69
373.95
5.42
456

Publication History View all

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Limited evidence is available on the economic burden of ulcerative colitis (UC) in the UK, particularly relating to the impact of relapse frequency on direct medical costs. This study identifies and assesses medical resource utilization (MRU) and associated direct costs in mild and moderate UC patients in the UK. A retrospective chart review of patients with mild-to-moderate UC diagnosed at least 1 year before the study was performed. From 33 general practitioner (GP) and 34 gastroenterologist sites, charts of the last three UC patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Descriptive statistics were calculated for MRU and 2011 costs (GB£) by number of relapses. The study population included 201 patients with a mean age of 39.9 years; 44% were women and the mean disease duration was 7.4 years. UC-related costs of each MRU category increased with the number of relapses. Comparing patients without relapse with those with more than two relapses, the mean annual UC-related costs were £14 versus £2556 for hospitalizations; £218 versus £988 for visits (including nurse, GP, specialist, and other visits); £21 versus £1303 for procedures; £17 versus £188 for diagnostics; and £1168 versus £6660 for all-cause total costs. Age, sex, and site of data reporting (GP vs. gastroenterologist) were not associated with MRU or costs. Patients with mild-to-moderate UC incurred considerable costs that increased markedly with the number of relapses. These findings support the importance of maintenance therapies in UC that reduce or prevent relapses. Quantifying the relationship between relapse rate and costs will inform future health economic studies.
    European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 10/2013; 26(2). DOI:10.1097/01.meg.0000435545.49133.cd
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) represents 15-20% of all SLE cases. Whilst features of this chronic complex multisystem autoimmune disorder are highly variable, children and adolescents generally present with a more severe illness than adults and accrue greater disease damage over time. JSLE has a less striking female preponderance and differs from the adult form in pattern of major organ manifestations. Corticosteroids are used in almost all children with JSLE along with the majority requiring additional immunosuppressive medications. Making the diagnosis early and optimizing disease control are essential to ensure that normal childhood and adolescent development is not impeded. In this young population, special consideration must be given to the long-term sequelae of the disease and treatment-related toxicity. There is a current lack of paediatric-specific controlled trials and treatment strategies are generally guided by adult data. The enormous psychological and social impact of the disease and its treatments upon the child or young person and their family necessitates a comprehensive, holistic, specialized multidisciplinary approach to managing JSLE.
    Lupus 10/2013; 22(12):1309-1319. DOI:10.1177/0961203313502863
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During severe influenza pandemics healthcare demand can exceed clinical capacity to provide normal standards of care. Community Assessment Tools (CATs) could provide a framework for triage decisions for hospital referral and admission. CATs have been developed based on evidence that supports the recognition of severe influenza and pneumonia in the community (including resource limited settings) for adults, children and infants, and serious feverish illness in children. CATs use six objective criteria and one subjective criterion, any one or more of which should prompt urgent referral and admission to hospital. A retrospective evaluation of the ability of CATs to predict use of hospital-based interventions and patient outcomes in a pandemic was made using the first recorded routine clinical assessment on or shortly after admission from 1520 unselected patients (800 female, 480 children <16 years) admitted with PCR confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection (the FLU-CIN cohort). Outcome measures included: any use of supplemental oxygen; mechanical ventilation; intravenous antibiotics; length of stay; intensive or high dependency care; death; and "severe outcome" (combined: use of intensive or high dependency care or death during admission). Unadjusted and multivariable analyses were conducted for children (age <16 years) and adults. Each CATs criterion independently identified both use of clinical interventions that would in normal circumstances only be provided in hospital and patient outcome measures. "Peripheral oxygen saturation ≤92% breathing air, or being on oxygen" performed well in predicting use of resources and outcomes for both adults and children; supporting routine measurement of peripheral oxygen saturation when assessing severity of disease. In multivariable analyses the single subjective criterion in CATs "other cause for clinical concern" independently predicted death in children and in adults predicted length of stay, mechanical ventilation and "severe outcome"; supporting the role of clinical acumen as an important independent predictor of serious illness.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e75384. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0075384
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transcatheter hepatic therapy with irinotecan-eluting beads (DEBIRI(®)) allows targeted delivery of irinotecan direct to liver tissue and colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Accurate assessment of tumour response to therapy is vital to guide optimal treatment. Preliminary work has suggested existing criteria for radiological response may not reflect pathological response after neoadjuvant DEBIRI. This study assessed the relationship between existing and novel radiological response criteria and pathological tumour response as well as long-term outcome. Patients with easily resectable CRLM were treated with DEBIRI 4 weeks prior to resection and pathological tumour response graded using a validated system. Radiological response was assessed using RECIST and novel morphological response criteria. Twenty-two patients with 37 lesions were treated with DEBIRI. Median residual tumour was 20% (range 0-80), median necrosis 45% (10-100) and median fibrosis 10% (10-70). Twenty patients (91%) demonstrated stable disease by RECIST, with 11 (50%) demonstrating partial morphological response. Neither radiological response criteria correlated with pathological response. Overall median disease free survival (DFS) was 13.6 months (95% CI 4.7-22.5). Radiological response was not associated with DFS. Existing criteria reporting short-term radiological response to DEBIRI do not accurately predict pathological tumour response or long-term outcome. Further work is necessary to define the optimum timing and method of assessing response to DEBIRI.
