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    ABSTRACT: We examine the effect of the Marcus-Hush model of electrode kinetics on electron transfer at the surface of a single nanoparticle impacting an electode. Using numerical simulation we demonstrate the possibility of observing a kinetically limited steady state current which is smaller than the mass transport limiting current for such a system.
    Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry. 01/2014; 712:14–18.
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    ABSTRACT: We report a simple but highly cooperative ensemble with CdS and MoS2 nanocrystals dispersed on graphene sheets: it is demonstrated that CdS nanocrystals can capture light energy and facilitate excited electron transfer to MoS2 for catalytic hydrogen production via the 2-D graphene which plays a key role as an efficient electron mediator.
    Chemical Communications 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to perform efficient and affordable field detection and quantification of nanoparticles in aquatic environmental systems remains a significant technical challenge. Recently we reported a proof of concept of using 'sticky' electrodes for the detection of silver nanoparticles (Tschulik et al 2013 Nanotechnology 29 295502). Now a disposable electrode for detection and quantification of commercial Ag nanoparticles in natural seawater is presented. A disposable screen printed electrode is modified with cysteine and characterized by sticking and stripping experiments, with silver nanoparticle immobilization on the electrode surface and subsequent oxidative stripping, yielding a quantitative determination of the amount of Ag nanoparticles adhering to the electrode surface. The modified electrode was applied to natural seawater to mimic field-based environmental monitoring of Ag NPs present in seawater. The results demonstrated that commercial Ag NPs in natural seawater can be immobilized, enriched and quantified within short time period using the disposable electrodes without any need for elaborate experiments.
    Nanotechnology 11/2013; 24(50):505501.
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    ABSTRACT: A low native membrane permeability and ineffective access to the cellular cytosol, together with aggressive proteolytic degradation, often severely hampers the practical application of any therapeutic protein or antibody. Through engineering the charging profile of mesoporous silica nanoparticles, cellular uptake and subsequent subcellular distribution can be controlled. We show herein that programmed cell death can subsequently be induced across a population of cancer cells with remarkable efficacy on conjugating a specific caspase-cascade-activating cytochrome to such cytosol-accessing particles.
    Chemistry 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: This perspective summarises four different electrochemical techniques that have been established and frequently used to characterize various properties of silver nanoparticles. These are based on drop casting (I), in situ nanoparticle sticking and stripping (II), transfer sticking and stripping (III) or nanoparticle impacts (IV). The specific characteristics of the different methodologies are explained and contrasted with each other with the focus being on the respective benefits and limitations together with essential insights for experimentalists.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: In stochastic sensing, the association and dissociation of analyte molecules is observed as the modulation of an ionic current flowing through a single engineered protein pore, enabling the label-free determination of rate and equilibrium constants with respect to a specific binding site. We engineered sensors based on the staphylococcal α-hemolysin pore to allow the single-molecule detection and characterization of protein kinase-peptide interactions. We enhanced this approach by using site-specific proteolysis to generate pores bearing a single peptide sensor element attached by an N-terminal peptide bond to the trans mouth of the pore. Kinetics and affinities for the Pim protein kinases (Pim-1, Pim-2, and Pim-3) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase were measured and found to be independent of membrane potential and in good agreement with previously reported data. Kinase binding exhibited a distinct current noise behavior that forms a basis for analyte discrimination. Finally, we observed unusually high association rate constants for the interaction of Pim kinases with their consensus substrate Pimtide (∼10(7) to 10(8) M(-1)⋅s(-1)), the result of electrostatic enhancement, and propose a cellular role for this phenomenon.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Collision-induced rotational angular momentum orientation is a fundamental property of molecular scattering, which is sensitive to the balance between attractive and repulsive forces at play during collision. Here, we quantify a new mechanism leading to orientation, which is purely quantum mechanical in origin. Although the new mechanism is quite general, and will operate more widely in atomic and molecular scattering, it is observed here for impulsive hard shell collisions, for which the orientation vanishes classically. The quantum mechanism can thus be studied in isolation from other processes. The orientation is proposed to originate from the nonlocal nature of the quantum mechanical collision encounter.
    Physical Review Letters 11/2013; 111(18):183202.
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    ABSTRACT: Quantitative analytical detection and sizing of silver nanoparticles is achieved by applying the new electrochemical method nanoparticle coulometry. For the first time, tri-sodium citrate is used as both an electrolyte and a nanoparticle stabilizing agent, allowing the individual particles to be addressed.
    ChemPhysChem 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Serine- and metallo-β-lactamases present a threat to the clinical use of nearly all β-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Efforts to develop metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) inhibitors require suitable screening platforms to allow the rapid determination of β-lactamase activity and efficient inhibition. Unfortunately, the platforms currently available are not ideal for this purpose. Further progress in MBL inhibitor identification requires inexpensive and widely applicable assays. Herein the identification of an inexpensive and stable chromogenic substrate suitable for use in assays of clinically relevant MBLs is described. (6R,7R)-3-((4-Nitrophenoxy)methyl)-8-oxo-7-(2-phenylacetamido)-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid 5,5-dioxide (CLS405) was synthesised in a three-step protocol. CLS405 was then characterised spectroscopically, and its stability and kinetic properties evaluated. With a Δλmax value of 100 nm between the parent and hydrolysis product, a higher analytical accuracy is possible with CLS405 than with commonly used chromogenic substrates. The use of CLS405 in assays was validated by MBL activity measurements and inhibitor screening that resulted in the identification of N-hydroxythiazoles as new inhibitor scaffolds for MBLs. Further evaluation of the identified N-hydroxythiazoles against a panel of clinically relevant MBLs showed that they possess inhibitory activities in the mid- to low-micromolar range. The findings of this study provide both a useful tool compound for further inhibitor identification, and novel scaffolds for the design of improved MBL inhibitors with potential as antibiotics against resistant strains of bacteria.
    ChemMedChem 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Electrodeposition methods are used to generate a sparse array of platinum nanoparticles on a glassy carbon electrode. Specifically electrodeposition from a 1 mM solution of H2PtCl6 in 0.5 M H2SO4 leads to surface coverages of 0.46% to 1.96% and nanoparticles of size 29 nm to 136 nm in diameter, using deposition times of 30 and 15 seconds. The reduction of oxygen at an array of 29 nm nanoparticles with a surface coverage of 0.46% showed voltammetric signals with a scan rate dependence consistent with a two electron reduction of O2 to H2O2 with the rate proportional to and formal potential (E) of -0.058 V vs. SHE, a standard electrochemical rate constant (k0) of ∼10 cm s(-1) and a transfer coefficient (α) of 0.23. At higher Pt nanoparticle coverages, a scan rate dependence consistent with the partial further reduction of H2O2 to water becomes evident.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 10/2013;
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