25
33.87
1.35
41

Publication History View all

  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study identifies the major methods used by farmers to adapt to climate change in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia, the factors that affect their choice of method, and the barriers to adaptation. The methods identified include use of different crop varieties, tree planting, soil conservation, early and late planting, and irrigation. Results from the discrete choice model employed indicate that the level of education, gender, age, and wealth of the head of household; access to extension and credit; information on climate, social capital, agroecological settings, and temperature all influence farmers’ choices. The main barriers include lack of information on adaptation methods and financial constraints.
    Global Environmental Change 05/2009; DOI:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.01.002
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper is a summary of the behaviour of food commodity prices in 2007–2008 and a review of the causes of the price increases, extracted from a report to the Chief Scientific Advisor to Her Majesty’s Government [Thirtle, C., Piesse, J., 2008. An Explanatory Review of the World Food Commodity Price Events of 2007–2008. A Report to the Chief Scientific Advisor. Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills, London]. The historical background shows that the price spike was much less severe than in the 1970s. The conventional wisdom that prices of the main food commodities were falling prior to 2006 is questioned. Most ceased falling and were quite stable from the 1980s. The paper separates the causes of the spike from the underlying changes driving the long run trends. The literature on the causes of the spike is critically reviewed and summarised. There is a reasonably broad consensus on most of the causes, but much less on the impact of the depreciation of the US Dollar. There are also concluding speculations on the future.
    Food Policy 04/2009; DOI:10.1016/j.foodpol.2009.01.001
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: L'essentiel de la production de coton en Afrique du Sud provient des fermiers à production commerciale, il est donc erroné de considérer l'adoption impressionnante de Coton Génétiquement Modifié (CGM) comme un exemple d'utilisation réussie par les petits producteurs. Le secteur coton sud-africain évolue dans un environnement instable de production et de commercialisation, et les petits producteurs en souffrent le plus en raison de leurs ressources financières limitées, de la faiblesse de leur production, de leurs faibles capacités de gestion et de commercialisation et de l'absence de choix de production alternative. La superficie totale en coton et le nombre de producteurs a diminué de manière drastique depuis l'introduction du CGM, ce phénomène amène les observateurs à remettre en cause le soi-disant "success story" du CGM en Afrique du Sud. L'expérience des petits producteurs dans ce pays montre que la seule introduction d'une technologie ne peut accroître durablement une production, les facteurs tels que les arrangements institutionnels jouent un rôle crucial. Les études antérieures avaient mis l'accent exclusivement sur la performance d'une technologie nouvelle en minimisant le rôle l'aspect institutionnel. Les résultats de notre recherche complète les études existantes en indiquant que la rentabilité de l'utilisation du CGM est faible dans un contexte défavorable sur le plan climatique et institutionnel. Ceci nous rappelle que l'agriculture pluviale est sensible aux aléas climatiques et que l'adoption d'une technologie nouvelle dans ces conditions peut accroître le risque financier lié à la production cotonnière.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The industrialization of agriculture and the potential problem of small-scale farmer marginalization calls for a fresh approach to the design of agribusiness supply chain arrangements in developing countries. The objective of the paper is to contribute to a better understanding of institutional arrangements that can promote stable smallholder agribusiness contracting arrangements in a developing country context. A case study approach, incorporating a transaction cost framework, is used to test whether trust can significantly change the contract characteristics of supply. The results suggest that although the presence of trust can influence the contract characteristics of a supply arrangement, it may not be significant because of other factors in a developing country context. Bearing this in mind, a number of institutional arrangements are recommended in order to promote more stable contract conditions.
