Pullman, Washington, United States

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    ABSTRACT: Pentalonia nigronervosa (sensu Hardy 1931) samples from banana and from Zingiberaceae and Araceae species exhibit fixed differences in DNA sequence in mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 ("DNA barcode") and in the nuclear gene elongation factor 1α, and have morphometric differences, including non-overlapping ranges in the length of the distal rostral segment. It is thus proposed that the name P. nigronervosa Coquerel be restricted to banana-feeding 'nigronervosa' specimens, and that the name Pentalonia caladii van der Goot be restored to full species status for specimens typically feeding on Zingiberaceae and Araceae.
    Zootaxa 06/2016; 2358(2358):25-38.
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    ABSTRACT: Male targeted harvest regimes of carnivores are now widely accepted to result in increased sexually selected infanticide (SSI). Male targeted harvest regimes of males should therefore result in increased sexually segregated habitat use in infanticidal carnivores. We tested the effects of low and high levels of male hunting mortality and associated SSI on sexually segregated habitat use in mountain lions. The "no effect of hunting" hypothesis predicts that no sexual segregation would occur or that all female mountain lions would segregate from males because of sexual dimorphism. The "hunting effect" hypothesis predicts that females with kittens would segregate from younger immigrant males in the heavily hunted population during summer when kittens are vulnerable to SSI. We rejected the "no effect" hypothesis and accepted the "hunting effect" hypothesis for mountain lions. Females with kittens avoided immigrant males in the heavily hunted population during summer-others did not. This sexual segregation corresponded with females with kittens selecting for food-poor, high elevations in the heavily hunted population but not in the lightly hunted population. Avoidance of males and selection for high elevations resulted in prey switching by females with kittens from abundant primary prey in lower elevations to rare, sensitive and threatened secondary prey at higher elevations. It appears that remedial sport hunting of mountain lions to reduce predation on declining prey actually caused sexual segregation and increased predation on declining prey. We suggest that excess mortality of male carnivores could result in unanticipated cascade effects including sexual segregation and prey switching to declining prey.
    Biological Conservation 12/2015; 192:42-47. DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2015.09.005
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    ABSTRACT: Non-thermal microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) act via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Calcium channel blockers block EMF effects and several types of additional evidence confirm this mechanism. Low intensity microwave EMFs have been proposed to produce neuropsychiatric effects, sometimes called microwave syndrome, and the focus of this review is whether these are indeed well documented and consistent with the known mechanism(s) of action of such EMFs. VGCCs occur in very high densities throughout the nervous system and have near universal roles in release of neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine hormones. Soviet and Western literature shows that much of the impact of non-thermal microwave exposures in experimental animals occurs in the brain and peripheral nervous system, such that nervous system histology and function show diverse and substantial changes. These may be generated through roles of VGCC activation, producing excessive neurotransmitter/neuroendocrine release as well as oxidative/nitrosative stress and other responses. Excessive VGCC activity has been shown from genetic polymorphism studies to have roles in producing neuropsychiatric changes in humans. Two U.S. government reports from the 1970's-80's provide evidence for many neuropsychiatric effects of non-thermal microwave EMFs, based on occupational exposure studies. 18 more recent epidemiological studies, provide substantial evidence that microwave EMFs from cell/mobile phone base stations, excessive cell/mobile phone usage and from wireless smart meters can each produce similar patterns of neuropsychiatric effects, with several of these studies showing clear dose-response relationships. Lesser evidence from 6 additional studies suggests that short wave, radio station, occupational and digital TV antenna exposures may produce similar neuropsychiatric effects. Among the more commonly reported changes are sleep disturbance/insomnia, headache, depression/depressive symptoms, fatigue/tiredness,dysesthesia, concentration/attention dysfunction, memory changes, dizziness, irritability, loss of appetite/body weight, restlessness/anxiety, nausea, skin burning/tingling/dermographism and EEG changes. In summary, then, the mechanism of action of microwave EMFs, the role of the VGCCs in the brain, the impact of non-thermal EMFs on the brain, extensive epidemiological studies performed over the past 50 years, and five criteria testing for causality, all collectively show that various non-thermal microwave EMF exposures produce diverse neuropsychiatric effects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of chemical neuroanatomy 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jchemneu.2015.08.001


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Top publications last week by reads

Medicine and science in sports and exercise 11/2010; 43(6):1017-24. DOI:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318203afa3
181 Reads
01/2015; DOI:10.1037/ppm0000089
147 Reads

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