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- SourceAvailable from: Ying C Cheong[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chronic pelvic pain in women is a common problem. Symptoms include lower abdominal pain, and pain before and during sexual intercourse. Specific causes are difficult to identify and treatment is often limited to relief of symptoms. An ultrasound or internal examination using a laparoscope is done to rule out serious conditions and to provide reassurance. The review of trials found that a multidisciplinary approach helps alleviate symptoms. A high dose of progestogen therapy using medroxyprogesterone acetate also helps but goserelin has a longer duration of benefit. There is an indication of benefit from writing therapy for some patients.The Cochrane Library, 03/2015;
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on renal function, nitric oxide (NO) system, oxidative stress, collagen content and apoptosis in kidneys of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), as well as sex-related differences in the response to the treatment. 10 week-old male and female SHR were infused with ANP (100 ng/h/rat) or saline (NaCl 0.9%) for 14 days (subcutaneous osmotic pumps). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was recorded and diuresis and natriuresis were determined. After treatment, renal NO synthase (NOS) activity and eNOS expression were evaluated. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in the kidney. Collagen was identified in renal slices by Sirius red staining and apoptosis by Tunel assay. Female SHR showed lower SBP, oxidative stress, collagen content and apoptosis in kidney, and higher renal NOS activity and eNOS protein content, than males. ANP lowered SBP, increased diuresis, natriuresis, renal NOS activity and eNOS expression in both sexes. Renal response to ANP was more marked in females than in males. In kidney, ANP reduced TBARS, renal collagen content and apoptosis, and increased glutathione concentration and activity of GPx and SOD enzymes in both sexes. Female SHR exhibited less organ damage than males. Chronic ANP treatment would ameliorate hypertension and end-organ damage in the kidney by reducing oxidative stress, increasing NO-system activity, and diminishing collagen content and apoptosis, in both sexes.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0120362. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120362
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ABSTRACT: Infection of mice with the ME7 prion agent results in well-characterised neuropathological changes, which includes vacuolation, neurodegeneration and synaptic degeneration. Presynaptic dysfunction and degeneration is apparent through the progressive reduction in synaptic vesicle proteins and eventual loss of synapses. Cysteine string protein alpha (CSPα), which regulates refolding pathways at the synapse, exhibits an early decline during chronic neurodegeneration implicating it as a mediator of disease mechanisms. CSPα null mice develop a progressive neuronal dysfunction through disruption of the integrity of presynaptic function. In this study, we investigated whether reduced expression of CSPα would exacerbate ME7 prion disease. Wild type (+/+) and heterozygous (+/−) mice, which express about a ∼50% reduction in CSPα, were used as a distinct genetic background on which to impose prion disease. +/+ and +/ − mice were inoculated with brain homogenate from either a normal mouse brain (NBH) or from the brain of a mouse which displayed clinical signs of prion disease (ME7). Behavioural tests, western blotting and immunohistochemistry, which resolve key elements of synaptic dysfunction, were used to assess the effect of reduced CSPα on disease. Behavioural tests revealed no change in the progression of disease in ME7–CSPα +/− animals compared to ME7–CSPα +/+ animals. In addition, the accumulation of misfolded PrPSc, the diseased associated gliosis or synaptic loss were not different. Thus, the misfolding events that generate synaptic dysfunction and lead to synaptic loss are unlikely to be mediated by a disease associated decrease in the refolding pathways associated with CSPα.Neuroscience Letters 03/2015; 589. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2015.01.053
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