125
522.29
4.18
184

Publication History View all

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for 30% of UK deaths. It is associated with modifiable lifestyle factors, including insufficient consumption of fruit and vegetables (F&V). Lay health trainers (LHTs) offer practical support to help people develop healthier behaviour and lifestyles. Our two-group pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated the effectiveness of LHTs at promoting a heart-healthy lifestyle among adults with at least one risk factor for CVD to inform a full-scale RCT. Eligible adults (aged 21-78 years), recruited from five practices serving deprived populations, were randomized to health information leaflets plus LHTs' support for 3 months (n = 76) versus health information leaflets alone (n = 38). We recruited 114 participants, with 60% completing 6 month follow-up. Both groups increased their self-reported F&V consumption and we found no evidence for LHTs' support having significant added impact. Most participants were relatively less deprived, as were the LHTs we were able to recruit and train. Our pilot demonstrated that an LHT's RCT whilst feasible faces considerable challenges. However, to justify growing investment in LHTs, any behaviour changes and sustained impact on those at greatest need should be demonstrated in an independently evaluated, robust, fully powered RCT.
    Journal of Public Health 11/2013; 36(4). DOI:10.1093/pubmed/fdt112
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinical encounters in daily practice can provide a fertile ground for identifying uncertainties that require further investigation. Addressing such uncertainties by undertaking a Cochrane review can be a rewarding educational process and result in important contributions to health care policy. This paper describes the experiences of a UK GP undertaking a Cochrane review whilst working in clinical practice. It outlines some of the practical issues when starting a review, the importance of effective mentorship and collaboration, the power of the modern medial media (BMJ, Wikipedia) and engaging with policy makers (WHO).
    The European journal of general practice 11/2013; 20(1). DOI:10.3109/13814788.2013.828689
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims. To profile site of stroke/cerebrovascular accident, type and extent of field loss, treatment options, and outcome. Methods. Prospective multicentre cohort trial. Standardised referral and investigation protocol of visual parameters. Results. 915 patients were recruited with a mean age of 69 years (SD 14). 479 patients (52%) had visual field loss. 51 patients (10%) had no visual symptoms. Almost half of symptomatic patients (n = 226) complained only of visual field loss: almost half (n = 226) also had reading difficulty, blurred vision, diplopia, and perceptual difficulties. 31% (n = 151) had visual field loss as their only visual impairment: 69% (n = 328) had low vision, eye movement deficits, or visual perceptual difficulties. Occipital and parietal lobe strokes most commonly caused visual field loss. Treatment options included visual search training, visual awareness, typoscopes, substitutive prisms, low vision aids, refraction, and occlusive patches. At followup 15 patients (7.5%) had full recovery, 78 (39%) had improvement, and 104 (52%) had no recovery. Two patients (1%) had further decline of visual field. Patients with visual field loss had lower quality of life scores than stroke patients without visual impairment. Conclusions. Stroke survivors with visual field loss require assessment to accurately define type and extent of loss, diagnose coexistent visual impairments, and offer targeted treatment.
    09/2013; 2013:719096. DOI:10.1155/2013/719096
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To date, most condom research has focused on young or high-risk groups, with little evidence about influences on condom use amongst lower-risk community samples. These groups are not risk free and may still wish to negotiate safer sex; yet the considerations involved could be different from those in higher-risk groups. Our research addresses this gap: We report a cross-sectional questionnaire study enquiring about recent condom use and future use intentions in community settings. Our sample (n = 311) purposively included couples in established relationships, known to be condom users. Items included demographics, sexual history and social-cognitive variables taken from the theory of planned behaviour. The strongest association with condom use/use intentions amongst our respondents was sexual partner's perceived willingness to use them. This applied across both univariate and multivariate analyses. Whilst most social-cognitive variables (attitudes; self-efficacy and peer social norms) were significant in univariate analyses, this was not supported in multivariate regression. Of the social-cognitive variables, only "condom-related attitudes" were retained in the model explaining recent condom use, whilst none of them entered the model explaining future use intentions. Further analysis showed that attitudes concerning pleasure, identity stigma and condom effectiveness were most salient for this cohort. Our results suggest that, in community samples, the decision to use a condom involves different considerations from those highlighted in previous research. Explanatory models for established couples should embrace interpersonal perspectives, emphasising couple-factors rather than individual beliefs. Messages to this cohort could usefully focus on negotiation skills, condom advantages (other than disease prevention) and reducing the stigma associated with use.
