[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L'essentiel de la production de coton en Afrique du Sud provient des fermiers à production commerciale, il est donc erroné de considérer l'adoption impressionnante de Coton Génétiquement Modifié (CGM) comme un exemple d'utilisation réussie par les petits producteurs. Le secteur coton sud-africain évolue dans un environnement instable de production et de commercialisation, et les petits producteurs en souffrent le plus en raison de leurs ressources financières limitées, de la faiblesse de leur production, de leurs faibles capacités de gestion et de commercialisation et de l'absence de choix de production alternative. La superficie totale en coton et le nombre de producteurs a diminué de manière drastique depuis l'introduction du CGM, ce phénomène amène les observateurs à remettre en cause le soi-disant "success story" du CGM en Afrique du Sud. L'expérience des petits producteurs dans ce pays montre que la seule introduction d'une technologie ne peut accroître durablement une production, les facteurs tels que les arrangements institutionnels jouent un rôle crucial. Les études antérieures avaient mis l'accent exclusivement sur la performance d'une technologie nouvelle en minimisant le rôle l'aspect institutionnel. Les résultats de notre recherche complète les études existantes en indiquant que la rentabilité de l'utilisation du CGM est faible dans un contexte défavorable sur le plan climatique et institutionnel. Ceci nous rappelle que l'agriculture pluviale est sensible aux aléas climatiques et que l'adoption d'une technologie nouvelle dans ces conditions peut accroître le risque financier lié à la production cotonnière.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between macroeconomic policies and industrial forestry developments in Zimbabwe. A principal rationale for the emphasis on macroeconomic aspects is that the macroeconomy provides underlying factors in forestry development. The paper demonstrates that: (a) macroeconomic policies promoted some industrial forestry activities in the post-independence period, more during the economic structural adjustment programme (ESAP) era when there were more pro-export policies, and then less in the recent post-ESAP years when dirigisme returned and the economy almost collapsed; (b) economic reform policies which initially had the greatest impact on industrial forestry were those of trade liberalisation and domestic deregulation, which came at a time when world timber markets were strengthening and therefore provided the timber industry with the capacity to grow, develop a wide range of products and adopt an export focus; (c) timber production for construction tends to increase with economic growth and vice versa; (d) in the post-ESAP period the forest industry has been characterised by uncertainty of tenure for its plantations due to recent changes in land laws, high inflation that erodes profitability, local market shrinkage due to prevailing stressed economy, loss of investor confidence and unrealistic currency exchange rates that make exporting unattractive. All these combine to form a very hostile environment for the forestry industry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study employed a Ricardian model to measure the impact of climate change on South Africa's field crops and analysed potential future impacts of further changes in the climate. A regression of farm net revenue on climate, soil and other socio-economic variables was conducted to capture farmer-adapted responses to climate variations. The analysis was based on agricultural data for seven field crops (maize, wheat, sorghum, sugarcane, groundnut, sunflower and soybean), climate and edaphic data across 300 districts in South Africa. Results indicate that production of field crops was sensitive to marginal changes in temperature as compared to changes in precipitation. Temperature rise positively affects net revenue whereas the effect of reduction in rainfall is negative. The study also highlights the importance of season and location in dealing with climate change showing that the spatial distribution of climate change impact and consequently needed adaptations will not be uniform across the different agro-ecological regions of South Africa. Results of simulations of climate change scenarios indicate many impacts that would induce (or require) very distinct shifts in farming practices and patterns in different regions. Those include major shifts in crop calendars and growing seasons, switching between crops to the possibility of complete disappearance of some field crops from some region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper fits translog stochastic frontiers with inefficiency effects to a panel of Hungarian firm level data for 117 agricultural enterprises and 43 firms in the light manufacturing sector for the period from 1985 to 1991. Throughout this period, labor and materials make important contributions to output while energy and capital do not. Constant returns to scale and low elasticities of substitution are the norm. Technological regression dominates, giving negative productivity change, but the cross-section estimates show that relative efficiency improved sufficiently in both agriculture and industry. In the later years, the average production function is preferred to the stochastic frontier, except when manufacturing efficiency collapsed in 1991. The inefficiencies are explained by overcapitalization, subsidies, and excessive management costs, while firms that had established export markets were more efficient.J. Comp. Econom., September 2000, 28(3), pp. 473–501. Birkbeck College, University of London, London WC1E 7HX, United Kingdom; University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002, Republic of South Africa; and Imperial College, University of London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002, Republic of South Africa.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper examines the natural resource status of southern Africa and analyzes the critical linkages between the performance of southern African agriculture and natural resource use patterns. The implication of on-going natural resource use trends on poverty, food insecurity, and environmental degradation are also analyzed. The challenges that must be addressed including, how best to intensify agricultural production, the types of technologies to promote and the imperatives of production efficiency and intra-regional trade are examined. The paper concludes with some suggestions on how best to proceed in the future to be able to successfully address the challenges identified.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The paper examines alternative modalities for the forthcoming process of land reform in South Africa. It is argued that the criteria of relieving rural poverty and maximizing allocative efficiency will conflict to some degree. However, it is possible to visualize a range of land reform options which encompass both of these objectives as a basis for the operations of the new multiracial government which will take office in South Africa on 27 April, 1994.
Journal of International Development 02/1994; 6(2):219 - 239.
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