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    ABSTRACT: The European policy in urban atmospheric pollution aims at reducing its impact on human health. This problem of public health is closely related to exposure of citizens during the day. Its estimation through persons activities defines the space-time budget. Sooner or later the local authorities in charge of air quality will provide to the population about their collective or individual exposure. We have developed here a tool that supplies this information. It is based on a multi-source approach. It exploits a Geographic Information System (GIS) gathering information such as individuals mobility, the topographic database, and concentrations of pollutants. Maps and dynamic representations of individual exposure are obtained. They display indoor (home, place of work) and outdoor exposure.
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    ABSTRACT: This article clarifies the distinction between unidisciplinary, multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research about environment and human behaviour. One objective is to consider the challenges and opportunities transdisciplinarity offers in terms of the emergence of new ideas for theory and application. The costs and benefits, as well as the advantages and constraints of a transdisciplinary approach in the field of urban studies are then considered, and compared with multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches. First, a brief history of the concept of transdisciplinarity is presented. Second, the scientific context (the unit of analysis, application and theoretical goal) is identified. Third, conclusions are drawn about the perspective that researchers need to adopt if a transdisciplinary approach is to be effective (looking for coherence versus paradoxes). All of these reflections on transdisciplinarity are supported by the research experience gained in studies on Canadian (Quebec) and French (Strasbourg) suburbs. The paper focuses on the representation and perception of urban space.
    Futures 05/2004; 36(4-36):423-439. DOI:10.1016/j.futures.2003.10.009
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