    European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 08/2013; 39(10). DOI:10.1016/j.ejso.2013.07.087
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is a need to reduce the number of cystoscopies on patients with haematuria. Presently there are no reliable biomarkers to screen for bladder cancer. In this paper, we evaluate a new simple in-house fabricated, GC-sensor device in the diagnosis of bladder cancer based on volatiles. Sensor outputs from 98 urine samples were used to build and test diagnostic models. Samples were taken from 24 patients with transitional (urothelial) cell carcinoma (age 27-91 years, median 71 years) and 74 controls presenting with urological symptoms, but without a urological malignancy (age 29-86 years, median 64 years); results were analysed using two statistical approaches to assess the robustness of the methodology. A two-group linear discriminant analysis method using a total of 9 time points (which equates to 9 biomarkers) correctly assigned 24/24 (100%) of cancer cases and 70/74 (94.6%) controls. Under leave-one-out cross-validation 23/24 (95.8%) of cancer cases were correctly predicted with 69/74 (93.2%) of controls. For partial least squares discriminant analysis, the correct leave-one-out cross-validation prediction values were 95.8% (cancer cases) and 94.6% (controls). These data are an improvement on those reported by other groups studying headspace gases and also superior to current clinical techniques. This new device shows potential for the diagnosis of bladder cancer, but the data must be reproduced in a larger study.
    PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e69602. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0069602
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have recently shown that kidney-derived stem cells (KSCs) isolated from the mouse newborn kidney differentiate into a range of kidney-specific cell types. However, the functionality and integration capacity of these mouse KSCs remain unknown. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were (1) to determine if proximal tubule-like cells, generated in vitro from KSCs, displayed absorptive function typical of proximal tubule cells in vivo, and (2) to establish whether the ability of KSCs to integrate into developing nephrons was comparable with that of metanephric mesenchyme (MM), a transient population of progenitor cells that gives rise to the nephrons during kidney organogenesis. We found that proximal tubule-like cells generated in vitro from mouse KSCs displayed megalin-dependent absorptive function. Subsequently, we used a chimeric kidney rudiment culture system to show that the KSCs could generate proximal tubule cells and podocytes that were appropriately located within the developing nephrons. Finally, we compared the ability of KSCs to integrate into developing kidneys ex vivo with that of metanephric mesenchyme cells. We found that KSCs integrated into nascent nephrons to a similar extent as metanephric mesenchyme cells while both were excluded from ureteric bud branches. Our analysis of the behavior of the two cell types shows that some, but not all KSC characteristics are similar to those of the MM.
    PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(5):e62953. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0062953
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The intestinal hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) delays gastric emptying and inhibits food intake by actions on vagal afferent neurons. Recent studies suggest plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 suppresses the effect of CCK on food intake. In this study we asked whether PAI-1 also modulated CCK effects on gastric emptying. Five minute gastric emptying of liquid test meals was studied in conscious wild type mice (C57BL/6) and in transgenic mice over-expressing PAI-1 in gastric parietal cells (PAI-1H/Kβ mice), or null for PAI-1. The effects of exogenous PAI-1 and CCK8s on gastric emptying were studied after ip administration. Intragastric peptone delayed gastric emptying in C57BL/6 mice by a mechanism sensitive to the CCK-1 receptor antagonist lorglumide. Peptone did not delay gastric emptying in PAI-1-H/Kβ mice. Exogenous CCK delayed gastric emptying of a control test meal in C57BL/6 mice and this was attenuated by administration of PAI-1; exogenous CCK had no effect on emptying in PAI-1-H/Kβ mice. Prior administration of gastrin to increase gastric PAI-1 inhibited CCK-dependent effects on gastric emptying in C57BL/6 mice but not in PAI-1 null mice. Thus, both endogenous and exogenous PAI-1 inhibit the effects of CCK (whether exogenous or endogenous) on gastric emptying. The data are compatible with emerging evidence that gastric PAI-1 modulates vagal effects of CCK.
    Regulatory Peptides 06/2013; 185(100). DOI:10.1016/j.regpep.2013.06.005
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The response of colorectal liver metastases to the cytotoxic agent irinotecan varies widely. Attempts to correlate tumour metabolism with response have been mixed. This study investigated the hepatic metabolism of irinotecan as a potential predictor of tumour response to irinotecan-eluting beads (DEBIRI). METHODS: Ten patients with colorectal liver metastases were treated with 200 mg irinotecan (as DEBIRI) as part of the PARAGON II study. Hepatic expression of key metabolising enzymes was measured using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Serum drug concentrations and hepatic irinotecan metabolism were characterised and correlated with tumour response. RESULTS: Serum concentrations of irinotecan metabolites did not correlate with hepatic metabolism or pathological response. There was a strong correlation between hepatic CES-2 expression and activation of irinotecan (r (2) = 0.96, p < 0.001). Patients with a UGT1A1*28 6/7 SNP showed no difference in drug metabolism or pathological response. Hepatic CES-2 mediated activation of irinotecan clearly correlated with tumour replacement by fibrosis (r (2) = 0.54, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: This study provides the first evidence that hepatic activation of irinotecan predicts tumour response. Delivery of liver-targeted irinotecan to normal liver tissue rather than tumour may be a more rational approach to maximise response.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 06/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00280-013-2199-5
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Following the publication of the EORTC trial (40983), perioperative chemotherapy has become the standard of care for all patients with resectable colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM). However recently presented data suggest that the earlier advantage seen in progression free survival (PFS) may not translate over into a meaningful overall survival (OS) advantage. At the other end of the spectrum, patients with irresectable but liver limited CRLM continue to be offered treatment based on improving PFS, at the expense of regimens with greater response rates (but maybe poorer PFS rates) that could bring them to potentially curative liver resection. We therefore argue that patients with liver limited CRLM should be managed in three separate groups:
    European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 05/2013; 39(8). DOI:10.1016/j.ejso.2013.04.002
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AIMS: Staging laparoscopy has been recommended in the management of patients with colorectal liver metastases prior to hepatectomy in order to reduce the incidence and associated morbidity of futile laparotomies. The utility of staging laparoscopy has not been assessed in patients undergoing CT, PET-CT and MRI as standard preoperative staging. METHODS: All patients undergoing attempted open hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases between 1/4/2008 and 31/3/2012 were identified from a prospectively maintained research database. All patients who underwent futile laparotomy were identified, with demographics and operative notes subsequently analysed. RESULTS: A total of 274 patients underwent attempted open hepatectomy during the study period. At laparotomy 12 (4.4%) patients were found to have irresectable disease. There were no unifying demographic factors within the patients undergoing futile laparotomy. CONCLUSIONS: With modern imaging, the potential yield of staging laparoscopy is low. Staging laparoscopy should not be used routinely, but may have a role in the case of specific clinical concerns.
    European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 04/2013; 39(7). DOI:10.1016/j.ejso.2013.03.024
Information provided on this web page is aggregated encyclopedic and bibliographical information relating to the named institution. Information provided is not approved by the institution itself. The institution’s logo (and/or other graphical identification, such as a coat of arms) is used only to identify the institution in a nominal way. Under certain jurisdictions it may be property of the institution.