    Psychology Health and Medicine 08/2013; 19(4). DOI:10.1080/13548506.2013.824592
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has issued multiple guidance for the first-line management of patients with lung cancer and recommends different combinations of chemotherapy treatments. This review provides a synthesis of clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness evidence supporting current guidance. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of first-line chemotherapy currently licensed in Europe and recommended by NICE, for adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Three electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library) were searched from 2001 to August 2010. Trials that compared first-line chemotherapy currently licensed in Europe and recommended by NICE in chemotherapy-naive adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC were included. Data on key outcomes including, but not limited to, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and adverse events (AEs) were extracted. For the assessment of cost-effectiveness, outcomes included incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Analyses were performed for three NSCLC subpopulations: patients with predominantly squamous disease, patients with predominantly non-squamous disease and patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive (M+) status. Meta-analysis and mixed-treatment comparison methodology were conducted where appropriate. Twenty-three trials involving > 11,000 patients in total met the inclusion criteria. The quality of the trials was poor. In the case of patients with squamous disease, there were no statistically significant differences in OS between treatment regimes. The mixed-treatment comparison demonstrated that, in patients with non-squamous disease, pemetrexed (Alimta®, Eli Lilly and Company; PEM) + platinum (PLAT) increases OS statistically significantly compared with gemcitabine (Gemzar®, Eli Lilly and Company; GEM) + PLAT [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 0.98] and that paclitaxel (Abraxane®, Celgene Corporation; PAX) + PLAT increases OS statistically significantly compared with docetaxel (Taxotere®, Sanofi-aventis; DOC) + PLAT (HR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.93). None of the comparisons found any statistically significant differences in OS among patients with EGFR M+ status. Direct meta-analysis showed a statistically significant improvement in PFS with gefitinib (Iressa®, AstraZeneca; GEF) compared with DOC + PLAT and PAX + PLAT (HR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.33 to 0.73; and HR = 0.38; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.60, respectively). No papers related to UK decision-making were identified. A de novo economic model was developed. Using list prices (British National Formulary), cisplatin (CIS) doublets are preferable to carboplatin doublets, but this is reversed if electronic market information tool prices are used, in which case drug administration costs then become more important than drug acquisition costs. For patients with both squamous and non-squamous disease, moving from low to moderate willingness-to-pay thresholds, the preferred drugs are PAX → GEM → DOC. However, in patients with non-squamous disease, PEM + CIS resulted in increased OS and would be considered cost-effective up to £35,000 per QALY gained. For patients with EGFR M+, use of GEF compared with PAX or DOC yields very high incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Vinorelbine (Navelbine®, Pierre Fabre Pharmaceutical Inc.) was not shown to be cost-effective in any comparison. Poor trial quality and a lack of evidence for all drug comparisons complicated and limited the data analysis. Outcomes and adverse effects are not consistently combined across the trials. Few trials reported quality-of-life data despite their relevance to patients and clinicians. The results of this comprehensive review are unique to NSCLC and will assist clinicians to make decisions regarding the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC. The design of future lung cancer trials needs to reflect the influence of factors such as histology, genetics and the new prognostic biomarkers that are currently being identified. In addition, trials will need to be adequately powered so as to be able to test for statistically significant clinical effectiveness differences within patient populations. New initiatives are in place to record detailed information on the precise chemotherapy (and targeted chemotherapy) regimens being used, together with data on age, cell type, stage of disease and performance status, allowing for very detailed observational audits of management and outcomes at a population level. It would be useful if these initiatives could be expanded to include the collection of health economics data. The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment.
    07/2013; 17(31):1-278. DOI:10.3310/hta17310
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 'Access' is a term readily used in a political and policy context, but one which has not leant itself to measurement of progress towards policy goals or comparisons between health systems. Like 'quality', 'access' is a multi-dimensional construct, but currently often remains a vague and abstract concept which is difficult to translate into something specific, concrete and therefore measureable. The paper describes previous work and identifies a need for a greater consensus and conceptual clarity in the selection of metrics for dental access. The construct of dental access is described as involving the concepts of 1: opportunity for access; 2, realised access (utilisation); 3, equity and 4, outcomes. Proposed conceptual definitions are given and a case made for measuring 'initial utilisation' separately from 'continued utilisation', reflecting modern approaches which distinguish 'entry access' (gaining entry to the dental care system), from the process of gaining access to higher levels of care. Using a distinction between 'entry access' and 'effective access' allows a choice of whether to restrict measurement to mainly supply side considerations, or alternatively to extend the measurement to include whether there is equity in the proportion of patients who are able obtain effective needed interventions. A development of conceptual definitions of dental access could facilitate measurement of progress towards policy goals and operationalisation of the construct.
    Community dental health 06/2013; 30(2):94-101.
  • Source
    British Journal of Cancer 05/2013; 108(10). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.193
  • Source
    PharmacoEconomics 05/2013; 31(5). DOI:10.1007/s40273-013-0062-5
  • Source
    The American Journal of Bioethics 05/2013; 13(5):50-2. DOI:10.1080/15265161.2013.776137
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim Our aim was to compare the return-to-work rates between individuals supported by their GP plus workplace health advisers (intervention group) and those supported by their GP alone. BACKGROUND: Workplace sickness absence places a significant cost burden on individuals and the wider economy. Previous research shows better outcomes for individuals if they are supported while still in employment, or have been on sick leave for four weeks or less. Those helped back to work at an early stage are more likely to remain at work. A non-medicalised case-managed approach appears to have the best outcomes and can prevent or reduce the slide onto out-of-work benefits, but UK literature on its effectiveness is sparse. METHODS: The design was a feasibility-controlled trial in which participants were sickness absentees, or presentees in employment with work-related health problems. Individuals completed health status measures (SF-36; EQ-5D) and a Job Content Questionnaire at baseline and again at four-month follow-up. Findings In the intervention group, 29/60 participants completed both phases of the trial. GP practices referred two control patients, and, despite various attempts by the research team, GPs failed to engage with the trial. This finding is of concern, although not unique in primary care research. In earlier studies, GPs reported a lack of knowledge and confidence in dealing with workplace health issues. Despite this, we report interesting findings from the case-managed group, the majority of whom returned to work within a month. Age and length of sickness absence at recruitment were better predictors of return-to-work rates than the number of case-managed contacts. The traditional randomised controlled trial approach was unsuitable for this study. GPs showed low interest in workplace sickness absence, despite their pivotal role in the process. This study informed a larger Department for Work and Pensions study of case-managed support.
    Primary Health Care Research & Development 04/2013; DOI:10.1017/S1463423613000133
Information provided on this web page is aggregated encyclopedic and bibliographical information relating to the named institution. Information provided is not approved by the institution itself. The institution’s logo (and/or other graphical identification, such as a coat of arms) is used only to identify the institution in a nominal way. Under certain jurisdictions it may be property of the institution.