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ABSTRACT: Pentalonia nigronervosa (sensu Hardy 1931) samples from banana and from Zingiberaceae and Araceae species exhibit fixed differences in DNA sequence in mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 ("DNA barcode") and in the nuclear gene elongation factor 1α, and have morphometric differences, including non-overlapping ranges in the length of the distal rostral segment. It is thus proposed that the name P. nigronervosa Coquerel be restricted to banana-feeding 'nigronervosa' specimens, and that the name Pentalonia caladii van der Goot be restored to full species status for specimens typically feeding on Zingiberaceae and Araceae.
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ABSTRACT: We study the potential economic impacts of a hypothetical economic integration between South Korea and North Korea by calibrating a model of productivity catch-up. We analyze how the event would affect macro aggregates, including GDPs, total factor productivities (TFPs), wage rates, and interest rates. We begin by measuring the speed of TFP convergence of Eastern Germany towards Western Germany following their 1990 reunification. We then account for the larger population and lower output of North Korea relative to South Korea, compared to the equivalent ratios for East Germany relative to West Germany. After economic integration, South Korea is anticipated to make wealth transfers to and absorb migrating workers from the North. Such transfers and migration, along with declining TFP growth, would lead South Korean per-capita GDP to decline by about 20% in 25 years.Asian Economic Papers 06/2015; 14(2). DOI:10.1162/ASEP_a_00364
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ABSTRACT: Citrate is the predominant organic acid associated with taste in citrus fruit. Although citrate metabolism has been widely studied in recent years, the potential contributions of transport proteins to citrate content remain unclear. In the present study, high-acid citrus fruit Gaocheng ('GC', Citrus sp.) and low-acid citrus fruit Satsuma mandarin ('SM', Citrus unshiu Marc.) were selected for study, and the degradation of citrate was deduced to be the main cause of the difference in acidity in fully mature fruits. RNA-seq analysis was carried out on 'GC' and 'SM' fruit samples over the same time course, and the results indicated that citrate degradation occurred mainly through the glutamine pathway, catalyzed by CitAco3-CitGS2-CitGDU1, and also two transport-related genes, CitCHX and CitDIC, were shown to be associated with citrate degradation. These results were confirmed by real-time PCR. In postharvest 'GC' fruit, the expressions of these two transport-related genes were induced by 2-fold under hot air treatment, accompanied by a reduction of 7%-9% in total acid degradation. Transient expression of CitCHX and CitDIC in tobacco leaves was performed, and the citrate content was reduced by 62%, 75% and 78% following CitCHX, CitDIC and CitCHX plus CitDIC treatments, respectively, as compared with expression of an empty vector. Overall, these data indicated that two transport proteins, CitCHX and CitDIC, are not only involved in citrate degradation during fruit development, but also involved in postharvest hot air triggered citrate reduction.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0119410. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119410