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SourceAvailable from: Daniel Akinyele[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A significant percentage of the global energy demand is expected to be met through widespread supply of renewable electricity in the near future. However, renewable energy outputs are variable due to a stochastic characteristic of their sources. Electrical power system operators around the world are faced with difficulties of integrating these variable power sources into the existing power grids. Energy storage systems are one of the possible solutions for mitigating the effects of intermittent renewable resources on networks, allowing increased renewable energy utilization, and providing flexibility and ancillary services for managing future electricity supply/demand challenges. This paper presents a comprehensive review of energy storage technologies that are currently engaged for power applications, including pumped hydro, compressed-air, battery, flywheel, capacitor, supercapacitor, superconducting magnetic and thermal systems. The study compares the characteristics of these systems, and presents their technological development status and capital costs. Some directions for future work are also highlighted. Furthermore, particular attention is paid to some new storage technologies such as: adiabatic, underwater, isothermal and small-scale compressed-air; sub-surface, seawater and variable-speed pumped hydro, and pumped heat systems, which hold opportunity for future smart electrical grid applications, but there is need for more research to actualize their promising potentials.12/2014; 8:74–91. DOI:10.1016/j.seta.2014.07.004
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ABSTRACT: Photoluminescence (PL) and radioluminescence (RL) measurements were made on small (∼25 nm) NaMgF3 nanoparticles doped with Eu concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 5%. We find that they contained Eu3+, Eu2+, and an additional unidentified defect with a broad PL emission ∼470 nm. Similar to previous measurements on larger (57 nm to 77 nm) NaMgF3:Eu nanoparticles with 1% Eu and 5% Eu, we find that the PL lifetime decreases with increasing Eu concentration that can be attributed to Eu energy transfer to non-radiative recombination sites. However, there is no change in the fraction of Eu3+ distorted sites. The ∼470 nm PL defect peak was also reported for larger nanoparticles, which suggests that this peak arises from similar unidentified point defects. However, the activated non-radiative decay for the small nanoparticles has a significantly lower activation energy. The Eu3+ RL decreases by only 2.3 % at 10 kGy for low Eu concentrations.Radiation Measurements 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.radmeas.2014.01.003
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ABSTRACT: This paper tests whether people’s sense of connectedness with the natural environment is related to cognitive styles such as Kirton’s adaption-innovation (KAI), and analytic-holistic thinking (AHT). We conducted two studies with Singaporean secondary students as participants. Study 1 (N = 138), using an online survey, established the significant positive relationship between the nature relatedness self subscale and both the KAI and the AHT cognitive styles. Study 2 (N = 185), using pen and paper surveys, replicated Study 1’s findings and found that connectedness with nature was significantly related to both the KAI and the AHT cognitive styles beyond alternative explanations (demographic and well-being status). Students who were more connected with nature preferred innovative and holistic cognitive styles, while controlling for their general emotional status and well-being. These findings are the first to establish the link between connectedness with nature and cognitive styles. Future research and implications are discussed.Journal of Environmental Psychology 12/2014; 40. DOI:10.1016/j.jenvp.2014.03.007
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