    Food Policy 03/2007; 32(1):640-655. DOI:10.1016/j.foodpol.2007.03.001
  • South African Journal of Economics 07/2006; 56(2‐3):112 - 122. DOI:10.1111/j.1813-6982.1988.tb00910.x
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between macroeconomic policies and industrial forestry developments in Zimbabwe. A principal rationale for the emphasis on macroeconomic aspects is that the macroeconomy provides underlying factors in forestry development. The paper demonstrates that: (a) macroeconomic policies promoted some industrial forestry activities in the post-independence period, more during the economic structural adjustment programme (ESAP) era when there were more pro-export policies, and then less in the recent post-ESAP years when dirigisme returned and the economy almost collapsed; (b) economic reform policies which initially had the greatest impact on industrial forestry were those of trade liberalisation and domestic deregulation, which came at a time when world timber markets were strengthening and therefore provided the timber industry with the capacity to grow, develop a wide range of products and adopt an export focus; (c) timber production for construction tends to increase with economic growth and vice versa; (d) in the post-ESAP period the forest industry has been characterised by uncertainty of tenure for its plantations due to recent changes in land laws, high inflation that erodes profitability, local market shrinkage due to prevailing stressed economy, loss of investor confidence and unrealistic currency exchange rates that make exporting unattractive. All these combine to form a very hostile environment for the forestry industry.
    Forest Policy and Economics 01/2006; DOI:10.1016/j.forpol.2004.05.002
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study employed a Ricardian model to measure the impact of climate change on South Africa's field crops and analysed potential future impacts of further changes in the climate. A regression of farm net revenue on climate, soil and other socio-economic variables was conducted to capture farmer-adapted responses to climate variations. The analysis was based on agricultural data for seven field crops (maize, wheat, sorghum, sugarcane, groundnut, sunflower and soybean), climate and edaphic data across 300 districts in South Africa. Results indicate that production of field crops was sensitive to marginal changes in temperature as compared to changes in precipitation. Temperature rise positively affects net revenue whereas the effect of reduction in rainfall is negative. The study also highlights the importance of season and location in dealing with climate change showing that the spatial distribution of climate change impact and consequently needed adaptations will not be uniform across the different agro-ecological regions of South Africa. Results of simulations of climate change scenarios indicate many impacts that would induce (or require) very distinct shifts in farming practices and patterns in different regions. Those include major shifts in crop calendars and growing seasons, switching between crops to the possibility of complete disappearance of some field crops from some region.
    Global and Planetary Change 07/2005; DOI:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2004.10.009
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Industrial firms world wide have shed non-core business and outsourced these activities. An increasing number of sugar producers in Southern Africa have also outsourced their sugarcane production activities for both strategic and equity reasons. The purpose of the study is to use a transaction cost analysis (TCA) approach to assist the firm, as an outsourcer, make and structure an outsourcing decision. A Case Study methodology, which includes data from two major Southern African sugar producers, is employed to test the research questions. The results indicate that sugarcane production should not be outsourced on a partial specification contract basis but rather co-ordinated by a more relational structure like a strategic alliance. The results also suggest that the suitability of a strategy-based structure can sometimes be contradicted by a transaction cost analysis approach. Finally, the results indicate a conflicting South African agribusiness scenario, namely, the need to expand small-farm supply versus the economic goal of profit maximisation.
    Management Accounting Research 03/2005; 16(1):81-99. DOI:10.1016/j.mar.2004.10.001
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: South African grain cooperatives have responded to market reforms by changing their activities and increasing their efficiency. Prior to deregulation, they supplied inputs and marketed outputs through marketing boards and also acted as financial intermediaries by implementing discriminatory policies that favored commercial farmers. Using stochastic production frontiers, we show that the cooperatives have become market-based agri-business firms concentrating on reducing the transaction costs of their members instead of extensions of the state control apparatus involved in financial intermediation. From data envelopment analysis, we demonstrate that the increased competition resulting from deregulation and the removal of subsidies has led to increased efficiency levels. Journal of Comparative Economics33 (1) (2005) 197–218.
    Journal of Comparative Economics 03/2005; DOI:10.1016/j.jce.2004.10.002
Information provided on this web page is aggregated encyclopedic and bibliographical information relating to the named institution. Information provided is not approved by the institution itself. The institution’s logo (and/or other graphical identification, such as a coat of arms) is used only to identify the institution in a nominal way. Under certain jurisdictions it may be property of the institution.