[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of charged-particle radiation therapy (CPRT) is an increasingly important development in the treatment of cancer. One of the most pressing controversies about the use of this technology is whether randomised controlled trials are required before this form of treatment can be considered to be the treatment of choice for a wide range of indications. Equipoise is the key ethical concept in determining which research studies are justified. However, there is a good deal of disagreement about how this concept is best understood and applied in the specific case of CPRT. This report is a position statement on these controversies that arises out of a workshop held at Wolfson College, Oxford in August 2011. The workshop brought together international leaders in the relevant fields (radiation oncology, medical physics, radiobiology, research ethics and methodology), including proponents on both sides of the debate, in order to make significant progress on the ethical issues associated with CPRT research. This position statement provides an ethical platform for future research and should enable further work to be done in developing international coordinated programmes of research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The non-identity problem arises when an intervention or behavior changes the identity of those affected. Delaying pregnancy is an example of such a behavior. The problem is whether and in what ways such changes in identity affect moral considerations. While a great deal has been written about the non-identity problem, relatively little has been written about the implications for physicians and how they should understand their duties. We argue that the non-identity problem can make a crucial moral difference in some circumstances, and that it has some interesting implications for when it is or is not right for a physician to refuse to accede to a patient's request. If a physician is asked to provide an intervention (identity preserving) that makes a person worse off, then such harm provides a good reason for the physician to refuse to provide the intervention. However, in cases where different (identity-altering) interventions result in different people having a better or worse life, physicians should normally respect patient choice.
The American Journal of Bioethics 08/2012; 12(8):21-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Making threats and offers to patients is a strategy used in community mental healthcare to increase treatment adherence. In this paper, an ethical analysis of these types of proposal is presented. It is argued (1) that the primary ethical consideration is to identify the professional duties of care held by those working in community mental health because the nature of these duties will enable a threat to be differentiated from an offer, (2) that threatening to act in a way that would equate with a failure to uphold the requirements of these duties is wrong, irrespective of the benefit accrued through treatment adherence and (3) that making offers to patients raises a number of secondary ethical considerations that need to be judged on their own merit in the context of individual patient care. The paper concludes by considering the implications of these arguments, setting out a pathway designed to assist community mental healthcare practitioners to determine whether making a specific proposal to a patient is right or wrong.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: People with anorexia nervosa struggle with questions of authenticity. They thought about whether they were being their authentic selves, and which of their desires, emotions, and choices were authentic. More attention should be paid this important concept and its role and status--both how patients think about it, and how clinicians should think about it.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is an established link between depression and interest in hastened death in patients who are seriously ill. Concern exists over the extent of depression in patients who actively request euthanasia/physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and those who have their requests granted.
To estimate the prevalence of depression in refused and granted requests for euthanasia/PAS and discuss these findings. Methods A systematic review was performed in MEDLINE and PsycINFO in July 2010, identifying studies reporting rates of depression in requests for and cases of euthanasia/PAS. One author critically appraised the strength of the data using published criteria.
21 studies were included covering four countries. There was considerable heterogeneity in methods of assessing depression and selecting patients. In the highest quality studies, in the Netherlands and Oregon, 8-47% of patients requesting euthanasia/PAS had depressive symptoms and 2-17% of completed euthanasia/PAS cases had depressive symptoms. In the Netherlands, depression was significantly higher in refused than granted requests, and there was no significant difference in the rate of depression between euthanasia cases and similar patients who had not made a request for euthanasia.
It is unclear whether depression increases the probability of making a request for euthanasia/PAS, but in the Netherlands most requests in depressed patients are rejected, leaving a depression rate in cases that is similar to the surrounding population. Less evidence is available elsewhere, but some level of depression has been identified in patients undergoing euthanasia/PAS in all the countries studied. Whether the presence of depression is ever compatible with an ethical decision on euthanasia/PAS is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Italy, a judge reduced the sentence of a defendant by 1year in response to evidence for a genetic predisposition to violence.
The best characterized of these genetic differences, those in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), were cited as especially relevant.
Several months previously in the USA, MAOA data contributed to a jury reducing charges from 1st degree murder (a capital offence)
to voluntary manslaughter. Is there a rational basis for this type of use of MAOA evidence in criminal court? This paper will
review in context recent work on the MAOA gene–environment interaction in predisposing individuals to violence and address
the relevance of such findings to murder trials. Interestingly, the MAOA genetic variants impact future violence and aggression
only when combined with the adverse environmental stimuli of childhood maltreatment. Thus nature and nurture interact to determine
the individual’s risk. Based on current evidence, I argue there is a weak case for mitigation. But should future experiments
confirm the hypothesis that individual differences in impulse control and response to provocation found in MAOA-L men (without
abuse) are significantly magnified when combined with childhood maltreatment, the case could turn into a stronger one.
KeywordsViolence–Genetic predisposition–MAOA–Monoamine Oxidase A–Criminal responsibility–Neuroethics–Gene × environment interaction
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