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School of Biological Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: We measured the relationship between CO2-induced seawater acidification, photo-physiological performance and intracellular pH (pHi) in a model cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis - the sea anemone Aiptasia sp. - under ambient (289.94 ± 12.54 μatm), intermediate (687.40 ± 25.10 μatm) and high (1459.92 ± 65.51 μatm) CO2 conditions. These treatments represented current CO2 levels, in addition to CO2 stabilisation scenarios IV and VI provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Anemones were exposed to each treatment for two months and sampled at regular intervals. At each time-point we measured a series of physiological responses: maximum dark-adapted fluorescent yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), gross photosynthetic rate, respiration rate, symbiont population density, and light-adapted pHi of both the dinoflagellate symbiont and isolated host anemone cell. We observed increases in all but one photo-physiological parameter (Pgross: R ratio). At the cellular level, increases in light-adapted symbiont pHi were observed under both intermediate and high CO2 treatments, relative to control conditions (pHi 7.35 and 7.46 versus pHi 7.25, respectively). The response of light-adapted host pHi was more complex, however, with no change observed under the intermediate CO2 treatment, but a 0.3 pH-unit increase under the high CO2 treatment (pHi 7.19 and 7.48, respectively). This difference is likely a result of a disproportionate increase in photosynthesis relative to respiration at the higher CO2 concentration. Our results suggest that, rather than causing cellular acidosis, the addition of CO2 will enhance photosynthetic performance, enabling both the symbiont and host cell to withstand predicted ocean acidification scenarios.
    Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t We report the photoluminescence, X-ray luminescence and scintillation properties of CaF 2 :Sm 2 þ . Large single crystals of CaF 2 :Sm 2 þ were grown by simply slow cooling of the calcium fluorite melt doped with samarium metal. The photoluminescence at room temperature shows a broad red 5d-4f emission band peaked at 725 nm which is well matched to the response of silicon photodetectors, and only a very weak Sm 3 þ emission is observed. On cooling, the zero phonon lines of the Sm 2 þ emission can be observed. The lifetime of the broad emission is short at room temperature (46 ns), but temperature dependent, and slows on cooling, reaching a constant value of 1.25 ms below 180 K. The X-ray luminescence comprises both red Sm 2 þ and Sm 3 þ emissions and a blue self-trapped exciton band for low Sm concentrations, but just the broad red emission Sm 2 þ for highly doped ($ 1%) samples. The scintillation decay at room temperature shows two components, of 58 ns and 870 ns, in an integrated intensity ratio of 0.7:1 for a 0.1% Sm sample. The light output is around 15,000 photons/MeV when cooled by dry ice, with a scintillation decay time of 1.4 ms at that temperature. The performance of the material as an X-ray phosphor and scintillator is discussed. & 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research 03/2014; A753:131-137.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this mixed methods study was to investigate whether task instructions that asked adolescents to evaluate the merit of both sides of a controversial issue would affect their topic beliefs and topic belief justifications after they read belief-consistent and belief-inconsistent information. In the quantitative phase, we conducted an experiment in which high school students (n = 45) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions and received their respective pre-reading task instructions. Quantitative analyses showed that task instructions affected topic beliefs and belief justifications. However, inspection of topic belief scores within each condition indicated that some individuals’ beliefs became weaker, whereas others’ became stronger. In the qualitative phase, we conducted interviews to explain why this occurred. The interview data revealed two distinct reader profiles: belief-reflection and belief-protection. The data sets were complementary: the quantitative data indicated group differences in topic beliefs and belief justifications, and the qualitative data allowed us to explain differences within and across groups.
    Contemporary Educational Psychology 01/2014; 39(1):1–11.


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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10/1990; 59(5):899-915.
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