University of Oxford

Oxford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom

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Department of Chemistry
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Department of Physics
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Department of Engineering Science
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Publication History View all

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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives A previous study has shown an association of paranoid thinking with a reliance on rapid intuitive (‘experiential’) reasoning and less use of slower effortful analytic (‘rational’) reasoning. The objectives of the new study were to replicate the test of paranoia and reasoning styles in a large general population sample and to assess the use of these reasoning styles in patients with persecutory delusions. Method 30 patients with persecutory delusions in the context of a non-affective psychotic disorder and 1000 non-clinical individuals completed self-report assessments of paranoia and reasoning styles. Results The patients with delusions reported lower levels of both experiential and analytic reasoning than the non-clinical individuals (effect sizes small to moderate). Both self-rated ability and engagement with the reasoning styles were lower in the clinical group. Within the non-clinical group, greater levels of paranoia were associated with lower levels of analytic reasoning, but there was no association with experiential reasoning. Limitations The study is cross-sectional and cannot determine whether the reasoning styles contribute to the occurrence of paranoia. It also cannot be determined whether the patient group’s lower reasoning scores are specifically associated with the delusions. Conclusions Clinical paranoia is associated with less reported use of analytic and experiential reasoning. This may reflect patients with current delusions being unconfident in their reasoning abilities or less aware of decision-making processes and hence less able to re-evaluate fearful cognitions. The dual process theory of reasoning may provide a helpful framework in which to discuss with patients decision-making styles.
    Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Carbon quantification and the standardisation in a pure cementite were conducted using pulsed-laser atom probe tomography (APT). The results were analysed to investigate a dependence on three distinct experimental parameters; the laser pulse energy, the cryogenic specimen temperature and the laser pulse frequency. All the measurements returned an apparent carbon content of 25.0 ±1.0 at%. Carbon content measurements showed no clear dependence on the cryogenic temperature or the laser pulse frequency. However, the results did demonstrate a strong correlation with the laser pulse energy. For lower laser pulse energies, the analysis returned carbon contents higher than the stoichiometric ratio. It was suggested that this effect is due to pile up of 56Fe++ at the detector and as a consequence there is a systematic preferential loss of these ions throughout the course of the experiment. Conversely, in experiments utilising higher laser pulse energies, it was found that the carbon contents were smaller than the stoichiometric ratio. In these experiments an increasing fraction of the larger carbon molecular ions (e.g. C5 ions) were detected as part of a multiple detection events, which could affect the quantification measurements.
    Ultramicroscopy 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (210 K)Download as PowerPoint slide
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms 12/2014;

Information

  • Address
    University of Oxford, University Offices, Wellington Square, OX1 2JD, Oxford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom
  • Head of Institution
    The Rt Hon the Lord Patten of Barnes, CH
  • Website
    http://www.ox.ac.uk
  • Phone
    +44 1865 270000
  • Fax
    +44 1865 270708
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BMJ (online) 01/2010; 340:c1900.
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Behaviour Research and Therapy 08/1999; 37 Suppl 1:S5-27.
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