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    ABSTRACT: Current approaches of designing and refurbishing residential buildings in urban developments to achieve net zero emission performance focus mainly on operational energy largely in terms of thermal aspects. The embodied energy of buildings and systems and additionally the transport energy of their users are typically overlooked. More recent studies have revealed that these two energy demands can represent more than half of the life cycle energy for over 50 years. This paper initiates an approach which takes into account the energy requirements at the building scale (i.e. embodied and operational of the building and its systems) and the city scale i.e. transport energy (both direct and indirect) of the users of a net zero emission house located in Auckland, New Zealand and evaluates its energy consumption and CO2 emissions. In addition it investigates various scenarios related to transport technology focusing on internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) and battery powered electric vehicles (BPEVs). The main conclusion is that there is a need to develop integrated tools which should enhance the efficiency of net zero emission houses and user transportation modes in a single framework such that each of the embodied, operational and transport energy emissions attributed to the building users can be reduced in order to move towards a low energy society.
    Energy Procedia 08/2015; 75:2826-2832. DOI:10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.560
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    ABSTRACT: During embryogenesis, organisms with lecithotrophic indirect development usually accumulate large quantities of energetic reserves in the form of yolk that are necessary for larval survival. Since all sponges have lecithotrophic development, yolk formation is an ineludible step of their embryogenesis. Sponge yolk platelets have a wide range of morphological forms, from entirely lipid or protein platelets to a combined platelet showing both lipids and proteins and even glycogen. So far, there are no comparative studies on the nature and content of yolk in congeneric species of sponges inhabiting contrasting environments, which could have putative effects on the larval adaptation to environmental conditions. Here, we have taken advantage of the worldwide distribution of the sponge genus Mycale, in order to compare the embryogenesis and yolk formation in two species inhabiting contrasting latitudinal areas: M. acerata from Antarctic waters and M. laevis from the Caribbean. We have compared their brooded embryos and larvae using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and calculated their energetic signatures based on the nature of their yolk. While the general morphological feature of embryos and larvae of both species were very similar, the main difference resided in the yolk nature. The Antarctic species, M. acerata, showed exclusively lipid yolk, whereas the Caribbean species, M. laevis, showed combined platelets of lipids and proteins and less frequently protein yolk platelets. The larvae of M. acerata were estimated to possess a two-fold energetic signature compared to that of M. laevis, which may have important ecological implications for their survival and for maintaining large population densities in the cold waters of the Southern Ocean.
    PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0118805. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118805
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    ABSTRACT: In this introductory article we begin by setting out the aims of this special issue, including: why the expertise paradigm may prove fruitful in understanding the proximal processes surrounding cognition, emotion and behavior at the scene of the crime; and to draw together strands of an emerging field at this important time in its development. We then go on to outline what we see as the key components of perceptual and procedural expertise as defined in mainstream cognitive psychology. We then review strands of complementary knowledge from allied fields in cognitive science that have developed in parallel and lend support for core basic elements of expertise. Adopting the notion that expertise is on a continuum and that most individuals will not reach the extreme end of competence, we describe a model of functional expertise which most people could achieve with practice. Finally, we then discuss ‘dysfunctional expertise’ that offenders might display through practice in a particular criminal domain and consider how this might enhance our understanding and prevention of criminal behavior.
    Aggression and Violent Behavior 02/2015; 20:1-9. DOI:10.1016/j.avb.2014.12.002


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