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- SourceAvailable from: Ana Riesgo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: During embryogenesis, organisms with lecithotrophic indirect development usually accumulate large quantities of energetic reserves in the form of yolk that are necessary for larval survival. Since all sponges have lecithotrophic development, yolk formation is an ineludible step of their embryogenesis. Sponge yolk platelets have a wide range of morphological forms, from entirely lipid or protein platelets to a combined platelet showing both lipids and proteins and even glycogen. So far, there are no comparative studies on the nature and content of yolk in congeneric species of sponges inhabiting contrasting environments, which could have putative effects on the larval adaptation to environmental conditions. Here, we have taken advantage of the worldwide distribution of the sponge genus Mycale, in order to compare the embryogenesis and yolk formation in two species inhabiting contrasting latitudinal areas: M. acerata from Antarctic waters and M. laevis from the Caribbean. We have compared their brooded embryos and larvae using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and calculated their energetic signatures based on the nature of their yolk. While the general morphological feature of embryos and larvae of both species were very similar, the main difference resided in the yolk nature. The Antarctic species, M. acerata, showed exclusively lipid yolk, whereas the Caribbean species, M. laevis, showed combined platelets of lipids and proteins and less frequently protein yolk platelets. The larvae of M. acerata were estimated to possess a two-fold energetic signature compared to that of M. laevis, which may have important ecological implications for their survival and for maintaining large population densities in the cold waters of the Southern Ocean.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0118805. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118805
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ABSTRACT: In this introductory article we begin by setting out the aims of this special issue, including: why the expertise paradigm may prove fruitful in understanding the proximal processes surrounding cognition, emotion and behavior at the scene of the crime; and to draw together strands of an emerging field at this important time in its development. We then go on to outline what we see as the key components of perceptual and procedural expertise as defined in mainstream cognitive psychology. We then review strands of complementary knowledge from allied fields in cognitive science that have developed in parallel and lend support for core basic elements of expertise. Adopting the notion that expertise is on a continuum and that most individuals will not reach the extreme end of competence, we describe a model of functional expertise which most people could achieve with practice. Finally, we then discuss ‘dysfunctional expertise’ that offenders might display through practice in a particular criminal domain and consider how this might enhance our understanding and prevention of criminal behavior.Aggression and Violent Behavior 02/2015; 20:1-9. DOI:10.1016/j.avb.2014.12.002
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ABSTRACT: The remarkable rise of organometal halide perovskites as solar photovoltaic materials has been followed by promising developments in light-emitting devices, including lasers. Here we present unique insights into the processes leading to photon emission in these materials. We employ ultrafast broadband photoluminescence (PL) and transient absorption spectroscopies to directly link density dependent ultrafast charge dynamics to PL. We find that exceptionally strong PL at the band edge is preceded by thermalization of free charge carriers. Short-lived PL above the band gap is clear evidence of nonexcitonic emission from hot carriers, and ultrafast PL depolarization confirms that uncorrelated charge pairs are precursors to photon emission. Carrier thermalization has a profound effect on amplified stimulated emission at high fluence; the delayed onset of optical gain we resolve within the first 10 ps and the unusual oscillatory behavior are both consequences of the kinetic interplay between carrier thermalization and optical gain.Keywords: photoluminescence; amplified stimulated emission; ultrafast spectroscopy; optical Kerr gateJournal of Physical Chemistry Letters 01/2015; 6(1):153-158. DOI:10.1021/jz502528c
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