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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate kinematic changes experienced during running-induced fatigue. Further, the study examined relations between kinematic changes and core endurance. Repeated measures and correlation. Seventeen novice runners participated in a running-induced fatigue protocol and underwent core endurance assessment. Participants ran at a steady state corresponding to an intensity of 13 on the Borg scale and continued until 2min after a Borg score of 17 or 90% of maximum heart rate was reached. Kinematic data were analyzed for the lower extremities and trunk throughout a running protocol and, on separate days, core endurance measures were recorded. Changes in pre- and post-fatigue running kinematics and their relations with core endurance measures were analyzed. Analysis of peak joint angles revealed significant increases in trunk flexion (4°), decreases in trunk extension (3°), and increases in non-dominant ankle eversion (1.6°) as a result of running-induced fatigue. Post-fatigue increased trunk flexion changes displayed a strong to moderate positive relation with trunk extensor core endurance measures, in contrast to expected negative relations. Novice runners displayed an overall increase in trunk inclination and increased ankle eversion peak angles when fatigued utilizing a running-induced fatigue protocol. As most pronounced changes were found for the trunk, trunk kinematics appear to be significantly affected during fatigued running and should not be overlooked. Core endurance measures displayed unexpected relations with running kinematics and require further investigation to determine the significance of these relations.
    Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 07/2014; 17(4):419-424. DOI:10.1016/j.jsams.2013.05.013
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to analyze the palmar plate complex at the proximal interphalangeal joint using a three-dimensional (3D) technique, which makes it easier to understand the dimensions of structures and their relationship to the adjacent components. This method allows individual elements to be removed virtually, facilitating clearer observation of each component. Sixteen cadaveric specimens were dissected and reconstructed in a 3D virtual environment. The palmar plate is made up of a distal, fibrous portion and a proximal, membranous portion, which anchors distally on the base of the middle phalanx and is continuous with the bilateral check-rein ligaments proximally. The accessory collateral ligaments and the A3 pulley suspend the palmar plate laterally.
    Journal of Hand Surgery (European Volume) 05/2014; 39(4):391-397. DOI:10.1177/1753193413492288
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    ABSTRACT: This study sought to describe the food retail environment and its use in a deprived urban area in Scotland by mapping all food outlets and determining where residents do their main food shopping as well as investigating the availability of fresh fruit and vegetables (F&V) (as an indicator of healthy eating) and takeaway food. Cross-sectional study. The food retail environment, the number, size and food availability of all food outlets, was mapped in Viewpark, a small community located to the east of Glasgow. Subsequently a validated questionnaire was used to determined food shopping usage and habits. There was high availability of common fresh fruit and vegetables (F&V) and very high availability of fast food outlets. Only 9% of the sample shopped solely at local food outlets within Viewpark whilst 91% shopped at a large supermarket outside Viewpark (n = 106). Walking was significantly negatively associated (B = -3.555, P = 0.008) with shopping outside the community. The majority of respondents (80%) reported buying F&V weekly and 57% purchased takeaways at least once a week - these individuals were employed, over 45 years old and had at least one child. The use of the local retail environment in a deprived community is influenced by car accessibility.
    Public health 04/2014; 128(4). DOI:10.1016/j.puhe.2013.11.005
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    ABSTRACT: Black-purple rice is becoming popular with health conscious food consumers. In the present study, the secondary metabolites in dehulled black-purple rice cv. Asamurasaki were analysed using HPLC-PDA-MS(2). The seeds contained a high concentration of seven anthocyanins (1400μg/g fresh weight) with cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside predominating. Five flavonol glycosides, principally quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, and flavones were detected at a total concentration of 189μg/g. The seeds also contained 3.9μg/g of carotenoids consisting of lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and β-carotene. γ-Oryzanol (279μg/g) was also present as a mixture of 24-methylenecycloartenol ferulate, campesterol ferulate, cycloartenol ferulate and β-sitosterol ferulate. No procyanidins were detected in this variety of black-purple rice. The results demonstrate that the black-purple rice in the dehulled form in which it is consumed by humans contains a rich heterogeneous mixture of phytochemicals which may provide a basis for the potential health benefits, and highlights the possible use of the rice as functional food.
    Food Chemistry 12/2013; 141(3):2821-7. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.05.100
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    ABSTRACT: Progress in the treatment of progressive involuntary weight loss in patients with cancer (cancer cachexia) remains dismally slow. Cancer cachexia and its associated clinical symptoms, including weight loss, altered body composition, poor functional status, poor food intake, and poorer quality of life, have long been recognised as indicators of poorer prognosis in the patient with cancer. In order to make some progress a starting point is to have general agreement on what constitutes cancer cachexia. In recent years a plethora of different definitions and consensus statements have been proposed as a framework for investigation and treatment of this debilitating and terminal condition. However, there are significant differences in the criteria used in these and all include poorly defined or subjective criteria and their prognostic value has not been established. The aim of the present review was to examine the hypothesis that a systemic inflammatory response accounts for most of the effect of cancer cachexia and its associated clinical symptoms on poor outcome in patients with cancer. Furthermore, to put forward the case for the Glasgow Prognostic Score to act a simple objective framework for the investigation and treatment of cancer cachexia.
