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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to analyze the palmar plate complex at the proximal interphalangeal joint using a three-dimensional (3D) technique, which makes it easier to understand the dimensions of structures and their relationship to the adjacent components. This method allows individual elements to be removed virtually, facilitating clearer observation of each component. Sixteen cadaveric specimens were dissected and reconstructed in a 3D virtual environment. The palmar plate is made up of a distal, fibrous portion and a proximal, membranous portion, which anchors distally on the base of the middle phalanx and is continuous with the bilateral check-rein ligaments proximally. The accessory collateral ligaments and the A3 pulley suspend the palmar plate laterally.
    Journal of Hand Surgery (European Volume) 05/2014; 39(4):391-397.
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    ABSTRACT: This study sought to describe the food retail environment and its use in a deprived urban area in Scotland by mapping all food outlets and determining where residents do their main food shopping as well as investigating the availability of fresh fruit and vegetables (F&V) (as an indicator of healthy eating) and takeaway food. Cross-sectional study. The food retail environment, the number, size and food availability of all food outlets, was mapped in Viewpark, a small community located to the east of Glasgow. Subsequently a validated questionnaire was used to determined food shopping usage and habits. There was high availability of common fresh fruit and vegetables (F&V) and very high availability of fast food outlets. Only 9% of the sample shopped solely at local food outlets within Viewpark whilst 91% shopped at a large supermarket outside Viewpark (n = 106). Walking was significantly negatively associated (B = -3.555, P = 0.008) with shopping outside the community. The majority of respondents (80%) reported buying F&V weekly and 57% purchased takeaways at least once a week - these individuals were employed, over 45 years old and had at least one child. The use of the local retail environment in a deprived community is influenced by car accessibility.
    Public health 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Black-purple rice is becoming popular with health conscious food consumers. In the present study, the secondary metabolites in dehulled black-purple rice cv. Asamurasaki were analysed using HPLC-PDA-MS(2). The seeds contained a high concentration of seven anthocyanins (1400μg/g fresh weight) with cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside predominating. Five flavonol glycosides, principally quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, and flavones were detected at a total concentration of 189μg/g. The seeds also contained 3.9μg/g of carotenoids consisting of lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and β-carotene. γ-Oryzanol (279μg/g) was also present as a mixture of 24-methylenecycloartenol ferulate, campesterol ferulate, cycloartenol ferulate and β-sitosterol ferulate. No procyanidins were detected in this variety of black-purple rice. The results demonstrate that the black-purple rice in the dehulled form in which it is consumed by humans contains a rich heterogeneous mixture of phytochemicals which may provide a basis for the potential health benefits, and highlights the possible use of the rice as functional food.
    Food Chemistry 12/2013; 141(3):2821-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Adiposity and health risks are better indicated by waist-circumference than BMI. Patterns of change with age are incompletely documented.Methods:Adults aged 18-92y in the Scottish and English Health Surveys of 1994-96 and 2008-10 were divided into fifteen 5-year age-bands. Sex-specific prevalences of overweight/obesity and of increased/high waist-circumference against age were compared using ANCOVA.Results:Data, available for 7932 Scottish and 55 925 English subjects in 1994-96, and for 27 391 Scottish and 30 929 English in 2008-10, showed generally similar patterns of change in the two countries. Prevalences of both elevated BMI and waist-circumference rose with age for longer in 2008-10 than 1994-96, reaching higher peaks at greater ages, particularly among men. Between 1994-96 and 2008-10, maximum prevalences of BMI>30 increased from 25% to 38% (larger increases in men than women), reaching peak at age 60-70 y in both sexes. This peak-prevalence was 5-10 y later than in 1994-96 for men, unchanged for women. Between 1994-96 and 2008-10, maximum prevalences of high waist-circumference (men>102 cm, women>88 cm) increased from 30% to 70% in both sexes, peaking in 2008-10 at ages 80-85y(men), 65-70 y(women). In 2008-10, proportions of adults with 'normal' BMI (18.5-25) fell with age to 15%-20% at age 60-70 y(men) and 75 y(women). Among all those with BMI 18.5-25, aged>65y, the proportions with unhealthily elevated waist-circumference were 30%(men>94 cm) and 55%(women>80 cm).Conclusions:Almost 40% of men and women are now becoming obese. People are growing fatter later in life, with waist-circumference rising more persistently than BMI, which may indicate increased loss of muscle mass and sarcopenia in old age. Among older people, few now have 'normal' BMI, and of these up to half have elevated waist-circumference, raising questions for the suitability of BMI as a measure of adiposity in this age-group.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 19 November 2013. doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.216.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 11/2013;
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    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2013; 108(11):1811-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyse and interpret the role of faculty members in assessing professionalism in a well-established medical school in the UK. Study Design: A qualitative study. Place and Duration of Study: School of Medicine, University of Glasgow, UK, from February to July 2011. Methodology: Used a constructivist approach, a purposive sampling technique was applied to interview those faculty members who were associated with the assessment of professionalism. A total of eight faculty members were interviewed, and the data was analysed thematically. Results: The learning outcomes are assessed in both formative and summative examinations but the focus is mainly on formative assessments. Both objective and subjective assessment instruments are used, although qualitative assessment instruments evaluate the topic with greater validity. Some of the assessment instruments are used formatively as well as summatively. Conclusion: The assessment of professionalism is a multidimensional activity. Both formative and summative assessments together with an 'assessment for learning' strategy can be used with great effect. Here the role of formative assessment and 'assessment for learning' are more significant as they are a continuous process and their frequency and feedback will make a profound impression on students.
    Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP. 11/2013; 23(10):771-4.
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    ABSTRACT: The host immune response is important in the prevention of tumour progression in solid organ cancers. The aim was to evaluate the clinical utility of the local inflammatory response in patients with colorectal cancer. Three hundred and sixty-five patients with primary operable colorectal cancer were included. The local inflammatory response was assessed using three different methods; (1) individual T-cell subtypes (CD3, CD8, CD45R0, FOXP3), (2) an immunohistochemistry-based immune score (Galon Immune Score) and (3) a histopathological assessment (Klintrup-Makinen grade). Relationships with tumour and host characteristics were established and the prognostic value of each method compared. A strong infiltration of tumour infiltrating lymphoctyes (TIL's) was associated with improved cancer-specific survival. When individual T-cell subtypes were considered, CD3-positive cells were the strongest predictor of survival at the invasive margin (CD3(+) IM) while CD8-positive cells were the strongest predictor in the cancer cell nests (CD8(+) CCN). Infiltration of T-cells was related to early tumour stage, expanding growth pattern and lower levels of venous invasion but was not influenced by host characteristics or degree of systemic inflammation. In summary, CD3(+) IM, CD8(+) CCN, The Galon Immune Score and the Klintrup-Makinen grade all exhibited similar survival relationships in both node-positive and node-negative colorectal cancer. A coordinated adaptive immune response is an important factor in predicting outcome in patients with primary operable colorectal cancer. By comparing different methodologies we have provided a foundation on which to develop a standardised approach for assessing the local inflammatory response in these patients.
    European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Cubital tunnel syndrome is the second most common nerve entrapment neuropathy. When non-operative treatments fail, surgical intervention is indicated. Although there remains no consensus between simple decompression and anterior transposition, there is a growing recognition of improved clinical outcomes in the latter. Few details of ulnar nerve branches around the elbow are available however and their sacrifice may be necessary to facilitate anterior transposition. Therefore, ten cadaveric upper extremities were dissected to delineate the course and branching pattern of the ulnar nerve around the elbow joint; anterior transposition was also performed in the cadaveric specimens. Digital photographs of the dissection study were analyzed using the Image J package. Results show that distal ulnar nerve branches are distributed more laterally towards the olecranon and may potentially restrict transposition more than has been recognized; proximal branches may also overlap incision lines of such transposition procedures.
    Hand Surgery 10/2013; 18(3):301-6.
  • British Journal of Surgery 10/2013; 100(11):1420.
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    ABSTRACT: Health professionals are frequently asked to advise on aspects of complementary feeding. This study aimed to describe the types of commercial infant foods available in the UK and provide an overview of their taste, texture and nutritional content in terms of energy, protein, carbohydrates, fat, sugar, iron, sodium and calcium. All infant foods produced by four main UK manufacturers and two more specialist suppliers were identified during October 2010-February 2011. Nutritional information for each product was collected from manufacturers' websites, products in store and via direct email enquiry. Of the 479 products identified in this study 364 (79%) were ready-made spoonable foods; 44% (201) were aimed at infants from 4 months, and 65% of these were sweet foods. The mean (SD) energy content of ready-made spoonable foods was 282 (59) kJ per 100 g, almost identical to breast milk (283(16) kJ per 100 g). Similar spoonable family foods were more nutrient dense than commercial foods. Commercial finger foods were more energy dense, but had very high sugar content. The UK infant food market mainly supplies sweet, soft, spoonable foods targeted from age 4 months. The majority of products had energy content similar to breast milk and would not serve the intended purpose of enhancing the nutrient density and diversity of taste and texture in infants' diets.
    Archives of Disease in Childhood 09/2013;
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