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- SourceAvailable from: Ying C Cheong[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chronic pelvic pain is common in women in the reproductive and older age groups and causes disability and distress. Often investigation by laparoscopy reveals no obvious cause for the pain. As the pathophysiology of chronic pelvic pain is not well understood its treatment is often unsatisfactory and limited to symptom relief. Currently the main approaches to treatment include counselling or psychotherapy, attempts to provide reassurance by using laparoscopy to exclude serious pathology, progestogen therapy such as medroxyprogesterone acetate, and surgery to interrupt nerve pathways. We aimed to identify and review treatments for chronic pelvic pain in women. The review included studies of patients with a diagnosis of pelvic congestion syndrome or adhesions but excluded those with pain known to be caused by i) endometriosis, ii) primary dysmenorrhoea (period pain), iii) pain due to active chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, or iv) irritable bowel syndrome. We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register of trials (searched 20th January 2005), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2005), and reference lists of articles. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with women who had chronic pelvic pain. The review authors were prepared to consider studies of any intervention including lifestyle, physical, medical, surgical and psychological treatments. Outcome measures were pain rating scales, quality of life measures, economic analyses and adverse events. For each included trial, information was collected including the method of randomisation, allocation concealment and blinding. Data were extracted independently by the two review authors using forms designed according to the Cochrane guidelines. Nineteen studies were identified of which fourteen were of satisfactory methodological quality. Five studies were excluded. Progestogen (medroxyprogesterone acetate) was associated with a reduction of pain during treatment while goserelin gave a longer duration of benefit. Counseling supported by ultrasound scanning was associated with reduced pain and improvement in mood. A multidisciplinary approach was beneficial for some outcome measures. Benefit was not demonstrated for adhesiolysis (apart from where adhesions were severe), uterine nerve ablation, sertraline or photographic reinforcement after laparoscopy. Writing therapy and static magnetic field therapy showed some evidence of short-term benefit. The range of proven effective interventions for chronic pelvic pain remains limited and recommendations are based largely on single studies. Given the prevalence and healthcare costs associated with chronic pelvic pain in women, randomised controlled trials of other medical, surgical and psychological interventions are urgently required.Chronic pelvic pain is common in women in the reproductive and older age groups and it causes disability and distress that result in significant costs to health services. The pathogenesis of chronic pelvic pain is poorly understood. Often investigation by laparoscopy reveals no obvious cause for the pain. There are several possible explanations for chronic pelvic pain including undetected irritable bowel syndrome, and central sensitisation of the nervous system. A vascular hypothesis proposes that pain arises from dilated pelvic veins in which blood flow is markedly reduced. As the pathophysiology of chronic pelvic pain is not well understood, its treatment is often unsatisfactory and limited to symptom relief. Currently the main approaches to treatment include counselling or psychotherapy, attempts to provide reassurance using laparoscopy to exclude serious pathology, progestogen therapy such as with medroxyprogesterone acetate and surgery to interrupt nerve pathways.The Cochrane Library, 03/2015;
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ABSTRACT: Infection of mice with the ME7 prion agent results in well-characterised neuropathological changes, which includes vacuolation, neurodegeneration and synaptic degeneration. Presynaptic dysfunction and degeneration is apparent through the progressive reduction in synaptic vesicle proteins and eventual loss of synapses. Cysteine string protein alpha (CSPα), which regulates refolding pathways at the synapse, exhibits an early decline during chronic neurodegeneration implicating it as a mediator of disease mechanisms. CSPα null mice develop a progressive neuronal dysfunction through disruption of the integrity of presynaptic function. In this study, we investigated whether reduced expression of CSPα would exacerbate ME7 prion disease. Wild type (+/+) and heterozygous (+/−) mice, which express about a ∼50% reduction in CSPα, were used as a distinct genetic background on which to impose prion disease. +/+ and +/ − mice were inoculated with brain homogenate from either a normal mouse brain (NBH) or from the brain of a mouse which displayed clinical signs of prion disease (ME7). Behavioural tests, western blotting and immunohistochemistry, which resolve key elements of synaptic dysfunction, were used to assess the effect of reduced CSPα on disease. Behavioural tests revealed no change in the progression of disease in ME7–CSPα +/− animals compared to ME7–CSPα +/+ animals. In addition, the accumulation of misfolded PrPSc, the diseased associated gliosis or synaptic loss were not different. Thus, the misfolding events that generate synaptic dysfunction and lead to synaptic loss are unlikely to be mediated by a disease associated decrease in the refolding pathways associated with CSPα.Neuroscience Letters 03/2015; 589. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2015.01.053
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ABSTRACT: Approximately 800 women die of pregnancy-related complications every day. Over half of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Most maternal deaths can be prevented with high quality maternal health services. It is well established that use of maternal health services vary by place of residence and socioeconomic status (SES), but few studies have examined the determinants of quality of maternal health services in SSA. The purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of antenatal care (ANC) quality in Ghana-focusing on the role of place of residence and SES (education and wealth). The analysis also examines the interactions of these variables and the mediating role of ANC timing, frequency, facility type, and provider type. The data are from the Ghana Maternal Health Survey (N = 4,868). Analytic techniques include multilevel linear regression with mediation and moderation analysis. Urban residence and higher SES are positively associated with higher ANC quality, but the urban effect is completely explained by sociodemographic factors. Specifically, about half of the urban effect is explained by education and wealth alone, with other variables accounting for the remainder. The effects of education are conditional on wealth and are strongest for poor women. Starting ANC visits early and attending the recommended four visits as well as receiving ANC from a higher level facility and from a skilled provider are associated with higher quality ANC. These factors partially explain the SES differentials. Ghanaian women experience significant disparities in quality of ANC, with poor illiterate women receiving the worst care. Targeted efforts to increase quality of ANC may significantly reduce maternal health disparities in Ghana and SSA. A particularly crucial step is to improve ANC quality in the lower level health facilities, where the most vulnerable women are more likely to seek ANC.PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117996. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117996
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