Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR (Vestn Akad Med Nauk SSSR )

Publisher: Rossiĭskai︠a︡ akademii︠a︡ medit︠s︡inskikh nauk

Description

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  • ISSN
    0002-3027
  • OCLC
    26850483
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR 02/1992;
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    ABSTRACT: A retrospective analysis was made of the leading syndromes of chronic radiation sickness (CRS) induced by external gamma-radiation in a dose of 1.0-9.33 Gy during the disease formation and in the long-term period (30-35 years after diagnosis). The frequency of the hematological and neurological syndromes, secretory alterations in the stomach, efficacy of rehabilitation measures, morbidity in specialists with a history of the clinical manifestations of CRS, who continue working are estimated. The incidence of the main somatic diseases is presented.
    Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR 02/1992;
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    ABSTRACT: The paper is concerned with a theoretical possibility of the use of 90Sr beta-spectrometry in a mixture of radionuclides including 137Cs, 134Cs, 144Ce and 106Ru after the Chernobyl accident. Special attention is paid to the choosing of a detector and spectrum treatment techniques as factors determining the minimum detectable activity of the method. A brief description of the spectrometric system as well as of the software used is given. The comparison of the method with traditional radiochemical and gamma-spectrometric methods has shown that it is applicable to a wide range of activities and to different objects including those of biological origin. The sources of errors are considered in detail. Approaches to the development of the method are given.
    Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR 02/1992;
  • Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR 02/1992;
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    ABSTRACT: The paper is concerned with the reported data characterizing the dose-effect relationship for the main non-stochastic effects, namely for acute radiation and chronic thyroiditis and hypothyroidism that occur as a result of external and internal radiation of the thyroid. The threshold doses for acute thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, temporary thyroid hypofunction in adults and children exposed to 131I are estimated. The influence of modifying factors on the intensity and the times of thyroid lesion manifestations such as hyperactive thyroid is under consideration.
    Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR 02/1992;
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    ABSTRACT: The physiological and hygienic estimation of the working conditions of the new occupational groups of medical workers who service ultrasound (diagnostic, surgical, sterilization, and physiotherapeutic) equipment has demonstrated the intensity of contact ultrasound in the area of contact with hands to undergo changes within wide limits; exposure also changes, correspondingly by a factor of 10 or 10(2), amounting on the average to 1.2-1104 joules for different occupational groups. As a result of the long-term exposure to ultrasonic sources, the workers may develop neurovascular dose-dependent disorders in the form of angiodystonic syndrome of vegetative polyneuritis of the hands. The rate of the augmentation of constant shifts of the thresholds of vibration sensitivity may constitute 1.3 and 0.9 dB per year for those exposed to low and high-frequency sources, respectively. The principle of the frequency dependence of the effects of contact ultrasound is thus based; the maximum permissible level of factor is corrected with regard to the spectral parameters. The joint action of air and contact ultrasound has been examined and the additive effect has been revealed. This made it possible to establish a decreasing correction (5 dB) for the maximum permissible level of contact ultrasound characterized by a more remarkable biological action. The hygienic classification of contact ultrasound has been elaborated, the use of a complex of preventive measures has been based.
    Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR 02/1992;
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    ABSTRACT: The authors provide the results of studying 137Cs and 90Sr pollution of soil, plants and milk in the Gomel region in 1986-1989. Describe the dynamics of the ratios soil-grass and milk-soil during that period. The content of 137Cs in milk ranged from n.10(-10) to n.10(-7) Ci/l in polluted regions and from n.10(-10)-n.10(-9) Ci/l in the so-called pure regions. In all the regions examined, the concentration of 90Sr in milk was far lower than that of 137Cs. After the accident the levels of 137Cs in milk rose 18-350-fold and those of 90Sr 3-16-fold on the average in the regions. One can observe a progressive decrease of the ratios of accumulation in the grass-soil and milk-soil systems and a decline of the concentration of 137Cs and 90Sr in milk. However, the percentage of samples with an increase of the temporarily permissible in 1988 levels of cesium radionuclides was fairly high in 1989 in certain regions: in the Vetkovsk region, it was 35.3%, in the Chechersky region, it was 28.0%. During 1987-1989, the concentration of 90Sr in milk did not exceed 1 x 10(-9) Ci/l in the areas examined. The broad range of the indicators of milk pollution with 137Cs and 90Sr is specified by varying density of the area pollution, differences in the physicochemical status of radionuclides in accident fall-outs, and geochemical characteristics of the soil sheet.
    Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR 02/1992;
  • Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR 02/1992;
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    ABSTRACT: The whole complex of organizational medical measures on the elimination of aftereffect of the large-scale radiation accident at the NPP may consist of the three basic groups: 1) preventive, aimed at maximally lowering the population and its critical subpopulations exposure levels; 2) curative and diagnostic, which, in addition to the rendering of medical assistance, provide for implementation of the programs of long-term population health studies, and 3) sanitation and educational, aimed at preventing negative social and psychological processes that accompany radiation accidents.
    Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR 02/1992;
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    ABSTRACT: The paper is concerned with a brief analysis of the reported data on hygienic, epidemiological and experimental estimation of the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of a video-terminal (VDT). The results of the author's investigations are presented. Based on the data obtained it is concluded that low-intensity wide-band EMR occurs in work places of VDT users. One should bear in mind that the biological action of EMR has not been studied so far.
    Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR 02/1992;
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    ABSTRACT: The paper is concerned with the problems pertaining to the implementation of the State Union-Republic program of urgent measures for 1990-1992 and Republican programs of the elimination of Chernobyl accident consequences. Among the basic priorities covered by the program, the author regards the problems of the living of the population at the polluted areas, criteria for accepting decisions as to the possibility of further living or settling out together with favourable and unfavourable consequences of such a measure as settling out. Emphasis is laid on some priorities of the optimal use of means alloted for implementing the programs of the elimination of Chernobyl accident consequences.
    Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR 02/1992;
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    ABSTRACT: The authors provide the data obtained in experimental animals, pertaining to the influence of certain modifying factors on metabolism and biological effects induced by radioactive isotopes of iodine, by transuranium elements and beryllium. Out of all the modifying factors investigated, the form of the introduced compound and age turned out the most significant ones.
    Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR 02/1992;
  • Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR 02/1992;
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    ABSTRACT: Negative consequences of the impact of alpine factors on the body of man are described. Alpine acute lung edema is one of the dangerous diseases that may develop under alpine conditions. This may affect not only beginners but also aborigines of the mountains, who return to the places they come from after a temporary stay in lowlands. Acute brain edema is regarded as no less severe condition. It may occur in about 1.2% of the people who climb to a height of 4500-5000 m. Primary alpine pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic alpine cor pulmonale are fairly prevalent under alpine conditions.
    Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR 02/1992;
  • Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR 02/1992;
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    ABSTRACT: Impulse mechanical and acoustic processes whose action on the body of man may result in unfavourable consequences are ever widely practiced today in industry and in the environment. Impulse processes are characterized by certain physical peculiarities which determine the specificity of their biological effect. In turn, this gives rise to the problems of their hygienic estimation and standardization. At the same time out of the diversity of physical parameters which characterize impulse noise and vibration, one should choose, for hygienic estimation and standardization, only those of them that are responsible for the biological effect to the greatest degree. Different authors suggest different approaches to the hygienic standardization of those processes, which depends on what parameters are recognized by them as more adequate to their biological effect.
    Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR 02/1992;
  • Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR 02/1992;
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    ABSTRACT: Biological effects of laser radiation (LR) are determined by the absorption properties of the irradiated tissues and physiological characteristics of radiation. The high intensities of the effect are accompanied by melting, evaporation, substance ionization, formation of shock and acoustic waves. Under the action of the low-intensity LR there prevail photochemical, photobiological and thermal processes. The action of LR of one or another wave length is determined by the initial stages of its interaction with biological substrate. The biostimulating action of LR is widely used in clinical medicine. On the contrary, the effects that give rise to morphofunctional lesions of biological tissues determine the necessity of elaborating preventive measures ensuring protection of man from LR. It is generally accepted that thresholds of the damaging action on the retina and skin may be used as the main criterion for maximum allowable level (MAL) basing. In addition to the changes observable in the directly irradiated tissues, many authors point to a possibility of functional disturbances on the part of certain organs and systems of the body, followed by the formation of asthenic and vegetovascular syndromes. The experimental and clinical data confirm that the body may develop common nonspecific changes which, together with the local damaging effects, can be regarded as criteria for an adverse action of LR and, therefore, taken into account in MAL derivation.
    Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR 02/1992;
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    ABSTRACT: It has been shown that men living in the Extreme North experience the tension of thermoregulation and its effectors. The main systems that maintain thermal balance of the body are the cardiovascular system and external respiration taking an active part in the processes of physical and chemical thermoregulation. The double load of the key system leads to non-economic and rapid spending of the functional reserves and risk of early development of disadaptation phenomena. The authors worded a scientific concept of the systemic organization in the maintenance of temperature constancy of the internal medium of man in the Extreme North, which permits estimating the degree of the participation of the subordinated subsystems in thermoregulatory processes.
    Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR 02/1992;
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    ABSTRACT: Vibratory pathology goes on occupying the leading position in the pattern of occupational diseases. As to the industrial sources of local vibration, a hand power tool is most dangerous. The authors review differences in approaches to the estimation of vibratory disorders in the USSR and abroad, provide the main classifications of the vibratory syndrome and vibratory disease. Show that the pathogenesis of vibratory disease rests on a complex mechanism of neuroreflex and neurohumoral disorders leading to the development of congestive excitation followed by stable changes both in the receptor apparatus and different parts of the nervous system. The clinical symptomatology may include neurovascular disorders, lesions of the neuromuscular system, impairment of the bones and joints, alterations in metabolism, and so forth. In elaborating current measures aimed at vibratory disease prevention, use was made of the data of the prognosis of vibratory pathology risk. Measures for primary and secondary medical prophylaxis, new methods of early diagnosis, pathogenetic therapy with the use of stimulants of non-specific body resistance are described in detail.
    Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR 02/1992;