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    ABSTRACT: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever (TBF) in sheep and cattle and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) has the unique ability to selectively infect and multiply within the hostile environment of the neutrophil. Previous studies have shown that sheep with TBF are more susceptible to other infections and that infected neutrophils have reduced phagocytic ability and delayed apoptosis. This suggests that survival of A. phagocytophilum in these short-lived cells involves the ability to subvert or resist their bacterial killing, but also to modify the host cells such that the host cells survive long after infection. The present study shows that infection of sheep by A. phagocytophilum is characterized by up-regulation of some anti-apoptotic genes (BCL2, BIRC3 and CFLAR) in neutrophils and up-regulation of genes encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in mononuclear cells during the period of bacteraemia. Infection with A. phagocytophilum was also characterized by significant up-regulation of CYBB, which is associated with the respiratory burst of neutrophils.
    Journal of comparative pathology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Recent reports raised concerns about the role that farm stock may play in the dissemination of ESBL producing bacteria. This study characterised the ESBLs in two Escherichia coli and three Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae isolates from cases of clinical bovine mastitis in the UK. Bacterial culture and sensitivity testing of bovine mastitic milk samples identified Gram-negative cefpodoxime-resistant isolates which were assessed for ESBL phenotypes. Conjugation experiments and PCR based replicon typing (PBRT) were used for characterisation of transferable plasmids. E. coli isolates belonged to sequence type ST88 (MLST), and carried blaCTX-M-15 and blaTEM-1, whilst K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae isolates carried blaSHV-12 and blaTEM1. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that blaCTX-M-15 and blaTEM-1 were carried on a conjugative plasmid in E. coli and PBRT identified this to be an IncI1 plasmid. The resistance genes were non-transferable in K. pneumoniae isolates. Moreover, in the E. coli isolates, an association of ISEcp1 and IS26 with blaCTX-M-15 was found where the IS26 element was inserted up-stream of both the ISEcp1 and the blaCTX-M promoter, a genetic arrangement highly similar to that described in some UK human isolates. We report the first cases in Europe of bovine mastitis due to E. coli CTX-M-15 and also of bovine mastitis due to K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae SHV-12 β-lactamases in the UK. We also describe the genetic environment of blaCTX-M-15 and highlight the role that IncI1 plasmids may play in the spread and dissemination of ESBL genes, which have been described in both human and cattle isolates.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are the most common cutaneous tumours of dogs, however rarely they can arise from the oral mucosa. This subset of MCT is reported to demonstrate a more aggressive clinical course than those tumours on the haired skin and the authors hypothesised that dogs with oral, mucosal MCT would have a high incidence of local lymph node metastasis at presentation and that this would be a negative prognostic factor. An additional hypothesis was that mitotic index (MI) would be prognostic. This retrospective study examines 33 dogs with MCTs arising from the oral mucosa. The results suggest that oral mucosal MCTs in the dog have a high incidence of lymph node metastasis at diagnosis (55%) which results in a poor prognosis. MI and nodal metastasis is highly prognostic. Loco-regional progression is common in these patients and dogs with adequate local control of their tumour had an improved outcome. Despite a more aggressive clinical course, treatment can result in protracted survivals, even when metastasis is present.
    Veterinary and Comparative Oncology 11/2013;
  • The Veterinary record. 10/2013; 173(14):352.
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    ABSTRACT: Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa commonly complicates chronic bacterial otitis in dogs. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-tromethamine (Tris-EDTA) on the minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of marbofloxacin and gentamicin for multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates from cases of canine otitis. Eleven isolates were identified as multidrug resistant on disc diffusion; 10 were resistant to marbofloxacin and two were resistant to gentamicin. Isolates were incubated for 90 min with each antibiotic alone and in combination with Tris-EDTA at concentrations of 0.075 μg/mL to 5 mg/mL for marbofloxacin, 0.001 μg/mL to 10 mg/mL for gentamicin and 17.8:4.7 to 0.14:0.04 mg/mL for Tris-EDTA. Positive and negative controls were included. Aliquots of each antibiotic and/or Tris-EDTA concentration were subsequently transferred to sheep blood agar to determine the MBCs, and tryptone soy broth was added to the remaining suspensions to determine the MICs. Tris-EDTA alone was bacteriostatic but not bactericidal at any concentration. The addition of Tris-EDTA significantly reduced the median MBC (from 625 to 468.8 μg/mL; P < 0.001) and MIC (from 29.3 to 2.4 μg/mL; P = 0.008) of marbofloxacin, and the median MBC (from 625 to 39.1 μg/mL) and MIC (from 19.5 to 1.2 μg/mL) of gentamicin (both P < 0.001). Tris-EDTA significantly reduced the MBCs and MICs of marbofloxacin and gentamicin for multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa in vitro. This may be of use to clinicians managing these infections in dogs.
