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  • Early Medieval Europe 04/2011; 19(2):236 - 239. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-0254.2011.00319_3.x

  • History 12/2009; 95(317):109 - 110. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-229X.2009.00476_19.x
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    ABSTRACT: As a contribution to debates on slave health and welfare, this article investigates the variety, functions, and overall significance of infirmaries for the enslaved in the antebellum South. Newspapers, case histories, and surviving institutional records of antebellum Southern infirmaries providing medical treatment for slaves offer a unique opportunity to examine the development of modern American medicine within the "peculiar institution," and to explore a complex site of interactions between the enslaved, physicians, and slave owners. The world of the medical college hospital in South Carolina and an experimenting clinic in Alabama are reconstructed using newspapers and medical case histories. The Patient Register of the Hotel Dieu (1859-64) and the Admission Book of Touro Infirmary (1855-60) are used to highlight the types of enslaved patients sent to these two New Orleans commercial hospitals and to explore connections between the practice of medicine and the business of slave trading in the city. In addition to providing physicians with a steady income, slave infirmaries were key players in the domestic slave trade, as well as mechanisms for professionalization and the mobilization of medical ideas in the American South.
    Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 07/2009; 65(1):1-47. DOI:10.1093/jhmas/jrp019
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    ABSTRACT: This article considers the development of two features of central Italian society in the post-Roman period (approximately the mid-fifth to the mid-ninth centuries) that have been thought to have affected significantly the condition of life of the peasantry there: rural settlement and the taxation system. It argues that we should be wary of attempting to reconstruct the settlement landscape from the surviving documents: too often, references to agrarian structures are misconstrued as references to settlements. The shape of the latter is rarely visible in the textual evidence, but can be appreciated far more certainly from archaeological surveys and excavations, which present a picture of the evolution of the human landscape that is far more varied than a simple transition ‘from villa to village’. Documentary sources are more helpful in tracing the fate of the Roman taxation system. They point to structural continuities in the way that the peasantry was exploited that did not significantly vary between neighbouring political territories, and that reveal how the powerful continued to affect both the location and the condition of peasant life.
    Journal of Agrarian Change 12/2008; 9(1):92 - 119. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-0366.2009.00197.x
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    ABSTRACT: This article examines the influence of slavery and race on medical education, practice and research in the American South. Drawing on the published autobiography, case-histories, and correspondence of American slave surgeon and 'pioneer' gynaecologist, James Marion Sims, the contribution highlights a lesser known episode from his early career, namely his surgical treatment of enslaved infants suffering from trismus nascentium (neonatal tetanus). Sims became a highly prestigious figure in his later medical career, but the foundations of his success relied on the use of slave bodies and enslaved patients. These were typically distinctive features of the life of an ambitious medical professional in the slave South, where the profession profited from the institution of slavery, and human experimentation and medical research were advanced specifically through the exploitation of the region's enslaved population.
    Social History of Medicine 09/2007; 20(2):223-41. DOI:10.1093/shm/hkm036
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    ABSTRACT: Late-Victorian England witnessed a decline in the recorded level of violence. Recent historical scholarship ascribes this fall to the 19th-century “civilising offensive” and suggests that male violence was effectively targeted by legislators and subject to increasingly stringent punishment by the courts. Yet concern with violence persisted. During the 1890s, it was expressed both in the enduring debate on the problem of male violence against women and in the growing anxieties surrounding youth gangs and “hooliganism.” This paper examines a criminal trial, held in Birmingham in 1898, which effectively fused these apparently disparate phenomena. The conviction of a young metal polisher, an alleged gang member, for the manslaughter of his former “sweetheart” aroused considerable comment in the local press. Both gang membership and violence against women were denounced as problems of the Birmingham “slums.” Close inspection of the trial reports suggests that neither the perpetrator nor the victim in this case conformed fully to the stereotypes of the gang member and his “moll” that were applied to them. Yet these stereotypes performed an important ideological function, distancing the problem of violence from the mainstream of civic life and thus preserving the veneer of English civility, whilst masking the persistence of male violence within courtship as well as marriage.
    The History of the Family 01/2006; 11(2-11):107-120. DOI:10.1016/j.hisfam.2006.07.001
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    ABSTRACT: The author analyzes the development of domestic service in Bremen and Liverpool as two examples of major commercial ports in the 19th century characterized by significant merchant wealth and casual, dock-related employment. The migration pattern and age structure of domestic servants are examined and key aspects of their employment history are explored in terms of residential location, length of service, and social background of their employers. Census data are used for both port cities (drawing, in particular on the relational database currently being constructed for the Liverpool Mercantile Project), together with the Bremen civil registers for marriages and deaths, and qualitative material, such as diaries and autobiographies from members of the merchant class. By developing an explicitly comparative analysis within the framework of an established typology the article provides a basis for assessing the extent to which the nature of domestic service in the two port cities, as well as the recruitment and retention of domestic servants, was determined by similarities in the growth of merchant wealth and culture or by distinct regional or national characteristics in the underlying pattern of urban migration.
    The History of the Family 01/2005; 10(4-10):435-460. DOI:10.1016/j.hisfam.2005.09.006
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    ABSTRACT: "Natural measures of quantity, such as fathoms, cubits, inches, taken from the proportion of the human body, were once in use with every nation," taught Adam Smith in his lecture "Money as the measure of value and medium of exchange," delivered in 1763. "But by a little observation," he continued, "they found that one man's arm was longer or shorter than another's, and that one was not to be compared with the other; and therefore wise men who attended to these things would endeavour to fix upon some more accurate measure, that equal quantities might be of equal values. Their method became absolutely necessary when people came to deal in many commodities, and in great quantities of them." Smith's comments and the rationale underpinning them became increasingly urgent toward the end of the eighteenth century.
    Science 12/2004; 306(5700):1314-7. DOI:10.1126/science.1102551
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    ABSTRACT: In 1121 Henry I founded Reading abbey, an event closely connected in time to his second marriage. This article links the lands used to endow Reading with those of late Saxon queens and of female communities themselves linked to queens. It explores lay control of such communities and the circumstances in which such control came to be defined as unacceptable, and thus in which monastic reform advanced. The events of 1120-21, after the tragic death of Henry'’ only legitimate son, are seen as constituting just such a circumstance. The foundation of Reading abbey, as a male Cluniac house, used former queens' lands and freed the lands of older religious communities. It was simultaneously an act of penance, a celebration of queenship and legitimate dynastic continuity, and an offering for the purification and fertility of the king’s new marriage.
    History 12/2002; 85(277):4 - 27. DOI:10.1111/1468-229X.00135
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    ABSTRACT: At the end of the nineteenth century, medical paradigms of menstruation were located in a language of pathology and disability. Women were, therefore, perceived as incapable of competing with men in the world of education, work, and economics on account of their erratic and debilitating biology. This essay examines the challenge posed to this vision of menstrual disability by female medical practitioners in the early decades of the twentieth century. The new narratives of menstruation authored by these women not only re-cast normative menstrual experience as non-disabling, but were also formulated on the basis of canvassing the opinions of healthy schoolgirls rather than developing theories based on clinical contact with a minority of women defined as 'ill'. Yet female practitioners remained tied to a culture of 'menstrual discretion', thus perpetuating the secrecy and taboo associated with menstruation in the nineteenth century. This essay explores the tensions inherent in striving to overturn an oppressive medical model of menstruation whilst promoting menstrual discretion, and aims to place such apparent contradictions within the context of cultural notions of gendered identity and feminine sexuality.
    Social History of Medicine 09/2001; 14(2):247-65. DOI:10.1093/shm/14.2.247
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