    Cancer Treatment Reviews 11/2013; 40(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ctrv.2013.11.007
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Adiposity and health risks are better indicated by waist circumference than body mass index (BMI). Patterns of change with age are incompletely documented. Methods: Adults aged 18-92 years in the Scottish and English Health Surveys of 1994-96 and 2008-10 were divided into fifteen 5-year age bands. Sex-specific prevalences of overweight/obesity and of increased/high waist circumference against age were compared using analysis of covariance. Results: Data available for 7932 Scottish and 55 925 English subjects in 1994-96, and for 27 391 Scottish and 30 929 English in 2008-10, showed generally similar patterns of change in the two countries. Prevalences of both elevated BMI and waist circumference rose with age for longer in 2008-10 than in 1994-96, reaching higher peaks at greater ages, particularly among men. Between 1994-96 and 2008-10, maximum prevalences of BMI>30 increased from 25 to 38% (larger increases in men than women), reaching a peak at age 60-70 years in both sexes. This peak prevalence was 5-10 years later than in 1994-96 for men and remained unchanged for women. Between 1994-96 and 2008-10, maximum prevalences of high waist circumference (men>102 cm, women>88 cm) increased from 30 to -70% in both sexes, peaking in 2008-10 at ages 80-85 years (men) and 65-70 years (women). In 2008-10, proportions of adults with 'normal' BMI (18.5-25) fell with age to 15-20% at age 60-70 years (men) and 75 years (women). Among all those with BMI=18.5-25, aged>65 years, the proportions with unhealthily elevated waist circumference were 30 (men>94 cm) and 55% (women>80 cm). Conclusions: Almost 40% of men and women are now becoming obese. People are growing fatter later in life, with waist circumference rising more persistently than BMI, which may indicate increased loss of muscle mass and sarcopenia in old age. Among older people, few now have 'normal' BMI, and of these up to half have elevated waist circumference, raising questions for the suitability of BMI as a measure of adiposity in this age group.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 11/2013; 38(6). DOI:10.1038/ijo.2013.216
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    ABSTRACT: To develop an optimal model and age-specific centiles for the decline in antimüllerian hormone (AMH) as measured by the new Beckman Coulter AMH Generation II (Gen II) assay and compare this to the previous nomogram derived for the Diagnostics Systems Laboratory (DSL) assay. Multicenter retrospective population study, with validation of linear, biphasic linear, differential, power, and quadratic equations. Two clinical pathology laboratories. A new cohort of 10,984 women aged 25 to 45 years old attending infertility clinics, randomly divided into a training cohort of 5,492 women and a validation cohort of 5,492 women, and an existing cohort of 9,601 women, who had contributed to the development and validation of a nomogram for AMH measured by the DSL assay. Serum measurement of AMH as determined by the Beckman Coulter AMH Generation II assay in 10,984 women. Optimal model for the decline in AMH as measured by the AMH Gen II assay with age, with age-specific 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles. A quadratic model defined as (2.431 + 0.089 * Age + -0.003 * Age(2)) fitted the decline in AMH with age. The anticipated 40% increase in age-specific population values relative to the previously validated DSL assay nomogram was not observed. Age-specific reference ranges for the AMH gen II assay suggest a systematic shift in assay calibration since initial evaluation and commercial release of the AMH Gen II assay.
    Fertility and sterility 11/2013; 101(2). DOI:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.10.021
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyse and interpret the role of faculty members in assessing professionalism in a well-established medical school in the UK. Study Design: A qualitative study. Place and Duration of Study: School of Medicine, University of Glasgow, UK, from February to July 2011. Methodology: Used a constructivist approach, a purposive sampling technique was applied to interview those faculty members who were associated with the assessment of professionalism. A total of eight faculty members were interviewed, and the data was analysed thematically. Results: The learning outcomes are assessed in both formative and summative examinations but the focus is mainly on formative assessments. Both objective and subjective assessment instruments are used, although qualitative assessment instruments evaluate the topic with greater validity. Some of the assessment instruments are used formatively as well as summatively. Conclusion: The assessment of professionalism is a multidimensional activity. Both formative and summative assessments together with an 'assessment for learning' strategy can be used with great effect. Here the role of formative assessment and 'assessment for learning' are more significant as they are a continuous process and their frequency and feedback will make a profound impression on students.
    11/2013; 23(10):771-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke is the third most common cause of mortality and the most common cause of disability worldwide. It has been consistently shown that patients placed on acute stroke units (ASU) have significantly better outcome measures. We attempted to gain a better understanding of the benefits of the stroke unit by following stroke patients within and out with ASU, Western Infirmary Glasgow. Furthermore, the efficiency of bed management within ASU was assessed. Over a 3 week period we investigated all patients under the care of the stroke team. There were 3 groups: stroke patients within ASU; medical boarders in ASU; and stroke patients boarded out with ASU. 29 stroke patients in ASU and 18 stroke patients boarded out were compared based on a range of parameters. At 11am on each weekday a snapshot view of all three groups was performed in order to assess bed management. Stroke patients within ASU were shown to have significantly less time to CT brain (p<0.0001), shorter time to therapist review (p=0.0447), more blood pressure (p=0.0243) and Glasgow Coma Score (p=0.0033) measurements in their first 24 hours of admission than stroke patients boarded out with ASU. Age, sex, DEPCAT score and time to consultant review were found to be not significant between the two groups of stroke patients. Better outcome measures in ASU could be attributed to the differences between the groups of stroke patients. Prompt therapist input and frequent nursing observations have long been considered to be imperative in the success of ASU; our findings wholly support this and highlight the importance of the multidisciplinary approach. The snapshot data revealed that bed capacity on ASU was sufficient for the number of stroke patients. However capacity was not being utilised efficiently as non-stroke medical boarders occupied beds consistently whilst stroke patients were boarded out to other wards.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 11/2013; 84(11):e2. DOI:10.1136/jnnp-2013-306573.47
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    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2013; 108(11):1811-3. DOI:10.1038/ajg.2013.213
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