    Veterinary Dermatology 10/2013; 24(5):519-e122.
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY The faecal-pat prevalence (as estimated by culture) of Campylobacter fetus from cattle and sheep on 19 farms in rural Lancashire was investigated using standard Campylobacter culture techniques and PCR during a 2-year longitudinal study. C. fetus was isolated from 9·48% [95% confidence interval (CI) 8·48-10·48] of cattle faecal pats and 7·29% (95% CI 6·21-9·62) of sheep faecal pats. There was evidence of significant differences in shedding prevalence between geographical regions; cows in geographical zone 3 had an increased risk of shedding C. fetus compared to cows in geographical zones 1 and 2 (OR 6·64, 95% CI 1·67-26·5, P = 0·007), as did cows at pasture (OR 1·66, 95% CI 1·01-2·73, P = 0·046) compared to when housed. Multiple logistic regression modelling demonstrated underlying seasonal periodicity in both species.
    Epidemiology and Infection 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: A prospective clinical trial to compare the effects of age and reproductive status on postoperative pain was conducted in 145 female cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy using injectable anaesthesia. The cats were grouped appropriately: 60 kittens <4 months old (K), 85 adults >4 months old (A) and, within the adult group, 57 normal adults (nA) and 28 adults who were either pregnant or in oestrus (rA). Pain was assessed using a simple descriptive scale (SDS; 0-3), a dynamic and interactive visual scale (DIVAS; 0-100 mm) and mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNT; N, 2 mm diameter probe) pre-operatively and at 4 and 24 h postoperatively. Kittens had lower DIVAS areas under the time curve and SDS than adults (P <0.05), but similar MNT (K: 3.3 ± 2.6, A: 4.3 ± 2.5 N at 4 h, P >0.05). Data from nA and rA were not different (P >0.05). Kittens had similar wound tenderness, but less affective pain than adults, and reproductive status had no effect.
    Journal of feline medicine and surgery. 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Three UK bred Border collie puppies were presented for investigation of pyrexia and severe lameness with associated joint swelling. Investigations revealed neutropenia, radiographic findings suggesting metaphyseal osteopathy, and polyarthritis and all dogs were subsequently confirmed with trapped neutrophil syndrome. Clinical improvement was seen after treatment with prednisolone and antibiotics and the dogs all survived to adulthood with a good short- to medium-term outcome. Trapped neutrophil syndrome is an important differential diagnosis for young Border collie dogs in the UK presenting with pyrexia, neutropenia and musculoskeletal signs.
    Journal of Small Animal Practice 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: As with clinical skills, veterinary business skills cannot be acquired overnight and developing them should be part of the process of lifelong learning, says Ben Sykes.
    The Veterinary record. 07/2013; 173(3):74-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The present investigation aims to establish the reason(s) why dairy cows with high somatic cell counts (SCCs; >100,000 cells/ml) are less fertile than cows with low SCCs alone. The objective of Study One was to determine whether differences in steroid hormone profiles could explain the low incidence of ovulation in cows with combined High SCC and lameness. Between 30 and 80 days post-partum, animals were scored for SCC and lameness and three groups were formed: Healthy (n=22), High SCC alone (n=12) or High SCC + Lame (n=9). The ovarian follicular phases of all cows were synchronised by administering gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) followed seven days later by prostaglandin F2alpha (PG). Milk samples were collected daily throughout the entire study period; twice daily during the follicular phase, blood samples were taken and the ovaries were monitored using ultrasonography. Progesterone concentrations were similar in all three groups during each of five specific time periods, i.e. throughout the five days before PG injection, the peri-ovulatory period, on Day 5 and on Day 7, and during the mid luteal phase 12-17 days after ovulation (P>0.13). Mean plasma oestradiol concentrations monitored every 12h during the 36h period before ovulation were similar in all groups (Healthy, 2.80±0.30pg/ml; High SCC alone, 3.82±0.48pg/ml; High SCC+Lame 2.94±0.51pg/ml; P=0.175). The objective of Study Two was to establish whether cows with High SCC (scored and synchronised as above) display different behaviours, especially the intensity and timing of oestrus. Intervals from PG to the onset of oestrus or to the first stand-to-be-mounted (STBM) were longer for the High SCC cows than the Low SCC animals (n=8 and 20; P=0.011 and 0.002, respectively). Also, cows with High SCC tended to have a less intense oestrus and a lower maximum oestrus score per 30-min period than Low SCC cows (P=0.063 and 0.066, respectively). In conclusion, High SCC±lameness did not affect progesterone or twice daily oestradiol profiles but the onset of oestrus was delayed and oestrus tended to be less intense in cows with High SCC. These factors could explain low fertility associated with High SCC.
    Animal reproduction science 07/2013;
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