populations may be affected, raising management concerns. From 1995 to 2000, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation stocked Walleye Sander vitreus fry and fingerlings from the Maumee River (western Lake Erie) into Cattaraugus Creek (eastern Lake Erie). We analyzed nuclear microsatellite (sat) DNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in Cattaraugus Creek Walleyes for comparisons between prestocking and poststocking groups, among annual spawning runs (1998–2011), among age cohorts, and between sexes. Results for genetic differentiation (index F ST) were not significant between prestocking and poststocking groups (sat: F ST = 0.003; mtDNA: F STF ST = 0.003–0.012; mtDNA: F ST = 0.076–0.090). Tests for differentiation were not significant among annual spawning runs (sat: F ST = F ST = F ST = F ST = F STF STReceived December 6, 2013; accepted June 12, 2014
    Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 09/2014; 143(5).
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    ABSTRACT: The National Marine Fisheries Service listed five distinct population segments of Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus as threatened and endangered under the Endangered Species Act on February 6, 2012. At that time, the only known spawning population of sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay was in the James River. The goal of this research was to determine whether reproduction was also occurring in the Chesapeake's York River watershed. Based on the assumption that an early fall spawning event occurs in the upper reaches of the watershed, these waters were sampled in late August of 2013 when water temperatures became appropriate for spawning. During a week of sampling, numerous male sturgeon running milt and one spawned-out female with residual eggs still present were captured. The co-occurrence of reproductively active males and a recently spawnedout female Atlantic Sturgeon in the upper Pamunkey River at temperatures consistent with documented spawning temperatures in other systems indicates that fall spawning occurs in the York River system. Therefore, the population segment of Atlantic Sturgeon distinct to the Chesapeake Bay has at least two spawning populations that managers should consider when protecting this listed species.Received November 13, 2013; accepted May 12, 2014
    Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 09/2014; 143(5).
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    ABSTRACT: The Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix is a highly migratory species that is composed of different stocks and populations along its nearly cosmopolitan distribution. The Bluefish is the only member of its genus and family, and high migration rates could prevent vicariant speciation across its wide geographical distribution. However, the extent of gene flow between distant populations is unknown. We employed two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome-c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b) and eight nuclear microsatellite loci to study population structure and infer dispersal of this important commercial and recreational fish across its Northern Hemisphere distribution. Higher gene flow estimates for nuclear loci (of biparental inheritance) than for mitochondrial loci (of maternal inheritance) suggested sex-biased dispersal, which could be explained by greater female homing or fidelity to spawning sites and greater dispersal of males. Males could contribute more to transoceanic connectivity of Bluefish populations in the North Atlantic Ocean, thus shaping the observed pattern of spatial genetic structure of the Bluefish in its Northern Hemisphere distribution.Received February 1, 2014; accepted June 9, 2014
    Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 09/2014; 143(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Atlantic Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus is an economically and ecologically important forage fish in the western Atlantic Ocean. In the Chesapeake Bay, its recruitment has been low since the late 1980s, prompting questions on how environmental factors may affect its productivity. Growth is an important component of production, but causes of spatial and temporal variability in growth of age-0 Atlantic Menhaden are not fully understood. Our objective was to quantify the effect of temperature on spatial and temporal variability in growth of age-0 Atlantic Menhaden in Chesapeake Bay. We analyzed data on mean length and temperature for years 1962–2011 from nine regions of Chesapeake Bay. We developed a linear model that relates mean total length of Atlantic Menhaden to cumulative growing degree-days (GDDs) in Chesapeake Bay and validated the model using data that were withheld from the initial parameter estimation. The temperature threshold that best described variability in growth was 14°C, a temperature substantially higher than the physiological threshold for growth. The GDD model explained almost 80% of the variability in mean length over time (within and among years) and among regions. In a model validation exercise, it accurately predicted mean length in tributary subregions of the bay not included in the original model fitting. The GDD model requires only temperature data to effectively predict growth, making it simpler to apply than models requiring more complex approaches.Received August 22, 2013; accepted May 30, 2014
    Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 09/2014; 143(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Acoustic telemetry was used to investigate small-scale movement and behavior of semi-anadromous White Perch Morone americana in New York's Great South Bay system. Fifteen Vemco VR2 acoustic receivers were deployed in the main channel of the lower Carmans River. Of the 40 fish that were tagged with Vemco V9 acoustic transmitters from August 2010 to 2011, 15 fish returned at least 28 d of movement data. Acoustic tracking revealed that adult White Perch exhibited upstream and downstream diel movement within the Carmans River, a behavior that has not been previously described in adults of this species. Movements were tested for cyclical patterns by using autocorrelation analysis. The frequency of diel behavior (f) across individuals was found to be dependent on season: frequency was significantly reduced in winter (f = 13.8%) and was maximized in summer (f = 49.4% in 2010; f = 57.5% in 2011). Directionality in diel movement was also seasonal; nightly upstream movements were favored in summer and fall months, and nightly downstream movements were preferred in winter. Diel behavior was affected by temperature and salinity, with high salinities and low temperatures reducing the frequency of occurrence.Received March 24, 2014; accepted June 17, 2014
    Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 09/2014; 143(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Anthropogenic warming of stream temperature and the presence of exotic diseases such as whirling disease are both contemporary threats to coldwater salmonids across western North America. We examined stream temperature reduction over a 15-year prerestoration and postrestoration period and the severity of Myxobolus cerebralis infection (agent of whirling disease) over a 7-year prerestoration and postrestoration period in Kleinschmidt Creek, a fully reconstructed spring creek in the Blackfoot River basin of western Montana. Stream restoration increased channel length by 36% and reduced the wetted surface area by 69% by narrowing and renaturalizing the channel. Following channel restoration, average maximum daily summer stream temperatures decreased from 15.7°C to 12.5°C, average daily temperature decreased from 11.2°C to 10.0°C, and the range of daily temperatures narrowed by 3.3°C. Despite large changes in channel morphology and reductions in summer stream temperature, the prevalence and severity of M. cerebralis infection for hatchery Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss remained high (98–100% test fish with grade > 3 infection) versus minimal for hatchery Brown Trout Salmo trutta (2% of test fish with grade-1 infection). This study shows channel renaturalization can reduce summer stream temperatures in small low-elevation, groundwater-dominated streams in the Blackfoot basin to levels more suitable to native trout. However, because of continuous high infections associated with groundwater-dominated systems, the restoration of Kleinschmidt Creek favors brown trout Salmo trutta given their innate resistance to the parasite and the higher relative susceptibility of other salmonids.Received February 3, 2014; accepted May 3, 2014
    Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 09/2014; 143(5).
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    ABSTRACT: There is considerable uncertainty about the relative roles of stream habitat and landscape characteristics in structuring stream-fish assemblages. We evaluated the relative importance of environmental characteristics on fish occupancy at the local and landscape scales within the upper Little Tennessee River basin of Georgia and North Carolina. Fishes were sampled using a quadrat sample design at 525 channel units within 48 study reaches during two consecutive years. We evaluated species–habitat relationships (local and landscape factors) by developing hierarchical, multispecies occupancy models. Modeling results suggested that fish occupancy within the Little Tennessee River basin was primarily influenced by stream topology and topography, urban land coverage, and channel unit types. Landscape scale factors (e.g., urban land coverage and elevation) largely controlled the fish assemblage structure at a stream-reach level, and local-scale factors (i.e., channel unit types) influenced fish distribution within stream reaches. Our study demonstrates the utility of a multi-scaled approach and the need to account for hierarchy and the interscale interactions of factors influencing assemblage structure prior to monitoring fish assemblages, developing biological management plans, or allocating management resources throughout a stream system.Received January 17, 2014; accepted June 4, 2014
    Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 09/2014; 143(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu is an invasive fish for which few control methods have been developed or tested. Adult removal is most common, but this strategy is labor-intensive and can result in an increase in population abundance (i.e., overcompensation). Using a stage-structured matrix model, we tested removal of young of the year as a control method, both alone and in combination with three supplemental removal strategies. Our results suggest that young of the year removal alone does not lead to overcompensation and can be expected to control some populations of Smallmouth Bass in a reasonable timeframe (e.g., 75% reduction in abundance after 10 years at 68% removal). Lower rates of removal of young of the year are required if this method is combined with supplemental removal strategies (especially those that also target immature bass). Where feasible, we recommend that managers include young of the year removal as part of their control plans. Future research should focus on incorporating more biological realism into simulation models and testing this method in the field.Received January 15, 2014; accepted April 24, 2014
    Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 09/2014; 143(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing stream temperatures have important implications for arid-region fishes. Little is known about effects of high water temperatures that fluctuate over extended periods on Apache Trout Oncorhynchus gilae apache, a federally threatened species of southwestern USA streams. We compared survival and growth of juvenile Apache Trout held for 30 d in static temperatures (16, 19, 22, 25, and 28°C) and fluctuating diel temperatures (±3°C from 16, 19, 22 and 25°C midpoints and ±6°C from 19°C and 22°C midpoints). Lethal temperature for 50% (LT50) of the Apache Trout under static temperatures (mean [SD] = 22.8 [0.6]°C) was similar to that of ±3°C diel temperature fluctuations (23.1 [0.1]°C). Mean LT50 for the midpoint of the ±6°C fluctuations could not be calculated because survival in the two treatments (19 ± 6°C and 22 ± 6°C) was not below 50%; however, it probably was also between 22°C and 25°C because the upper limb of a ±6°C fluctuation on a 25°C midpoint is above critical thermal maximum for Apache Trout (28.5–30.4°C). Growth decreased as temperatures approached the LT50. Apache Trout can survive short-term exposure to water temperatures with daily maxima that remain below 25°C and midpoint diel temperatures below 22°C. However, median summer stream temperatures must remain below 19°C for best growth and even lower if daily fluctuations are high (≥12°C).Received June 26, 2013; accepted May 19, 2014
    Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 09/2014; 143(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Fish populations are composed of a mixture of sedentary and mobile individuals, but it is not clear whether movement behavior is plastic or fixed for individuals and what proportion of the population exhibits mobile behavior. To investigate the mobility and movement patterns of two common species of suckers, the Sonora Sucker Catostomus insignis and the Desert Sucker Catostomus clarkii, in the Gila River of western New Mexico, we tracked 449 individuals over three summers using passive integrated transponder (PIT) telemetry. Both species were mobile and the typical linear home ranges for mobile individuals exceeded 150 m, but approximately 25% of individuals were detected only in a single habitat segment. We observed increased movement after spates caused by summer monsoon rains, and fish used areas of the stream differently under high- and low-flow conditions. Fish moved farther between years than within years, but a subset of individuals were found in the same locations from year to year. For the study species, movement behavior does not appear to be a fixed trait for individuals, and many individuals exhibited both stationary and mobile behavior among years. We also investigated whether sample size biased the estimates of movement parameters. We concluded that movement parameters would be underestimated by 20–50% if we had tracked fewer individuals, but the degree to which the parameters were biased varied from year to year.Received August 7, 2013; accepted January 23, 2014
    Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 07/2014; 143(4).